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1.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 49-64, oct.-dic. 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-558

RESUMEN

El paradigma de apoyos y el de calidad de vida se han transformado en guías fundamentales para los avances en el ámbito de la discapacidad intelectual (DI). Con base en una muestra de 93 personas adultas con DI, se analiza, desde un enfoque cuantitativo no experimental, la relación entre la calidad de vida y las necesidades de apoyo, aplicando la escala INICO-FEAPS y la escala de Intensidad de Apoyos (SIS) para cada constructo. Los principales resultados evidencian que existe una relación fuerte e indirecta entre calidad de vida y necesidades de apoyos, y también la relevancia de analizar dichos resultados desde variables como grado de discapacidad, sexo o nivel socioeconómico. La discusión permite inferir la necesidad de discutir nuevas estrategias en torno a categorías como el grado de discapacidad, la autodeterminación e inclusión social, como elementos facilitadores de la calidad de vida y apoyos desde un enfoque integral que contribuya al desarrollo de estrategias de programas sociales para la población con DI. (AU)


The support paradigm and the quality of life paradigm have become fundamental guides for progress in the field of Intellectual Disability (ID). Based on a sample of 93 adults with ID, the relationship between Quality of Life and Support Needs is analyzed from a non-experimental quantitative approach, applying the INICO-FEAPS scale and the SIS Support Intensity scale for each construct. The main results show that there is a strong and indirect relationship between quality of life and support needs, and the relevance of analyzing these results from variables such as the degree of disability, sex or socioeconomic level. The discussion allows us to infer the need to discuss new strategies around categories such as the degree of disability, self-determination and social inclusion, as facilitating elements of quality of life and supporting a comprehensive approach that contributes to the development of social program strategies for the population with ID. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Discapacidad Intelectual , Calidad de Vida , Personas con Discapacidad , Chile , Muestreo
2.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 78(9)1-15 may 2024. ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-CR-366

RESUMEN

Introducción Presentamos un paciente diagnosticado de narcolepsia de tipo 1 que desarrolló una encefalitis autoinmune posvacunal y/o tras una infección por el SARS-CoV-2. Caso clínico Paciente de 23 años que es remitido a urgencias por trastorno del lenguaje y temblor, acompañados de cefalea, trastorno del comportamiento, disfunción autonómica, crisis focal motora derecha y letargo. El paciente había sido vacunado siete semanas antes con la primera dosis de la vacuna Moderna (ARN mensajero) y, cuatro semanas después de la vacunación, presentó una infección por el SARS-CoV-2 con test de antígenos positivo. Resultados La exploración neurológica mostró un nivel de conciencia normal y una afasia mixta de predominio motor (campimetría, pares craneales, reflejos y sensibilidad normales). El test de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para la COVID-19 fue negativo. En el líquido cefalorraquídeo se apreció una linfocitosis y proteínas elevadas. Los cultivos para hongos y bacterias fueron negativos. Los anticuerpos onconeuronales fueron normales. La resonancia magnética cerebral mostró en la secuencia de difusión una restricción con afectación cortical y morfología giral en el hemisferio cerebral izquierdo, y distribución parcheada con afectación de lóbulo frontal y temporal izquierdos. Una tomografía axial computarizada de tórax-abdomen-pelvis fue normal, al igual que las ecografías pélvica y escrotal. Al paciente se le trató con plasmaféresis y corticoides, con buena evolución clínica y resolución casi completa de las anomalías en la neuroimagen. Conclusión Se trata de un paciente con narcolepsia de tipo 1 con criterios de encefalitis autoinmune de comienzo subagudo. La infección por el SARS-CoV-2 o la vacunación, o ambas, constituyen un riesgo para desarrollar una o más enfermedades autoinmunes con la edad –como sucede en este caso–, lo que permite comprender la implicación de procesos inmunomediados en la fisiopatología de estas enfermedades. (AU)


INTRODUCTION We present a narcolepsy type 1 patient that develop an autoimmune encephalitis post vaccine and/or a SARS-CoV-2 infection.CASE REPORTAt 23 years old, the patient was referred to the emergency room with difficult speaking, headache and tremor followed by changes in behavior, autonomic dysfunction, right focal motor seizure and lethargy. He has received seven weeks before mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine followed by a SARS-CoV-2 infection four weeks after vaccination (positive antigen test).RESULTSThe neurological examination was normal (visual fields, cranial nerves, motor, sensory and reflexes). Nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for COVID-19 was negative. Cerebrospinalfluid (CSF) had highly elevated protein and lymphocytic pleocytosis. CSF bacterial and fungal cultures for viral infections were negative. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no abnormality on the non-enhanced sequences but the diffusion weighted imaging showed restricted diffusion with high signal on the left hemisphere mainly in the cerebral cortex with a gyro morphology, patched distribution with involvement of the temporal and frontal lobes. Chest, abdomen and pelvis computed tomography; pelvic and scrotum ultrasound, showed no malignancy. Onconeural antibodies were negative. The patient was treated with plasmapheresis and corticosteroids with a good clinical outcome and near complete resolution of the MRI abnormalities. CONCLUSION. The patient fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for autoimmune encephalitis with subacute onset. COVID-19 infection and vaccination could constitute a risk in a patient with narcolepsy as in this case and, could help to provide better understanding of the implication of immune-mediated processes in the pathophysiology of the diseases. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto Joven , Comorbilidad , Enfermedades Autoinmunes del Sistema Nervioso/diagnóstico por imagen , Vacunación/efectos adversos , Narcolepsia
3.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 78(9)1-15 may 2024. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-CR-368

RESUMEN

Introducción Las miopatías genéticas constituyen un conjunto de enfermedades raras que impactan significativamente en la funcionalidad y la calidad de vida del paciente. Un diagnóstico temprano de las miopatías genéticas puede prevenir complicaciones futuras y proporcionar a las familias asesoramiento genético. A pesar del impacto sustancial de las miopatías genéticas en población adulta, la epidemiología global de estos trastornos está inadecuadamente abordada en la bibliografía.ObjetivosMejorar el entendimiento tanto de la epidemiología como de la genética de estos trastornos en la provincia de Alicante, situada en el sureste de España. Material y métodos. Entre 2020 y 2022, se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional prospectivo en el área de salud Alicante-Hospital General, que incluyó a pacientes de 16 años o más con sospecha de miopatías genéticas. Se recopilaron datos sociodemográficos, clínicos y genéticos. La fecha de referencia para el cálculo de la prevalencia se estableció el 31 de diciembre de 2022. Se utilizaron datos demográficos oficiales del área de salud para establecer la población en riesgo.ResultadosEn total, se identificó a 83 pacientes con miopatía genéticamente confirmada, lo que dio lugar a una prevalencia total de 29,59 casos por cada 100.000 habitantes. El rendimiento diagnóstico de las pruebas genéticas moleculares fue del 69,16%. Las miopatías genéticas más frecuentes incluyeron la distrofia miotónica (27,5%), las distrofinopatías (15,7%) y la distrofia facioescapulohumeral (15,7%).ConclusiónLa prevalencia de las miopatías genéticas puede variar considerablemente dependiendo de la región geográfica y la población estudiada. El análisis del rendimiento diagnóstico sugiere que los estudios genéticos deberían considerarse útiles en el diagnóstico de las miopatías genéticas. (AU)


Introduction. Genetic myopathies constitute a collection of rare diseases that significantly impact patient functionality and quality of life. Early diagnosis of genetic myopathies can prevent future complications and provide families with genetic counselling. Despite the substantial impact of genetic myopathies on the adult population, the global epidemiology of these disorders is inadequately addressed in the literature.Aims. To enhance understanding of both the epidemiology and genetics of these disorders within the province of Alicante, situated in southeastern Spain.Material and methods. Between 2020 and 2022, a prospective observational study was conducted at the Alicante Health Area-General Hospital, enrolling patients aged 16 years or older with suspected genetic myopathies. Sociodemographic, clinical, and genetic data were collected. The reference date for prevalence calculation was established as December 31, 2022. Official demographic data of the health area were used to set the population at risk.Results. In total, 83 patients were identified with confirmed genetically related myopathy, resulting in an overall prevalence of 29.59 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The diagnostic yield for molecular genetic testing was found to be 69.16%. The most prevalent genetic myopathies identified included myotonic dystrophy (27.5%), dystrophinopathies (15.7%), and facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (15.7%).Conclusion. The prevalence of GMs can vary considerably depending on the geographical region and the studied population. The analysis of diagnostic yield suggests that genetic studies should be considered useful in the diagnosis of genetic myopathies. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Enfermedades Musculares , Enfermedades Musculares/congénito , Enfermedades Musculares/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , España/epidemiología
4.
Percept Mot Skills ; 131(3): 737-755, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590016

RESUMEN

Practitioners have begun using motor imagery (MI) for preventing and treating some pelvic floor disorders. Due to requirements for imagining before performing a MI intervention and because there are few instruments available for assessing this specific ability in the pelvic floor musculature, we sought to develop and test a new MI questionnaire, the Kinesthetic Motor Imagery of Pelvic Floor Muscle Contraction Questionnaire (KMI-PFQ). We focused in this study on the development and analysis of the instrument's factorial structure and internal reliability in a participant sample of 162 healthy Spanish women (M age = 20.1, SD = 2.2 years). We developed and evaluated the KMI-PFQ's psychometric properties, finding it to have good internal consistency, with Cronbach's α = .838, ω coefficient = .839, and an intraclass correlation coefficient = .809, with two factors ("ability" and "mental effort") explaining 58.36% of response variance. The standard error of measurement was 3.58, and the minimal detectable change was 9.92. No floor or ceiling effects were identified. There was also good convergent validity as seen by statistically significant positive correlations between KMI-PFQ scores and the revised-Movement Image Questionnaire and Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire. There were no statistically significant correlations between KMI-PFQ scores and the Orientation to Life Questionnaire. The KMI-PFQ is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring kinesthetic ability to feel/imagine pelvic floor muscle contractions in healthy Spanish women.


Asunto(s)
Cinestesia , Contracción Muscular , Diafragma Pélvico , Psicometría , Humanos , Femenino , Cinestesia/fisiología , Diafragma Pélvico/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Contracción Muscular/fisiología , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , España , Imágenes en Psicoterapia/métodos
5.
Obstet Gynecol ; 143(6): 794-802, 2024 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626447

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between antenatal messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of individuals with singleton pregnancies with live deliveries between June 1, 2021, and January 31, 2022, with data available from eight integrated health care systems in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Vaccine exposure was defined as receipt of one or two mRNA COVID-19 vaccine doses (primary series) during pregnancy. Outcomes were preterm birth (PTB) before 37 weeks of gestation, small-for-gestational age (SGA) neonates, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia-eclampsia-HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome. Outcomes in individuals vaccinated were compared with those in propensity-matched individuals with unexposed pregnancies. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% CIs were estimated for PTB and SGA using a time-dependent covariate Cox model, and adjusted relative risks (aRRs) were estimated for GDM, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia-eclampsia-HELLP syndrome using Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS: Among 55,591 individuals eligible for inclusion, 23,517 (42.3%) received one or two mRNA COVID-19 vaccine doses during pregnancy. Receipt of mRNA COVID-19 vaccination varied by maternal age, race, Hispanic ethnicity, and history of COVID-19. Compared with no vaccination, mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was associated with a decreased risk of PTB (rate: 6.4 [vaccinated] vs 7.7 [unvaccinated] per 100, aHR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.94). Messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccination was not associated with SGA (8.3 vs 7.4 per 100; aHR 1.06, 95% CI, 0.99-1.13), GDM (11.9 vs 10.6 per 100; aRR 1.00, 95% CI, 0.90-1.10), gestational hypertension (10.8 vs 9.9 per 100; aRR 1.08, 95% CI, 0.96-1.22), or preeclampsia-eclampsia-HELLP syndrome (8.9 vs 8.4 per 100; aRR 1.10, 95% CI, 0.97-1.24). CONCLUSION: Receipt of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes; this information will be helpful for patients and clinicians when considering COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Resultado del Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Adulto , Estudios Retrospectivos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/efectos adversos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , Recién Nacido , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Recién Nacido Pequeño para la Edad Gestacional , Adulto Joven , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 330: 118168, 2024 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604508

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Phoenix dactylifera L. pollen is the male reproductive dust of palm flowers known as a natural product that is considered a strong stimulant of sexual potency and fertility in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). In this regard, no evidence-based medications are empirically prescribed to treat IMI. However, applying traditional medicine for the treatment of male infertility has attracted more attention in recent years. AIM OF THE STUDY: Phoenix dactylifera L. pollen was compared with pentoxifylline (PTX) to evaluate its efficacy on sperm parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During this parallel randomized controlled trial, 80 adult men with asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia, or teratozoospermia (age 20-35 years) were enrolled. In two separate groups of participants with a 1:1 ratio, participants received either 6 g of Phoenix dactylifera L. pollen powder daily or 400 mg of PTX tablets daily for 90 days. We measured the sperm parameters as well as the serum sex hormones in the sample. ANCOVA and t-tests were used to compare groups. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the study groups in terms of baseline characteristics or demographic characteristics. According to the results, participants who took Phoenix dactylifera L. pollen powder had significantly improved sperm concentration (p = 0.016), morphology (p = 0.029), sperm counts (p = 0.012), progressive motility (p = 0.016), total motility (p = 0.018), and reduced immotile sperms (p = 0.014) compared to those who took PTX. CONCLUSIONS: In light of these results, Phoenix dactylifera L. pollen is recommended as a treatment factor for ameliorating IMI by enhancing sperm functional capacity and semen parameters.


Asunto(s)
Infertilidad Masculina , Pentoxifilina , Phoeniceae , Polen , Espermatozoides , Humanos , Masculino , Pentoxifilina/farmacología , Pentoxifilina/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Phoeniceae/química , Adulto Joven , Espermatozoides/efectos de los fármacos , Infertilidad Masculina/tratamiento farmacológico , Motilidad Espermática/efectos de los fármacos , Astenozoospermia/tratamiento farmacológico , Irán , Recuento de Espermatozoides , Oligospermia/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico
7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 188: 114635, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582347

RESUMEN

Over 70% of United States military service members (SMs) regularly use dietary supplements (DSs) and about 18% have reported adverse effects (AEs) associated with use. This investigation examined longitudinal changes in AEs reporting among DS users. On two separate occasions 1.3 ± 0.2 years apart (mean ± standard deviation), 5778 SMs completed identical questionnaires on DS use and associated AEs. Among SMs reporting DS use ≥1 time/week, ≥1 AE was reported by 19% and 15% in the baseline and follow-up phases, respectively. The risk of reporting DS use at follow-up was similar among those reporting and not reporting AEs at baseline for most DS categories including prohormones, proteins/amino acids, individual vitamins and minerals, multivitamin/multiminerals, herbals, fish oils, joint health products, and other DSs. An exception was combination products where those reporting AEs at baseline had an increased risk of use at follow-up (risk ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.09). Those reporting AEs at baseline and continuing DS use in the follow-up were more likely to report AEs at follow-up compared to those not reporting baseline AEs. In conclusion, AEs reported at baseline did not deter many participants from using DSs in the follow-up period, and many SMs reporting AEs at baseline continued reporting them at follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Personal Militar , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Adulto , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Longitudinales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad
8.
Virol J ; 21(1): 91, 2024 04 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38654355

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study sought to examine the impact of magnesium supplementation on clinical outcomes and biochemical factors among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted at Razi Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran, between September 2021 and March 2022. Participants aged 18-70 years with moderate disease severity were enrolled. Magnesium supplementation (300 mg daily) was administered to the intervention group, while the control group received a placebo. Clinical outcomes, including the need for oxygen therapy, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, fever, hs-CRP and TNF-α levels, as well as quality of life and mental health, were assessed. Blood samples were collected to measure biochemical variables. RESULTS: The main result was the count of individuals requiring oxygen therapy. Additional outcomes comprised of oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, fever, hs-CRP and TNF-α levels, as well as quality of life and mental health. Out of 64 participants, 60 completed the study. The results showed that magnesium supplementation significantly reduced the number of patients requiring oxygen therapy (9 vs. 14; P < 0.001). Moreover, the magnesium group demonstrated improved oxygen saturation compared to the control group (4.55 ± 2.35 vs. 1.8 ± 1.67; P < 0.001). Furthermore, we observed a noteworthy enhancement in the quality of life and depression score in the magnesium group. No significant differences were observed in respiratory rate, fever, hs-CRP, and TNF-α levels (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that magnesium supplementation may have beneficial effects on clinical outcomes and arterial oxygen saturation in COVID-19 patients. More investigation is necessary to delve into its potential mechanisms and long-term effects on patient outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered on Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) under identifier IRCT20210413050957N1. (The registration date: May 1, 2021).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Suplementos Dietéticos , Magnesio , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Magnesio/sangre , Magnesio/administración & dosificación , COVID-19/sangre , Método Doble Ciego , Irán , Anciano , Adulto Joven , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Tratamiento Farmacológico de COVID-19 , Resultado del Tratamiento , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/sangre
9.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1363866, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38655517

RESUMEN

Background: In China, the prevalence of mental health issues among college students is a significant concern in society. This study aims to investigate the impact of early dietary quality on the psychological well-being of college students and elucidate the underlying mechanisms through which these effects occur, specifically focusing on height and qi-deficiency as mediators according to Chinese traditional medicine (CTM). Methods: A total of 655 college students were surveyed in October 2023 using paper-pencil-based questionnaires at four second-tier universities in Sichuan Province. The assessment included mental health, height, and qi-deficiency. Pearson's correlation and linear regression analyses were employed to examine the mediation model and test the hypotheses. Results: The college students exhibited acceptable levels of early diet quality (M = 3.72) and mental health (M = 3.63), while also presenting mild qi-deficiency symptoms (M = 2.25). Their average height was measured at 164.61 cm. Early diet quality demonstrated significant associations with mental health (r = 0.38, p < 0.01), height (r = 0.32, p < 0.01), and qi-deficiency (r = -0.32, p < 0.01). Mental health displayed correlations with height (r = 0.32, p < 0.01) and qi-deficiency (r = -0.49, p < 0.01). The results of linear regression analyses revealed significant associations between early diet quality and mental health (ß = 0.31, p < 0.01), height (ß = 0.21, p < 0.01), as well as qi-deficiency (ß = -0.26, p < 0.01). Furthermore, when early diet quality was included in the regression model, both height (ß = 0.21, p < 0.01) and qi-deficiency (ß = -0.35, p < 0.01) emerged as significant mediators in the relationship with mental health. Conclusion: The mediation model and hypotheses were strongly supported, demonstrating that early diet quality exerted an influence on the mental health of college students through two distinct pathways: height and qi-deficiency. Moreover, the mediating effect of qi-deficiency was found to be more pronounced than that of height in the relationship between early diet quality and mental health among college students.


Asunto(s)
Estatura , Dieta , Salud Mental , Qi , Estudiantes , Humanos , Femenino , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/psicología , Masculino , Universidades , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , China , Adulto Joven , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Adolescente , Medicina Tradicional China
10.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 29(5): 629-637, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564107

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to examine the effect of magnesium (Mg) supplementation on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN) in pediatric cancer patients. METHODS: The present phase-2, open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled trial enrolled patients aged less than 20 years who were scheduled to receive cisplatin-containing chemotherapy and randomly allocated them at a ratio of 1:1 to a Mg supplementation arm with even-numbered chemotherapy courses (arm AB) or another arm with odd-numbered courses (arm BA). Analysis objects were reconstructed into two groups depending on whether the chemotherapy course had Mg supplementation (group B) or not (group A). The primary outcome was the proportion of chemotherapy courses resulting in elevated serum creatinine per chemotherapy course. The secondary outcomes included efficacies evaluated using other biomarkers and the safety of the Mg supplementation. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were randomly allocated to either group (16 to arm AB and 12 to arm BA). The baseline characteristics of the groups were similar. There was no significant difference in the proportion of courses with increased serum creatinine between the groups (group A: 10% vs. group B: 6%; P = 0.465) nor was any significant difference observed in other biomarkers during any chemotherapy course. The Mg value during chemotherapy was significantly higher in group B than that in group A. No adverse events related to magnesium administration were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The study design, which treated a single chemotherapy course as a study object, failed to detect a statistically significant benefit of Mg supplementation for preventing CIN in pediatric cancer patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: JRCT ( https://jrct.niph.go.jp/ ) Identifier UMIN000029215 jRCTs031180251. UMIN-CTR ( http://www.umin.ac.jp/icdr/index.html ) Identifier UMIN000029215.


Asunto(s)
Cisplatino , Suplementos Dietéticos , Magnesio , Neoplasias , Humanos , Cisplatino/efectos adversos , Cisplatino/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Masculino , Niño , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Magnesio/uso terapéutico , Magnesio/administración & dosificación , Adolescente , Preescolar , Creatinina/sangre , Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Lesión Renal Aguda/inducido químicamente , Lesión Renal Aguda/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
11.
Conscious Cogn ; 121: 103694, 2024 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657474

RESUMEN

Mental rotation tasks are frequently used as standard measures of mental imagery. However, aphantasia research has brought such use into question. Here, we assessed a large group of individuals who lack visual imagery (aphantasia) on two mental rotation tasks: a three-dimensional block-shape, and a human manikin rotation task. In both tasks, those with aphantasia had slower, but more accurate responses than controls. Both groups demonstrated classic linear increases in response time and error-rate as functions of angular disparity. In the three-dimensional block-shape rotation task, a within-group speed-accuracy trade-off was found in controls, whereas faster individuals in the aphantasia group were also more accurate. Control participants generally favoured using object-based mental rotation strategies, whereas those with aphantasia favoured analytic strategies. These results suggest that visual imagery is not crucial for successful performance in classical mental rotation tasks, as alternative strategies can be effectively utilised in the absence of holistic mental representations.


Asunto(s)
Imaginación , Humanos , Imaginación/fisiología , Masculino , Adulto , Femenino , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Adulto Joven , Percepción Espacial/fisiología , Rotación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reconocimiento Visual de Modelos/fisiología , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología
12.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 245: 116167, 2024 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663257

RESUMEN

Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by abnormal copper metabolism. The accumulation of copper in the liver can progress to liver fibrosis and, ultimately, cirrhosis, which is a primary cause of death in WD patients. Metabonomic technology offers an effective approach to investigate the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome types of WD-related liver fibrosis by monitoring the alterations in small molecule metabolites within the body. In this study, we employed 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) metabonomics to assess the metabolic profiles associated with five TCM syndrome types of WD-related liver fibrosis and analyzed the diagnostic and predictive capabilities of various metabolites. The study found a variety of metabolites, each with varying levels of diagnostic and predictive capabilities. Furthermore, the discerned differential metabolic pathways were primarily associated with various pathways involving carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and lipid metabolism. This study has identified various characteristic metabolic markers and pathways associated with different TCM syndromes of liver fibrosis in WD, providing a substantial foundation for investigating the mechanisms underlying these TCM syndromes.


Asunto(s)
Degeneración Hepatolenticular , Cirrosis Hepática , Medicina Tradicional China , Metabolómica , Degeneración Hepatolenticular/metabolismo , Degeneración Hepatolenticular/diagnóstico , Humanos , Cirrosis Hepática/metabolismo , Metabolómica/métodos , Masculino , Femenino , Medicina Tradicional China/métodos , Adulto , Espectroscopía de Protones por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Adulto Joven , Síndrome , Hígado/metabolismo , Hígado/patología , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cobre/metabolismo , Adolescente
13.
J Affect Disord ; 356: 554-563, 2024 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649104

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Up to 55 % of students experience test anxiety (TA), which is characterized by intense physiological and psychological symptoms before or during exams, such as anxiety, fear of failure, sweating, or increased heart rate. Furthermore, TA increases graduation times and can result in discontinuance of the graduate program all together. Previous research demonstrated the beneficial effects of combining cognitive behavioral therapy with imagery rescripting, however, treatment programs are comparably long. Hence, they do not account for the students´ time-sensitive schedules. Therefore, the present study investigates a two-session short-intervention using imagery rescripting to treat TA. METHODS: 44 students and pupils were randomly assigned to either the two-session imagery rescripting intervention (22 participants) or the waitlist-control condition (22 participants). One week before the intervention clinical interviews were conducted and self-report questionnaires on TA, self-efficacy, symptoms of depression, and intrusive prospective images were completed (T1). The same questionnaires were completed one week (T2) and six months after the intervention (T3). RESULTS: Test anxiety significantly decreased from T1 to T2, as well as from T1 to T3 within the intervention group. Furthermore, there were medium to large within and between group effects for situational test anxiety, self-efficacy, symptoms of depression, as well as prospective intrusive images, showing significant improvements for the intervention group at six months follow-up. LIMITATIONS: The study is limited to the comparably small sample size, as well as the sole usage of self-report measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The presented short-intervention provides a feasible treatment technique, which can be easily applied within school and university counseling centers.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Imágenes en Psicoterapia , Ansiedad ante los Exámenes , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Imágenes en Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Ansiedad ante los Exámenes/terapia , Ansiedad ante los Exámenes/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Autoeficacia , Depresión/terapia , Depresión/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos
14.
Malar J ; 23(1): 103, 2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609987

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The emergence of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy necessitates the search for new, more potent antiplasmodial compounds, including herbal remedies. The whole extract of Maytenus senegalensis has been scientifically investigated for potential biological activities both in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating strong antimalarial activity. However, there is a lack of data on the electrocardiographic effects of M. senegalensis in humans, which is a crucial aspect in the investigation of malaria treatment. Assessing the electrocardiographic effects of M. senegalensis is essential, as many anti-malarial drugs can inadvertently prolong the QT interval on electrocardiograms. Therefore, the study's objective was to evaluate the electrocardiographic effects of M. senegalensis in healthy adult volunteers. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of an open-label single-arm dose escalation. Twelve healthy eligible Tanzanian males, aged 18 to 45, were enrolled in four study dose groups. A single 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was performed at baseline and on days 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56. RESULTS: No QTcF adverse events occurred with any drug dose. Only one volunteer who received the highest dose (800 mg) of M. senegalensis experienced a moderate transient change (△QTcF > 30 ms; specifically, the value was 37 ms) from baseline on day 28. There was no difference in maximum QTcF and maximum △QTcF between volunteers in all four study dose groups. CONCLUSIONS: A four-day regimen of 800 mg every 8 h of M. senegalensis did not impact the electrocardiographic parameters in healthy volunteers. This study suggests that M. senegalensis could be a valuable addition to malaria treatment, providing a safer alternative and potentially aiding in the battle against artemisinin-resistant malaria. The results of this study support both the traditional use and the modern therapeutic potential of M. senegalensis. They also set the stage for future research involving larger and more diverse populations to explore the safety profile of M. senegalensis in different demographic groups. This is especially important considering the potential use of M. senegalensis as a therapeutic agent and its widespread utilization as traditional medicine. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04944966. Registered 30 June 2021-Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04944966?term=kamaka&draw=2&rank=1.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos , Artemisininas , Malaria , Maytenus , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Antimaláricos/farmacología , Electrocardiografía , Voluntarios Sanos , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Tanzanía , Voluntarios , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad
15.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613023

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Microalgae like Phaeodactylum tricornutum (PT) contain the carotenoid, fucoxanthin, which has been purported to promote fat loss, lower blood lipids, and improve glucose management. This study examined whether dietary supplementation with microalgae extracts from PT containing 4.4 mg/d of fucoxanthin affects changes in body composition or health markers in overweight women during an exercise and diet intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 37 females (28.6 ± 7.9 years, 80.2 ± 14.9 kg, 29.6 ± 3.8 kg/m², 41.4 ± 4.2% fat) fasted for 12 h, donated a fasting blood sample, completed health and mood state inventories, and undertook body composition, health, and exercise assessments. In a counterbalanced, randomized, and double-blind manner, participants ingested a placebo (PL), or microalgae extract of Phaeodactylum tricornutum standardized to 4.4 mg of fucoxanthin (FX) for 12 weeks while participating in a supervised exercise program that included resistance-training and walking (3 days/week) with encouragement to accumulate 10,000 steps/day on remaining days of the week. The diet intervention involved reducing energy intake by about -300 kcal/d (i.e., ≈1400-1600 kcals/d, 55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, 15% protein) to promote a -500 kcal/d energy deficit with exercise. Follow-up testing was performed at 6 and 12 weeks. A general linear model (GLM) with repeated measures statistical analysis was used to analyze group responses and changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Dietary supplementation with microalgae extract from PT containing fucoxanthin for 12 weeks did not promote additional weight loss or fat loss in overweight but otherwise healthy females initiating an exercise and diet intervention designed to promote modest weight loss. However, fucoxanthin supplementation preserved bone mass, increased bone density, and saw greater improvements in walking steps/day, resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, blood lipid profiles, adherence to diet goals, functional activity tolerance, and measures of quality of life. Consequently, there appears to be some benefit to supplementing microalgae extract from PT containing fucoxanthin during a diet and exercise program. Registered clinical trial #NCT04761406.


Asunto(s)
Microalgas , Xantófilas , Femenino , Humanos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Sobrepeso/terapia , Calidad de Vida , Pérdida de Peso , Adulto Joven , Adulto
16.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 297: 111-119, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608353

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to understand the experience of iron deficiency anaemia requiring oral iron in pregnancy and the factors affecting compliance with oral iron supplementation. Participants' understanding regarding the possible consequences of anaemia in pregnancy was also explored. Feedback on a proposed randomised controlled trial of daily versus alternate day oral iron in pregnancy was sought. MATERIALS & METHODS: Following ethical approval, fourteen semi-structured one-to-one interviews were carried out using an interview tool with open-ended questions. Recruitment was carried out through social media and from an antenatal out-patient setting. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. RESULTS: Fatigue emerged as a predominant and troubling symptom. Awareness was often highlighted through friends/family and from healthcare professionals, particularly in first pregnancies. Knowledge surrounding the potential short-term and long-term adverse consequences of untreated anaemia however was limited. Gastro-intestinal side-effects, a previous experience of poor tolerance and forgetfulness all negatively impacted compliance with oral iron supplementation in pregnancy. Routine, a perceived improvement in fatigue with supplementation and reduced dose frequency recurred as themes which positively affected compliance. Pregnancy as a motivating factor recurred as a theme in analysis. The role of diet was felt to be important. Knowledge of iron-rich foods and absorption aids and inhibitors was good, but practice on optimal ingestion of oral iron supplementation varied. Feedback on trial acceptability was positive with the benefit of extra supportive care noted. Incorporating study visits with routine care was advised in view of time constraints. This area of research was perceived as important. CONCLUSION: In order to successfully reduce the rates of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy, it is crucial that all factors affecting compliance with oral iron are considered. Providing women with the important information on the possible consequences of sub optimally treated anaemia may help to improve this public health issue.


Asunto(s)
Anemia Ferropénica , Suplementos Dietéticos , Complicaciones Hematológicas del Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Anemia Ferropénica/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Complicaciones Hematológicas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Hierro/administración & dosificación , Administración Oral , Fatiga/tratamiento farmacológico , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adulto Joven
17.
Emergencias ; 36(2): 116-122, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597618

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors for developing delayed neurological syndrome (DNS) after an initial episode of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in the interest of detecting patients most likely to develop DNS so that they can be followed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective review of cases of CO poisoning treated in the past 10 years in the emergency departments of 4 hospitals in the AMICO study (Spanish acronym for the multicenter analysis of CO poisoning). We analyzed demographic characteristics of the patients and the clinical characteristics of the initial episode. The records of the cohort of patients with available follow-up information were reviewed to find cases of DNS. Data were analyzed by multivariant analysis to determine the relationship to characteristics of the initial exposure to CO. RESULTS: A total of 240 cases were identified. The median (interquartile range) age of the patients was 36.2 years (17.6-49.6 years); 108 patients (45.0%) were men, and the poisoning was accidental in 223 cases (92.9%). The median carboxyhemoglobin concentration on presentation was 12.7% (6.2%-18.7%). Follow-up details were available for 44 patients (18.3%). Eleven of those patients (25%) developed DNS. A low initial Glasgow Coma Scale score predicted the development of DNS with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.61 (95% CI, 0.41-0.92) and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.876 (95% CI, 0.761-0.990) (P .001). CONCLUSION: The initial Glasgow Coma Scale score seems to be a clinical predictor of DNS after CO poisoning. We consider it important to establish follow-up protocols for patients with CO poisoning treated in hospital EDs.


OBJETIVO: Identificar factores pronósticos de desarrollo de síndrome neurológico tardío (SNT) después de un episodio inicial de intoxicación por monóxido de carbono (ICO), con el fin detectar precozmente a la población más susceptible y facilitar su acceso a un seguimiento específico. METODO: Revisión retrospectiva de todos los casos de ICO que acudieron a los servicios de urgencias (SU) de 4 hospitales durante los últimos 10 años. Se analizaron datos demográficos y características clínicas en el momento del episodio. En la cohorte de pacientes con datos de seguimiento disponibles, se evaluó la aparición de SNT y su relación con diferentes variables en la exposición inicial al CO a través de técnicas de análisis multivariante. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 240 pacientes. La mediana de edad fue de 36,2 años (17,6-49,6). De ellos 108 (45,0%) eran hombres y 223 casos (92,9%) fueron accidentales. El nivel medio de COHb fue del 12,7% (6,2-18,7). En 44 (18,3%) episodios se disponía de datos de un seguimiento específico. En esta cohorte, 11 (25%) pacientes desarrollaron SNT. Una puntuación inicial más baja en la Escala Coma de Glasgow (GCS) (OR: 0,61, IC 95%: 0,41-0,92) fue predictor independiente del desarrollo del SNT, con un ABC en la curva COR de 0,876 (IC 95%: 0,761-0,990, p 0,001). CONCLUSIONES: Una puntuación inicial baja en la GCS parece ser un predictor clínico de desarrollo de SNT en la ICO. Dada la incidencia de SNT, consideramos fundamental establecer protocolos de seguimiento específico de estos pacientes tras su asistencia inicial en los SU.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación por Monóxido de Carbono , Oxigenoterapia Hiperbárica , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Intoxicación por Monóxido de Carbono/complicaciones , Intoxicación por Monóxido de Carbono/diagnóstico , Intoxicación por Monóxido de Carbono/terapia , Oxigenoterapia Hiperbárica/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad
18.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 246: 104250, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615596

RESUMEN

Percepts, urges, and even high-level cognitions often enter the conscious field involuntarily. The Reflexive Imagery Task (RIT) was designed to investigate experimentally the nature of such entry into consciousness. In the most basic version of the task, participants are instructed not to subvocalize the names of visual objects. Involuntary subvocalizations arise on the majority of the trials. Can these effects be influenced by priming? In our experiment, participants were exposed to an auditory prime 300 ms before being presented with the RIT stimuli. For example, participants heard the word "FOOD" before seeing two RIT stimuli (e.g., line drawings of BANANA and CAT, with the former being the target of the prime). The short span between prime and target allowed us to assess whether the RIT effect is strategic or automatic. Before each trial, participants were instructed to disregard what they hear, and not to think of the name of any of the objects. On an average of 83% of the trials, the participants thought (involuntarily) of the name of the object associated with the prime. This is the first study to use a priming technique within the context of the RIT. The theoretical implications of these involuntary effects are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Imaginación , Humanos , Imaginación/fisiología , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Estado de Conciencia/fisiología , Estimulación Acústica , Estimulación Luminosa , Memoria Implícita/fisiología , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología
19.
Health Psychol ; 43(6): 462-475, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619489

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Sexual minority men experience disproportionately elevated rates of skin cancers, likely driven by excess ultraviolet radiation exposure-namely through tanning behaviors. However, limited integrated theoretical models exist to explain sexual minority men's elevated skin cancer risk. The aim of the current study is to further test and refine an integrated theory of skin cancer risk behaviors among sexual minority men by incorporating minority stress into the integrated health behavior model of tanning. METHOD: The study employed a parallel mixed methods design, with a Phase 1 qualitative stage (N = 30) and a Phase 2 quantitative stage (Model 1: N = 320; Model 2: N = 319). In both phases, participants were sexual minority men, equally stratified as those with versus without recent tanning exposure and were recruited from across the United States. RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative data supported the overall integrated model, with some quantitative paths varying depending on the tanning behavior outcome. Overall, appearance-related motives to tan and beliefs that tanning regulates affect emerged as the most consistent proximal predictors. Minority stress significantly predicted holding more positive attitudes toward tanning as an effective affect regulation strategy. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this mixed methods study support the inclusion of minority stressors into the adapted integrative health behavior model of tanning. Replication within prospective designs would strengthen the evidence for this model, which may be helpful in guiding future skin cancer prevention programs tailored to sexual minority men. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Baño de Sol , Humanos , Masculino , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Neoplasias Cutáneas/prevención & control , Adulto , Baño de Sol/psicología , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Asunción de Riesgos , Adolescente
20.
Compr Psychiatry ; 132: 152483, 2024 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631272

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Given the protective effect of nurturing caregivers and families for child and adolescent mental health, there is a need to review and synthesize research evidence regarding the effectiveness of parenting and family interventions in low and middle-income countries, including humanitarian settings. To advance practice, further understanding of the active ingredients of such interventions and implementation factors that lead to effectiveness are essential. METHOD: This systematic review, an update from a previous review, included studies on any parenting or family intervention for children and adolescents aged 0-24, living in a low- or middle-income country, that quantitatively measured child or adolescent mental health outcomes. We searched Global Health, PubMed, PsychINFO, PILOTS and the Cochrane Library databases on the 9th July 2020, and updated on the 12th August 2022. Risk of bias was assessed using an adapted version of the NIH Quality Assessment Tool. We extracted data on: effectiveness outcomes, practice elements included in effective interventions, and implementation challenges and successes. MAIN FINDINGS: We found a total of 80 studies (n = 18,193 participants) representing 64 different family or parenting interventions, 43 of which had evidence of effect for a child or adolescent mental health outcome. Only 3 studies found no effect on child, adolescent or caregiver outcomes. The most common practice elements delivered in effective interventions included caregiver psychoeducation, communication skills, and differential reinforcement. Key implementation strategies and lessons learned included non-specialist delivery, the engagement of fathers, and integrated or multi-sector care to holistically address family needs. PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONS: Despite a high level of heterogeneity, preliminary findings from the review are promising and support the use of parenting and family interventions to address the wider social ecology of children in low resource and humanitarian contexts. There are remaining gaps in understanding mechanisms of change and the empirical testing of different implementation models. Our findings have implications for better informing task sharing from specialist to non-specialist delivery, and from individual-focused to wider systemic interventions.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Responsabilidad Parental , Humanos , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Salud Mental , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Preescolar , Adulto Joven
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