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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 11211, 2023 07 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37433866

RESUMEN

Humans naturally synchronize their behavior with other people. However, although it happens almost automatically, adjusting behavior and conformity to others is a complex phenomenon whose neural mechanisms are still yet to be understood entirely. The present experiment aimed to study the oscillatory synchronization mechanisms underlying automatic dyadic convergence in an EEG hyperscanning experiment. Thirty-six people performed a cooperative decision-making task where dyads had to guess the correct position of a point on a line. A reinforcement learning algorithm was used to model different aspects of the participants' behavior and their expectations of their peers. Intra- and inter-connectivity among electrode sites were assessed using inter-site phase clustering in three main frequency bands (theta, alpha, beta) using a two-level Bayesian mixed-effects modeling approach. The results showed two oscillatory synchronization dynamics related to attention and executive functions in alpha and reinforcement learning in theta. In addition, inter-brain synchrony was mainly driven by beta oscillations. This study contributes preliminary evidence on the phase-coherence mechanism underlying inter-personal behavioral adjustment.


Asunto(s)
Gastrópodos , Ajuste Social , Humanos , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Tálamo , Conducta Social , Algoritmos
2.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 248: 109918, 2023 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37224673

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The selection of appropriate efficacy endpoints in clinical trials has been a long-standing challenge for the substance use disorder field. Using data from a large, multi-site National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network trial (CTN-0044; n=474), this secondary data analysis aimed to explore whether specific proximal (during-treatment) substance use outcome measures predict longer-term improvements in psychosocial functioning and post-treatment abstinence, and whether predictions vary depending on the specific substance (cannabis, cocaine/stimulants, opioids, and alcohol). METHODS: Generalized linear mixed models examined associations between six during-treatment substance use outcome measures and social functioning impairment (Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report) and severity of psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory-18) at end-of-treatment, and 3- and 6-months after treatment as well as post-treatment abstinence. RESULTS: Maximum days of consecutive abstinence, proportion of days abstinent, ≥3 weeks of continuous abstinence, and the proportion of urine specimens negative for the primary substance were associated with post-treatment psychiatric and social functioning improvement and abstinence. However, only the effects of abstinence during the last 4 weeks of the treatment period on all three post-treatment outcomes was stable over time and did not differ between primary substance groups. In contrast, complete abstinence during the 12-week treatment period was not consistently associated with functioning improvements. CONCLUSIONS: Substance use outcome measures capturing the duration of primary substance abstinence during treatment are suitable predictors of post-treatment abstinence and longer-term psychosocial functioning improvement. Binary outcomes, such as end-of-treatment abstinence, may be particularly stable predictors and attractive given their ease of computation and straightforward clinical interpretability.


Asunto(s)
Funcionamiento Psicosocial , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Humanos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Ajuste Social
3.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e253659, 2023.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448943

RESUMEN

Partindo da pergunta "Como tem sido ser mulher e mãe em tempos de pandemia?", o presente estudo convidou mulheres que são mães, em redes sociais virtuais, a partilhar um relato de suas experiências com a readaptação parental em função do distanciamento social causado pela pandemia de covid-19. O objetivo foi refletir sobre a experiência de ser mulher e mãe em tempos de covid-19 e distanciamento social, apontando algumas ressonâncias do cenário pandêmico na subjetividade dessas mulheres. O estudo teve como base o referencial psicanalítico, tanto na construção da pesquisa e análise dos relatos quanto na sua discussão. A análise dos cerca de 340 relatos coletados, os quais variaram de uma breve frase a longos parágrafos, apontou para uma série de questionamentos, pontos de análise e reflexões. A pandemia, e o decorrente distanciamento social, parece ter colocado uma lente de aumento sobre as angústias das mulheres que são mães, evidenciando sentimentos e sofrimentos sempre presentes. Destacaram-se, nos relatos, a sobrecarga das mulheres com as tarefas de cuidado dos filhos e da casa, a culpa, a solidão, a exaustão, e o sentimento de que não havia espaço nesse contexto para "ser mulher", sendo isso entendido especialmente a questões estéticas e de vaidade.(AU)


Starting from the question "How does it feel to be a woman and a mother in pandemic times?", this study invited women who are mothers, in virtual social networks, to share their experiences regarding parental adaptations due to social distancing caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective was to reflect on the experience of being a woman and a mother in the context of COVID-19 and of social distancing, pointing out some resonances of the pandemic scenario in the subjectivity of these women. The study was based on the psychoanalytical framework, both in the construction of the research and analysis of the reports and in their discussion. The analysis of about 340 collected reports, which ranged from a brief sentence to long paragraphs, pointed to a series of questions, analysis topics, and reflections. The pandemic, and the resulting social distancing, seems to have placed a magnifying glass over the anguish of women who are mothers, showing ever-present feelings and suffering. The reports highlighted women's overload with child and house care tasks, the guilt, loneliness, exhaustion, and the feeling that there was no space in this context to "be a woman," and it extends to aesthetic and vanity related questions especially.(AU)


A partir de la pregunta "¿cómo te sientes siendo mujer y madre en tiempos de pandemia?", este estudio invitó por las redes sociales a mujeres que son madres a compartir un relato de sus experiencias sobre la readaptación parental en función del distanciamiento social causado por la pandemia del covid-19. Su objetivo fue reflexionar sobre la experiencia de ser mujer y madre en tiempos del covid-19 y el distanciamiento social, señalando algunas resonancias del escenario pandémico en la subjetividad de estas mujeres. Este estudio se basó en el marco psicoanalítico, tanto en la construcción de la investigación y análisis de los informes como en su discusión. El análisis de los casi 340 relatos, que variaron de una pequeña frase a largos párrafos, generó en las investigadoras una serie de cuestionamientos y reflexiones. La pandemia y el consecuente distanciamiento social parece haber agrandado las angustias de las mujeres que son madres, evidenciando sentimientos y sufrimientos siempre presentes. En los relatos destacan la sobrecarga de las mujeres con las tareas de cuidado de los hijos y del hogar, la culpa, la soledad, el cansancio, así como el sentimiento de que no hay espacio em este contexto para "ser mujer", relacionado principalmente a cuestiones estéticas y de vanidad.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Psicoanálisis , Mujeres , Responsabilidad Parental , Pandemias , COVID-19 , Ansiedad , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Conducta Paterna , Paternidad , Atención Prenatal , Psicología , Psicología Social , Relajación , Autocuidado , Autoimagen , Ajuste Social , Responsabilidad Social , Socialización , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estereotipo , Estrés Fisiológico , Estrés Psicológico , Derechos de la Mujer , Horas de Trabajo , Imagen Corporal , Agotamiento Profesional , Actividades Cotidianas , Embarazo , Adaptación Biológica , Familia , Matrimonio , Niño , Desarrollo Infantil , Crianza del Niño , Cuarentena , Higiene , Salud Mental , Salud de la Familia , Inmunización , Caracteres Sexuales , Precauciones Universales , Empleos Subvencionados , Costo de Enfermedad , Confusión , Feminismo , Autoeficacia , Afecto , Cultura , Parto , Depresión , Periodo Posparto , Escolaridad , Ego , Empleo , Miedo , Feminidad , Sexismo , Equilibrio entre Vida Personal y Laboral , Fragilidad , Estrés Laboral , Androcentrismo , Libertad , Autoabandono , Frustación , Insatisfacción Corporal , Distrés Psicológico , Comparación Social , Teletrabajo , Distanciamiento Físico , Equidad de Género , Apoyo Familiar , Estructura Familiar , Culpa , Promoción de la Salud , Tareas del Hogar , Identificación Psicológica , Crisis de Identidad , Renta , Individualismo , Ira , Actividades Recreativas , Soledad , Amor , Conducta Materna , Bienestar Materno , Madres
4.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e222817, 2023. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431127

RESUMEN

No decorrer da história, sempre foram infindáveis os casos em que os sujeitos recorriam a centros espíritas ou terreiros de religiões de matrizes africanas em decorrência de problemas como doenças, desempregos ou amores mal resolvidos, com o objetivo de saná-los. Por conta disso, este artigo visa apresentar os resultados da pesquisa relacionados ao objetivo de mapear os processos de cuidado em saúde ofertados em três terreiros de umbanda de uma cidade do litoral piauiense. Para isso, utilizamos o referencial da Análise Institucional "no papel". Os participantes foram três líderes de terreiros e os respectivos praticantes/consulentes dos seus estabelecimentos religiosos. Identificamos perspectivas de cuidado que se contrapunham às racionalidades biomédicas, positivistas e cartesianas, e faziam referência ao uso de plantas medicinais, ao recebimento de rezas e passes e à consulta oracular. A partir desses resultados, podemos perceber ser cada vez mais necessário, portanto, que os povos de terreiros protagonizem a construção, implementação e avaliação das políticas públicas que lhe sejam específicas.(AU)


In history, there have always been endless cases of people turning to spiritual centers or terreiros of religions of African matrices due to problems such as illnesses, unemployment, or unresolved love affairs. Therefore, this article aims to present the research results related to the objective of mapping the health care processes offered in three Umbanda terreiros of a city on the Piauí Coast. For this, we use the Institutional Analysis reference "on Paper." The participants were three leaders of terreiros and the respective practitioners/consultants of their religious establishments. We identified perspectives of care that contrasted with biomedical, positivist, and Cartesian rationalities and referred to the use of medicinal plants, the prescript of prayers and passes, and oracular consultation. From these results, we can see that it is increasingly necessary, therefore, that the peoples of the terreiros lead the construction, implementation, and evaluation of public policies that are specific to them.(AU)


A lo largo de la historia, siempre hubo casos en los cuales las personas buscan en los centros espíritas o terreros de religiones africanas la cura para sus problemas, como enfermedades, desempleo o amoríos mal resueltos. Por este motivo, este artículo pretende presentar los resultados de la investigación con el objetivo de mapear los procesos de cuidado en salud ofrecidos en tres terreros de umbanda de una ciudad del litoral de Piauí (Brasil). Para ello, se utiliza el referencial del Análisis Institucional "en el Papel". Los participantes fueron tres líderes de terreros y los respectivos practicantes / consultivos de los establecimientos religiosos que los mismos conducían. Se identificaron perspectivas de cuidado que se contraponían a las racionalidades biomédicas, positivistas y cartesianas, y hacían referencia al uso de plantas medicinales, al recibimiento de rezos y pases y a la consulta oracular. Los resultados permiten concluir que es cada vez más necesario que los pueblos de terreros sean agentes protagónicos de la construcción, implementación y evaluación de las políticas públicas destinadas específicamente para ellos.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Religión , Medicinas Tradicionales Africanas , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Cuidado Pastoral , Tolerancia , Prejuicio , Psicología , Racionalización , Religión y Medicina , Autocuidado , Ajuste Social , Clase Social , Identificación Social , Valores Sociales , Sociedades , Factores Socioeconómicos , Espiritualismo , Estereotipo , Tabú , Terapéutica , Conducta y Mecanismos de Conducta , Negro o Afroamericano , Terapias Complementarias , Etnicidad , Conducta Ceremonial , Filosofía Homeopática , Lachnanthes tinctoria , Proceso Salud-Enfermedad , Comparación Transcultural , Eficacia , Coerción , Atención Integral de Salud , Conocimiento , Vida , Cultura , África , Terapias Mente-Cuerpo , Terapias Espirituales , Curación por la Fe , Espiritualidad , Baile , Deshumanización , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Biodiversidad , Grupos Raciales , Humanización de la Atención , Acogimiento , Estudios Poblacionales en Salud Pública , Etnología , Inteligencia Emocional , Terapia Hortícola , Estigma Social , Ageísmo , Racismo , Violencia Étnica , Esclavización , Normas Sociales , Tés de Hierbas , Folclore , Derechos Culturales , Etnocentrismo , Libertad , Solidaridad , Distrés Psicológico , Empoderamiento , Inclusión Social , Libertad de Religión , Ciudadanía , Quilombola , Medicina Tradicional Afroamericana , Pueblo Africano , Practicantes de la Medicina Tradicional , Historia , Derechos Humanos , Individualidad , Actividades Recreativas , Estilo de Vida , Magia , Curación Mental , Antropología , Medicina Antroposófica , Grupos Minoritarios , Moral , Música , Misticismo , Mitología , Ocultismo
5.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e249513, 2023.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431132

RESUMEN

Este ensaio teórico-reflexivo tem como objetivo discutir sobre as contribuições dos estudos da criminologia e sua crítica para as diversas formas de aprisionamento feminino, e mais atualmente para o encarceramento em massa no sistema prisional, além de abrir espaço para o debate sobre as diferentes perspectivas feministas e as relações com os estudos criminológicos, sobretudo com os posicionamentos da chamada criminologia crítica. Reconhecem-se importantes avanços e conquistas feministas no debate sobre a estruturação masculinizada do direito penal e do seu fazer jurídico, mas também a manutenção de diversas formas de violência de gênero que configuram um sistema penal antropocêntrico, seletivo, racista e discriminatório. Indica-se a urgência de estudos interseccionais que considerem as particularidades e reinvindicações das mulheres no cárcere e suas formas de militância, sobretudo diante de população carcerária feminina composta majoritariamente por mulheres negras, pobres e periféricas. Faz-se visível a necessidade de uma análise dos fatores que atravessam o encarceramento feminino por uma ótica feminista plural, adequada às realidades que se estudam e atenta às múltiplas perspectivas que podem existir dentro do feminismo.(AU)


This theoretical-reflexive essay aims to discuss the contributions of criminological studies and their critique of the various forms of imprisonment of women, and more recently of mass incarceration in the prison system, in addition to opening space for the debate on the different feminist perspectives and their relations with criminological studies, especially with the positions of the so-called critical criminology. Important feminist advances and conquests are recognized in the debate about the masculinized structure of penal law and its legal practice, but also the maintenance of diverse forms of gender violence that configure an anthropocentric, selective, racist, and discriminatory penal system. It indicates the urgency of intersectional studies that consider the particularities and claims of women in prison and their forms of militancy, especially in the face of the female prison population composed mostly of black, poor, and peripheral women. The need for an analysis of the factors that cross women's imprisonment from a plural feminist perspective, adequate to the realities under study and attentive to the multiple perspectives that may exist within feminism, becomes visible.(AU)


Este ensayo teórico-reflexivo pretende discutir las aportaciones de los estudios criminológicos y su crítica a las distintas formas de encarcelamiento femenino, y más recientemente de encarcelamiento masivo en el sistema penitenciario, además de generar debate sobre las distintas perspectivas feministas y sus relaciones con los estudios criminológicos, especialmente con las posiciones de la Criminología Crítica. Se reconocen importantes avances y logros feministas en el debate sobre la estructuración masculinizada del derecho penal y su práctica jurídica, además del mantenimiento de diversas formas de violencia de género que configuran un sistema penal antropocéntrico, selectivo, racista y discriminatorio. Se necesitan estudios interseccionales que consideren las particularidades y reivindicaciones de las mujeres en prisión y sus formas de militancia, principalmente ante la población penitenciaria femenina compuesta mayoritariamente por mujeres negras, pobres y periféricas. Se hace evidente la necesidad de analizar los factores que inciden en el encarcelamiento femenino desde una perspectiva feminista plural, adecuada a las realidades que se estudian y atenta a las múltiples perspectivas que pueden existir dentro del feminismo.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Prisiones , Feminismo , Criminología , Servicio de Acompañamiento de Pacientes , Prejuicio , Trabajo Sexual , Psicología , Psicología Social , Política Pública , Castigo , Calidad de Vida , Violación , Rechazo en Psicología , Religión , Rol , Seguridad , Conducta Sexual , Ajuste Social , Conducta Social , Cambio Social , Clase Social , Problemas Sociales , Socialización , Factores Socioeconómicos , Sociología , Estereotipo , Tabú , Robo , Desempleo , Embarazo , Áreas de Pobreza , Crianza del Niño , Demografía , Composición Familiar , Higiene , Política de Planificación Familiar , Hechicería , Colonialismo , Congresos como Asunto , Sexualidad , Conocimiento , Estadística , Crimen , Cultura , Vandalismo , Derecho Sanitario , Estado , Regulación Gubernamental , Aplicación de la Ley , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Agresión , Grupos Raciales , Escolaridad , Humanización de la Atención , Mercado de Trabajo , Productos para la Higiene Menstrual , Feminidad , Ageísmo , Racismo , Sexismo , Discriminación Social , Tráfico de Drogas , Reincidencia , Activismo Político , Opresión Social , Vulnerabilidad Sexual , Androcentrismo , Libertad , Respeto , Sociedad Civil , Rol de Género , Marco Interseccional , Ciudadanía , Estructura Familiar , Personal de Instituciones Correccionales , Promoción de la Salud , Homicidio , Tareas del Hogar , Derechos Humanos , Mala Praxis , Menstruación , Principios Morales , Madres , Motivación
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e241608, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448958

RESUMEN

O distanciamento social ocasionado pela pandemia de Covid-19 levou a profundas mudanças na rotina das famílias com crianças pequenas, aumentando o estresse no ambiente doméstico. Este estudo analisou a experiência de planejamento e implementação de um projeto de extensão universitária que ofereceu orientação a pais com filhos de 0 a 11 anos por meio de chamadas de áudio durante a pandemia. O protocolo de atendimento foi desenvolvido para atender às necessidades de famílias de baixa renda e listava problemas específicos relacionados ao confinamento em casa e ao fechamento das escolas seguidos por uma variedade de estratégias de enfrentamento. A análise de 223 queixas relatadas pelos usuários em 130 ligações revelou que 94% dos problemas referidos pelos pais foram contemplados pelo protocolo de atendimento e estavam relacionados aos problemas externalizantes (39%) ou internalizantes (26%) das crianças ou ao declínio do bem-estar subjetivo dos pais (29%). Serviços de apoio devem orientar os pais quanto ao uso de práticas responsivas e assertivas que promovam o bem-estar emocional da criança e estabeleçam expectativas comportamentais em contextos estressantes. A diminuição dos conflitos entre pais e filhos resultante do uso dessas estratégias tende a reduzir o sofrimento dos pais, aumentando sua sensação de bem-estar subjetivo. Recomenda-se ampla divulgação dessas iniciativas e seguimento dos casos.(AU)


The social distancing the COVID-19 pandemic entailed has led to profound changes in the routine of families with young children, increasing stress in the home environment. This study analyzed the experience of planning and implementing a university extension program that offered support to parents with children from 0 to 11 years old via audio calls during the COVID-19 pandemic. The service protocol was developed to meet the needs of low-income families and listed specific problems related to home confinement and school closure followed by a variety of coping strategies. The analysis of 223 complaints reported by users in 130 calls revealed that 94% of the problems reported by parents were addressed by the protocol and were related to children's externalizing (39%) or internalizing (26%) problems or to the decline in parents' subjective well-being (29%). Support services should guide parents on the use of responsive and assertive practices that promote the child's emotional well-being and set behavioral expectations in stressful contexts. The reduction in conflicts between parents and children resulting from the use of these strategies tends to reduce parents' suffering, increasing their sense of subjective well-being. Wide dissemination of these initiatives and case follow-up are recommended.(AU)


La distancia social causada por la pandemia de COVID-19 condujo a cambios profundos en la rutina de las familias con niños pequeños, aumentando el estrés en el entorno del hogar. Este estudio analizó la experiencia de planificar e implementar un proyecto de extensión universitaria que ofreció orientación a los padres con niños de cero a 11 años a través de llamadas de audio durante la pandemia COVID-19. El protocolo de atención se desarrolló para satisfacer las necesidades de las familias de bajos ingresos y enumeró problemas específicos relacionados con el confinamiento en el hogar y el cierre de la escuela, seguido de una variedad de estrategias de afrontamiento. El análisis de 223 quejas informadas por los usuarios en 130 llamadas reveló que el 94% de los problemas informados por los padres fueron abordados por el protocolo de atención y estaban relacionados con los problemas de externalización (39%) o internalización (26%) de los niños o la disminución del bienestar subjetivo de los padres (29%). Los servicios de apoyo deberían aconsejar a los padres sobre el uso de prácticas receptivas y asertivas que promuevan el bienestar emocional del niño y establezcan expectativas de comportamiento en contextos estresantes. La reducción de los conflictos entre padres e hijos como resultado del uso de estas estrategias tiende a reducir el sufrimiento de los padres, aumentando su sensación de bienestar subjetivo. Se recomienda una amplia difusión de estas iniciativas y seguimiento de casos.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Orientación , Padres , Satisfacción Personal , Niño , Problema de Conducta , COVID-19 , Ansiedad , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Apetito , Juego e Implementos de Juego , Solución de Problemas , Psicología , Agitación Psicomotora , Calidad de Vida , Lectura , Recreación , Educación Compensatoria , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Seguridad , Salarios y Beneficios , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Autoimagen , Trastorno Autístico , Sueño , Ajuste Social , Condiciones Sociales , Conformidad Social , Medio Social , Aislamiento Social , Problemas Sociales , Socialización , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Teléfono , Temperamento , Terapéutica , Tiempo , Desempleo , Violencia , Terapia Conductista , Horas de Trabajo , Políticas, Planificación y Administración en Salud , Abuso Sexual Infantil , Tedio , Neurociencias , Virosis , Actividades Cotidianas , Aflicción , Ejercicio Físico , Divorcio , Maltrato a los Niños , Desarrollo Infantil , Salud Mental , Vacunación Masiva , Terapia por Relajación , Inmunización , Conducta Autodestructiva , Derechos Civiles , Responsabilidad Parental , Trastorno de Pánico , Entrevista , Cognición , Violencia Doméstica , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Clase , Niños con Discapacidad , Ingenio y Humor , Internet , Creatividad , Intervención en la Crisis (Psiquiatría) , Llanto , Vulnerabilidad ante Desastres , Impacto Psicosocial , Autonomía Personal , Muerte , Amigos , Agresión , Depresión , Impulso (Psicología) , Economía , Educación Especial , Escolaridad , Emociones , Empatía , Docentes , Conflicto Familiar , Relaciones Familiares , Miedo , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Comidas , Reinserción al Trabajo , Esperanza , Optimismo , Pesimismo , Autocontrol , Fobia Social , Sistemas de Apoyo Psicosocial , Equilibrio entre Vida Personal y Laboral , Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Tiempo de Pantalla , Asco , Tristeza , Solidaridad , Distrés Psicológico , Intervención Psicosocial , Teletrabajo , Estrés Financiero , Inseguridad Alimentaria , Análisis de Sentimientos , Factores Sociodemográficos , Vulnerabilidad Social , Apoyo Familiar , Gobierno , Culpa , Salud Holística , Homeostasis , Hospitalización , Tareas del Hogar , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Ira , Aprendizaje , Discapacidades para el Aprendizaje , Actividades Recreativas , Soledad , Trastornos Mentales
7.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244202, 2023.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431126

RESUMEN

O objeto de estudo deste trabalho é a atuação de psicólogas(os) no campo da educação básica. Tivemos como objetivo investigar as práticas de atuação e os desafios enfrentados pelas(os) psicólogas(os) que trabalham na educação em Boa Vista (RR), com intuito de conhecer a inserção desses profissionais no sistema educacional. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, orientada pelo referencial teórico-metodológico da Psicologia Escolar Crítica. Realizamos o processo de levantamento dos dados entre os meses de março e abril de 2018, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas, audiogravadas e transcritas. Encontramos 21 psicólogas e um psicólogo trabalhando em instituições educacionais e de ensino na cidade; a maioria atuava na educação básica; metade dos entrevistados ingressou por concurso público e a outra metade era contratada e comissionada; poucos(as) foram contratados(as) como psicólogos(as) escolares. Para a análise, selecionamos dez psicólogas(os) com mais tempo no cargo. Quanto às práticas de atuação, identificamos que 60% atuavam na modalidade clínica e 40% na modalidade clínica e institucional. Como desafios, encontramos melhoria das condições de trabalho; estabelecimento de relações hierárquicas e a dificuldade de fazer compreender as especificidades desse campo de trabalho; necessidade na melhoria das condições para formação continuada; atuação da(o) psicóloga(o) escolar enquanto ação institucional. Diante do exposto, compreendemos ser necessária uma mudança de paradigma na atuação das(os) psicólogas(os) que trabalham na educação na região, e a apropriação das discussões da área, principalmente, aquelas apresentadas pela Psicologia Escolar Crítica, vez que esta contribui para uma atuação que leve em conta os determinantes sociais, políticos, culturais e pedagógicos que constituem o processo de escolarização.(AU)


This work has as object of study the role of psychologists in the field of Basic Education. We aimed to investigate practices and challenges faced by psychologists who work in education in Boa Vista/RR, to know the insertion of these professionals in the educational system. This is a qualitative research, guided by the theoretical-methodological framework of Critical School Psychology. The data collection process was carried out between March and April 2018, with semi-structured, audio-recorded, and transcribed interviews. We found 21 female psychologists and one male psychologist working in educational institutions in the municipality; most worked in Basic Education; half of the interviewees had applied to work as government employee and the other half were hired and commissioned; few were hired as school psychologists. To carry out the analysis, we selected ten psychologists with more time in the position. Regarding the practices, we have identified that 60% worked in the clinical modality and 40% in the clinical and institutional modality. As challenges, we find the improvement in working conditions; the establishment of hierarchical relationships and the difficulty of making the specificities of this field of work understood; the need to improve conditions for continuing education; the practice of the school psychologist as institutional action. In view of the above, we understand that a paradigm shift in the performance of psychologists working in education in that region is necessary, and the appropriation of discussions in the area, especially those presented by Critical School Psychology, contributes to an action that considers social, political, cultural, and pedagogical determinants that constitute the schooling process.(AU)


Este trabajo tiene como objeto de estudio la actuación profesional de las(os) psicólogas(os) en la educación básica. Su objetivo es investigar las prácticas y retos que enfrentan las(os) psicólogas(os) que trabajan en la educación en Boa Vista, en Roraima (Brasil), con la intención de conocer la inserción de estos profesionales en el sistema educativo. Esta es una investigación cualitativa que se guía por el marco teórico-metodológico de la Psicología Escolar Crítica. Se recopilaron los datos entre los meses de marzo y abril de 2018, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas, grabadas en audio y después transcritas. Las 21 psicólogas y un psicólogo trabajan en instituciones educativas de la ciudad; la mayoría trabajaba en la educación básica; la mitad de los entrevistados ingresaron mediante concurso público y la otra mitad era contratada y de puesto comisionado; pocos fueron contratados como psicólogos escolares. Para el análisis, se seleccionaron diez psicólogas(os) con más tiempo en el cargo. Con respecto a las prácticas, el 60% trabajaba en la modalidad clínica; y el 40%, en la modalidad clínica e institucional. Los retos son mejora de las condiciones laborales; establecimiento de relaciones jerárquicas y dificultad para comprender las especificidades de este campo de trabajo; necesidad de mejorar las condiciones para la educación continua; y actuación dela (del) psicóloga(o) escolar como acción institucional. En vista de lo anterior, es necesario el cambio de paradigma en la práctica profesional de las(os) psicólogas(os) que trabajan en la educación de la región y la apropiación de las discusiones del área, especialmente las presentadas por la Psicología Escolar Crítica, que contribuye a una acción que tiene en cuenta los determinantes sociales, políticos, culturales y pedagógicos que constituyen el proceso de escolarización.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Psicología Educacional , Instituciones Académicas , Educación Primaria y Secundaria , Patología , Aptitud , Juego e Implementos de Juego , Ludoterapia , Prejuicio , Psicología , Psicología Aplicada , Psicología Clínica , Desempeño Psicomotor , Política Pública , Calidad de Vida , Educación Compensatoria , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Trastorno Autístico , Ajuste Social , Cambio Social , Medio Social , Aislamiento Social , Valores Sociales , Socialización , Abandono Escolar , Estudiantes , Condiciones Patológicas, Signos y Síntomas , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Pensamiento , Rendimiento Escolar Bajo , Conducta , Integración Escolar , Mentores , Adaptación Psicológica , Familia , Defensa del Niño , Discapacidades del Desarrollo , Orientación Infantil , Crianza del Niño , Salud Mental , Salud Infantil , Competencia Mental , Sector Público , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Personas con Discapacidad , Entrevista , Cognición , Comunicación , Trastornos de la Comunicación , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas , Participación de la Comunidad , Disciplinas y Actividades Conductuales , Consejo , Creatividad , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Dislexia , Educación de las Personas con Discapacidad Intelectual , Educación Especial , Evaluación Educacional , Escolaridad , Proyectos , Ética Institucional , Tecnología de la Información , Docentes , Resiliencia Psicológica , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos y Neurales , Acoso Escolar , Medicalización , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo , Fracaso Escolar , Servicios de Salud Mental Escolar , Funcionamiento Psicosocial , Vulnerabilidad Social , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Salud Holística , Desarrollo Humano , Derechos Humanos , Individualidad , Inteligencia , Relaciones Interpersonales , Aprendizaje , Discapacidades para el Aprendizaje , Anamnesis , Memoria , Trastornos Mentales , Motivación
8.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e251630, 2023. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448947

RESUMEN

Este estudo qualitativo teve como objetivo compreender, a partir da teoria de bioecológica de desenvolvimento, as implicações da prática profissional no processo de acolhimento de crianças em uma casa-abrigo, na perspectiva de cuidadoras. As participantes foram 10 profissionais de uma casa-abrigo localizada na região sul do Brasil. Utilizou-se a entrevista semiestruturada e a organização e análise dos dados sustentou-se na Grounded Theory, com auxílio do software Atlas.ti 8.4.14. Os resultados evidenciaram uma centralização das ações de acolhimento e atenção em torno dos cuidados físicos das crianças. As ações para promover suporte e cuidados emocionais dentro da casa-abrigo eram delegadas às profissionais da equipe técnica da instituição. Observou-se que as dificuldades encontradas pelas cuidadoras diziam respeito à falta de segurança e preparação para responder e acolher as demandas emocionais das crianças, as quais estão presentes em diversos momentos do processo de acolhimento. Percebeu-se que as práticas institucionais afetaram decisivamente tanto as ações de acolhimento das participantes e o suporte emocional oferecido às crianças na passagem pela casa-abrigo quanto as cuidadoras, no sentido de vivenciarem no trabalho sentimentos de insegurança. Os resultados tensionam ecologicamente a interação nos processos proximais presentes no desenvolvimento humano. Advoga-se pela reflexão sobre as implicações das práticas institucionais de uma casa-abrigo e o desenvolvimento infantil, visando o cuidado integral dos acolhidos.(AU)


Based on the developmental bioecological theory, this study analyzes the implications of professional practice in children's user embracement at a shelter from the caregivers' perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 professionals from a shelter located in southern Brazil. Data organization and analysis was performed based on Grounded Theory using the Atlas.ti 8.4.14 software. Results showed that embracement and attention focus on the physical care of children. Support and emotional care activities were delegated to the institution's technical team. Caregivers faced difficulties regarding the lack of security and preparation to respond to and accept the children's emotional demands, which arise at different moments in the embracement process. The institutional practices decisively affected both user embracement actions and the emotional support offered to the children, as well as the caregivers, in the sense of experiencing feelings of insecurity. These findings ecologically tension the interaction in the proximal processes present in human development. Further reflections on the implications of institutional shelter-based practices for child development are needed to provide comprehensive care.(AU)


Este estudio cualitativo tuvo como objetivo comprender, desde la perspectiva de la teoría bioecológica del desarrollo, las implicaciones de la práctica profesional en el proceso de acogida de niños en una institución infantil desde la perspectiva de las cuidadoras. Las participantes fueron 10 profesionales de una institución de acogida infantil ubicada en la región Sur de Brasil. Se utilizó la entrevista semiestructurada, y para la organización y análisis de datos se aplicó Grounded Theory, con el uso del software Atlas.ti 8.4.14. Los resultados mostraron que las acciones de recepción y atención se centran en el cuidado físico de los niños. Las acciones de promoción de apoyo y cuidado emocional dentro del alojamiento se asignaron a los profesionales del equipo técnico de la institución. Se observó que las dificultades encontradas por las cuidadoras estaban relacionadas con la falta de seguridad y preparación para responder y aceptar las demandas emocionales de los niños, las cuales se encuentran presentes en diferentes momentos del proceso de acogida. Se notó que las prácticas institucionales afectaron decisivamente tanto las acciones de acogida de las participantes como el apoyo emocional que la institución brinda a los niños durante su paso, así como a las cuidadoras en el sentido de experimentar sentimientos de inseguridad en el trabajo. Estos resultados tensan ecológicamente la interacción en los procesos proximales presentes en el desarrollo humano. Se aboga por reflexionar sobre las implicaciones de las prácticas institucionales en los alojamientos institucionales y el desarrollo infantil, apuntando a la atención integral de los acogidos.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Práctica Profesional , Niño , Cuidadores , Ecología , Acogimiento , Desarrollo Humano , Dolor , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Conducta Paterna , Privación Paterna , Juego e Implementos de Juego , Pobreza , Psicología , Psicología Social , Seguridad , Atención , Relaciones entre Hermanos , Sueño , Ajuste Social , Cambio Social , Condiciones Sociales , Medio Social , Justicia Social , Problemas Sociales , Apoyo Social , Sociología , Deportes , Violencia , Síndrome del Niño Maltratado , Mujeres , Trabajo Infantil , Adopción , Divorcio , Familia , Niño Abandonado , Maltrato a los Niños , Defensa del Niño , Desarrollo Infantil , Niño Institucionalizado , Crianza del Niño , Niño no Deseado , Protección a la Infancia , Características de la Residencia , Composición Familiar , Salud , Higiene , Hijo de Padres Discapacitados , Responsabilidad Legal , Hambre , Desórdenes Civiles , Responsabilidad Parental , Entrevista , Violencia Doméstica , Diversidad Cultural , Vida , Víctimas de Crimen , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol , Afecto , Cultura , Autonomía Personal , Instrucciones , Mecanismos de Defensa , Hijos Adultos , Trastornos de Estrés Traumático , Investigación Cualitativa , Amigos , Menores , Desarrollo del Adolescente , Violaciones de los Derechos Humanos , Dieta , Alcoholismo , Empatía , Salud del Niño Institucionalizado , Conflicto Familiar , Relaciones Familiares , Consumidores de Drogas , Trastornos Químicamente Inducidos , Personas Esclavizadas , Teoría Fundamentada , Abuelos , Trauma Psicológico , Niño Adoptado , Niño Acogido , Libertad , Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Separación Familiar , Distrés Psicológico , Derecho a la Salud , Abuso Emocional , Libertad de Religión , Interacción Social , Factores Sociodemográficos , Vulnerabilidad Social , Ciudadanía , Apoyo Familiar , Tareas del Hogar , Derechos Humanos , Individualidad , Institucionalización , Celos , Actividades Recreativas , Soledad , Amor , Mala Praxis , Privación Materna , Trastornos Mentales , Motivación , Apego a Objetos
9.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255165, 2023.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529227

RESUMEN

O presente estudo qualitativo objetivou compreender as expectativas de mães e cuidadoras sobre a sua participação no Programa ACT para Educar Crianças em Ambientes Seguros na versão remota, no período da pandemia de covid-19. Também visou identificar a percepção das participantes sobre educar uma criança em um ambiente seguro. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas on-line com doze mães e cuidadoras, antes da participação no Programa ACT. Os resultados indicaram diferentes expectativas sobre a participação no Programa ACT, entre elas: adquirir novos conhecimentos, aprimorar as habilidades parentais, trocar experiências, receber auxílio no momento da pandemia de covid-19 e possibilitar para a criança um desenvolvimento saudável. Na percepção das mães e cuidadoras, a versão remota do Programa ACT apresenta aspectos positivos; entre eles, a participação de pais e cuidadores que não residem na cidade em que é oferecida a intervenção. No entanto, apontaram como fatores negativos a ausência do contato físico e as interrupções que podem acontecer a partir das falhas de internet. Para as mães e cuidadoras, educar a criança em um ambiente seguro estava relacionado a promover os direitos estabelecidos no Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (ECA), como educação, saúde, lazer, cuidado, afeto, assim como protegê-la de situações de violência. Considera-se que as expectativas das participantes estavam alinhadas aos objetivos do Programa ACT. Torna-se prioritário oferecer programas de prevenção à violência aos pais e cuidadores, em especial em momentos adversos como o da pandemia de covid-19, a fim de promover o desenvolvimento e a saúde das crianças, assim como prevenir situações de violação de direitos.(AU)


This qualitative study aims to understand the expectations of mothers and caregivers about participating in the ACT Raising Safe Kids Program in its remote version, during the COVID-19 pandemic period. It also aims to identify the participants' perception of raising a child in a safe environment. Semi-structured on-line interviews were conducted with 12 mothers/caregivers, prior to participation in the ACT Program. The results indicated different expectations regarding the participation in the ACT Program, for example: acquiring new knowledge, improving parenting skills, exchanging experiences, receiving support during the COVID-19 pandemic, and enabling the child to have a healthy development. In the perception of mothers and caregivers, the remote version of the ACT Program has positive aspects, such as the participation of parents and caregivers who do not live in the city where the intervention is offered. However, they pointed out as negative factors absence of physical contact and interruptions due to internet failures. For the mothers/caregivers, educating children in a safe environment was related to promoting the rights established by the Brazilian Child and Adolescent Statute, namely education, health, leisure, care, affection, as well as protecting them from situations of violence. The expectations of the participants were aligned with the objectives of the ACT Program. Offering violence prevention programs to parents and caregivers is a priority, especially in adverse moments such as the COVID-19 pandemic, in order to promote the development and health of children, as well as prevent situations of violation of rights.(AU)


Este estudio cualitativo pretendió comprender las expectativas de madres y cuidadoras sobre la participación en el Programa de ACT para Educar a Niños en Ambientes Seguros en la versión remota, en el periodo de la pandemia de la COVID-19. También se propuso identificar la percepción de las participantes sobre educar a un niño en un ambiente seguro. Se llevaron a cabo entrevistas semiestructuradas en línea con 12 madres/cuidadoras, antes de la participación en el Programa ACT. Los resultados señalaron diferentes expectativas con la participación del Programa de ACT, entre ellas: adquirir nuevos conocimientos, perfeccionar las habilidades parentales, intercambiar experiencias, recibir auxilio en el momento de la pandemia de la COVID-19 y posibilitar al niño un desarrollo saludable. En la percepción de las madres y cuidadoras, la versión remota del Programa de ACT presenta aspectos positivos, como la participación de padres y cuidadores que no residen en la ciudad donde es ofrecida la intervención. Sin embargo, señalaron como factores negativos la ausencia del contacto físico y las interrupciones, que pueden ocurrir por fallas en Internet. Para las madres/cuidadoras, educar al niño en un ambiente seguro estaba relacionado a promover los derechos establecidos en el Estatuto del Niño y del Adolescente de Brasil, como educación, salud, ocio, cuidado, afecto, así como protegerlo de situaciones de violencia. Se considera que las expectativas de las participantes estaban alineadas con los objetivos del Programa de ACT. Es prioritario ofrecer programas de prevención a la violencia a los padres y cuidadores, en especial en momentos adversos como el de la pandemia de la COVID-19, con el fin de promover el desarrollo y la salud de los niños, así como prevenir situaciones de vulneración de derechos.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Maltrato a los Niños , Prevención de Enfermedades , Intervención Psicosocial , Apetito , Desarrollo de la Personalidad , Ludoterapia , Solución de Problemas , Psicología , Desempeño Psicomotor , Política Pública , Seguridad , Instituciones Académicas , Delitos Sexuales , Autoritarismo , Ajuste Social , Clase Social , Aislamiento Social , Responsabilidad Social , Apoyo Social , Estrés Psicológico , Síndrome del Niño Maltratado , Conducta y Mecanismos de Conducta , Síntomas Conductuales , Abuso Sexual Infantil , Brasil , Sistemas en Línea , Carácter , Niño , Niño Abandonado , Cuidado del Niño , Protección a la Infancia , Salud Mental , Negociación , Entrevista , Violencia Doméstica , Coronavirus , Trastornos de Combate , Medios de Comunicación , Atención Integral de Salud , Crimen , Amenazas , Síntomas Afectivos , Cultura , Vigilancia en Desastres , Muerte , Denuncia de Irregularidades , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Agresión , Sueños , Conflicto Familiar , Relaciones Familiares , Terapia Familiar , Pandemias , Red Social , Narrativa Personal , Trastornos Relacionados con Traumatismos y Factores de Estrés , Trauma Psicológico , Trabajadores Sociales , Niño Acogido , Frustación , Crecimiento Psicológico Postraumático , Respeto , Distrés Psicológico , Trauma Sexual , Inclusión Social , Regreso a la Escuela , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , COVID-19 , Ambiente en el Hogar , Vulnerabilidad Social , Ciudadanía , Hematoma , Homicidio , Visita Domiciliaria , Derechos Humanos , Infanticidio , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Amor , Mala Praxis , Bienestar Materno , Trastornos Mentales , Narcisismo , Apego a Objetos
10.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e265125, 2023. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529229

RESUMEN

O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi levantar o perfil sociodemográfico e formativo de psicólogos escolares, e discutir seu impacto nas práticas junto ao coletivo escolar e no trabalho em equipe. No município onde ocorreu a pesquisa, o psicólogo escolar é membro da equipe de especialistas em Educação. Participaram da pesquisa 62 psicólogos que atuam no Ensino Fundamental I, II, e na Educação de Jovens e Adultos. Os participantes responderam um questionário on-line com perguntas abertas e fechadas sobre dados sociodemográficos, de formação e atuação profissional. Realizou-se uma análise qualitativa a partir dos objetivos e itens do instrumento, quais sejam: caracterização do perfil sociodemográfico dos psicólogos escolares, formação acadêmica, atuação em psicologia escolar, atuação em outros campos/áreas da psicologia, e atuação em equipe de especialistas. A média de idade dos profissionais é de 47,46 anos, e apenas um é do sexo masculino. Possuem tempo de atuação de um a 36 anos, e a maioria não possui estágio supervisionado e pós-graduações no campo da psicologia escolar. Parte das equipes que trabalham nas escolas está incompleta, e há uma variabilidade nos dias e horários de reuniões. Reafirma-se que a formação de psicólogos escolares tem repercussões na atuação junto à equipe multidisciplinar, e a importância de intervenções pautadas na perspectiva crítica e psicossocial em Psicologia Escolar. Ademais, conhecer o perfil sociodemográfico e formativo destes profissionais possibilita obter um quadro atualizado sobre o grupo pesquisado e criar estratégias de intervenção que potencializem a atuação desses profissionais junto à equipe de especialistas e demais setores da escola.(AU)


The aim of this research is to identify the sociodemographic and training profile of school psychologists, and discuss their impact on practices within the school collective and the teamwork. In the city where the research took place, the school psychologist is a member of the council's expert team in Education. The research participants included 62 psychologists that work in elementary and intermediate school, and EJA. They answered an open and multiple choice online survey on sociodemographic, formation, and working data. A qualitative analysis was conducted considering its objectives and items, namely: sociodemographic profile, academic education, professional background on school psychology, other psychology fields/ areas, and participation on expert teams. The professionals are 47 and 46 years old, average, only one of them being male. They work in this position from one up to 36 years, and most of them do not have training experience and postgraduate studies in school psychology. Part of the teams working at schools are incomplete, and there is a variability concerning days and hours to team meetings. It is notable that the training profile of psychologists has repercussions in the performance with the multidisciplinary team, and in the importance of interventions based on critical and psychosocial perspectives in School Psychology. Moreover, knowing the sociodemographic and training profile of these professionals allowed us to have an updated chart about the researched group, as well as to create intervention strategies that enhance these professionals' performance within the expert team and other sectors of the school.(AU)


Esta investigación tuvo por objetivo levantar el perfil sociodemográfico y formativo de psicólogos escolares para discutir su impacto en las prácticas junto al colectivo escolar y al trabajo en equipo. En el municipio donde ocurrió la investigación, este profesional es miembro del equipo municipal de especialistas en Educación. Participaron 62 psicólogos que actúan en la educación primaria, secundaria y en la educación para jóvenes y adultos (EJA), y que respondieron a un cuestionario en línea con preguntas abiertas y de opción múltiple sobre datos sociodemográficos, de formación y de actuación profesional. Se realizó un análisis cualitativo según sus objetivos e ítems, o sea: perfil sociodemográfico, formación académica, actuación en Psicología Escolar, en otros campos/áreas de la Psicología o en equipo de especialistas. La edad mediana de los profesionales es de 46-47 años, y solo uno es del sexo masculino. El tiempo de actuación en el área varía entre 1 y 36 años, y la mayoría de los encuestados no tiene formación inicial y posgrado en el campo de la Psicología Escolar. Parte de los equipos que trabajan en las escuelas está incompleta, y existe una variabilidad en los días y horarios de reuniones. Se observó que la formación de los psicólogos escolares tiene repercusiones en la actuación con el equipo multidisciplinario y en la importancia de intervenciones basadas en la perspectiva crítica y psicosocial en Psicología Escolar. Además, conocer su perfil sociodemográfico y formativo posibilita obtener un cuadro actualizado sobre el grupo investigado, además de crear estrategias de intervención que potencialicen la actuación junto al equipo de especialistas y a los demás sectores de la escuela.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Ubicación de la Práctica Profesional , Psicología , Enseñanza , Escolaridad , Innovación Organizacional , Juego e Implementos de Juego , Ludoterapia , Solución de Problemas , Práctica Profesional , Fenómenos Psicológicos , Psicología Clínica , Educación Compensatoria , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Autoimagen , Ajuste Social , Identificación Social , Estrés Psicológico , Abandono Escolar , Control de Esfínteres , Rendimiento Escolar Bajo , Orientación Vocacional , Trabajo , Conducta , Cooperación Técnica , Integración Escolar , Adaptación Psicológica , Cultura Organizacional , Familia , Orientación Infantil , Crianza del Niño , Salud Mental , Salud Infantil , Colaboración Intersectorial , Negociación , Cognición , Comunicación , Educación Basada en Competencias , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas , Atención Integral de Salud , Diversidad Cultural , Conducta Cooperativa , Autoeficacia , Consejo , Impacto Psicosocial , Desarrollo Moral , Investigación Cualitativa , Dislexia , Educación , Educación Especial , Evaluación Educacional , Eficiencia , Emociones , Empatía , Ética Institucional , Planificación , Viviendas Económicas , Resiliencia Psicológica , Inteligencia Emocional , Acoso Escolar , Estudios Interdisciplinarios , Discalculia , Habilidades Sociales , Psicología del Desarrollo , Problema de Conducta , Autocontrol , Neurociencia Cognitiva , Maestros , Rendimiento Académico , Éxito Académico , Ciberacoso , Capacidad de Liderazgo y Gobernanza , Funcionamiento Psicosocial , Intervención Psicosocial , Factores Sociodemográficos , Diversidad, Equidad e Inclusión , Eficacia Colectiva , Desarrollo Humano , Inteligencia , Relaciones Interpersonales , Liderazgo , Aprendizaje , Discapacidades para el Aprendizaje , Motivación
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36498315

RESUMEN

Social adaptation of migrant children is not only related to the physical and mental health and development of individuals, but also reflects the level of urban social integration and stable development. Mindfulness has a protective effect on individual social adaptation. Self-esteem and resilience were found to be positively associated with mindfulness and social adaptation. Based on the Positive Youth Development Perspective, this study aimed to explore whether self-esteem and resilience sequentially mediated the associations among mindfulness and social adaptation. A total of 526 migrant children were assessed with the questionnaires regarding mindfulness, self-esteem, resilience, and social adaptation. The results indicated that mindfulness was positively associated with social adaptation of migrant children. Self-esteem and resilience played the sequential mediating roles between mindfulness and social adaptation. The present study revealed the influence and mechanism of mindfulness on social adaptation and provided some guidance for the intervention programs to promote migrant children's adaptability.


Asunto(s)
Atención Plena , Autoimagen , Adolescente , Niño , Humanos , China , Ajuste Social , Salud Mental
12.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 98: 102204, 2022 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216722

RESUMEN

Social interactions are dynamic, context-dependent, and reciprocal events that influence prospective strategies and require constant practice and adaptation. This complexity of social interactions creates several research challenges. We propose a new framework encouraging future research to investigate not only individual differences in capacities relevant for social functioning and their underlying mechanisms, but also the flexibility to adapt or update one's social abilities. We suggest three key capacities relevant for social functioning: (1) social perception, (2) sharing emotions or empathizing, and (3) mentalizing. We elaborate on how adaptations in these capacities may be investigated on behavioral and neural levels. Research on these flexible adaptations of one's social behavior is needed to specify how humans actually "learn to be social". Learning to adapt implies plasticity of the relevant brain networks involved in the underlying social processes, indicating that social abilities are malleable for different contexts. To quantify such measures, researchers need to find ways to investigate learning through dynamic changes in adaptable social paradigms and examine several factors influencing social functioning within the three aformentioned social key capacities. This framework furthers insight concerning individual differences, provides a holistic approach to social functioning, and may improve interventions for ameliorating social abilities in patients.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Ajuste Social , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Percepción Social , Conducta Social
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627807

RESUMEN

Deficits in cognition, physical, and social functions in adults with schizophrenia may become salient with aging. While animal-assisted therapy (AAT) can benefit physical function in older adults and improve symptoms of psychotic disorders, the effect of AAT on middle-aged patients with schizophrenia is unclear. The current randomized controlled trial aimed to explore the efficacy of AAT for middle-aged patients with schizophrenia. Forty participants were randomly assigned to either the AAT or control group. The AAT group participated in one-hour sessions with dog-assisted group activities once a week for 12 weeks. The controls participated in dose-matched, non-animal-related recreational activities. Both groups remained on their usual psychotropic medication during the trial. Evaluations included the Chair Stand Test (CST), Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), 5-Meter walk test (5MWT), and Assessment of Communication and Interaction Skills (ACIS). The increases in CST repetitions and ACIS scores were larger in the AAT group than in the controls. The two groups did not differ significantly in MoCA scores, TUG performance, or the 5MWT. The AAT group showed a greater increase in lower extremity strength and social skills, but no improvement in cognitive function, agility, or mobility. Further research with more sensitive evaluations and longer follow-up is needed.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Asistida por Animales , Trastornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Anciano , Animales , Perros , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos Psicóticos/terapia , Esquizofrenia/tratamiento farmacológico , Ajuste Social , Habilidades Sociales
14.
Psychol Med ; 51(16): 2846-2855, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466811

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Impaired mentalizing ability - an impaired ability to understand one's own and other people's behavior in terms of mental states - is associated with social dysfunction in non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD). We tested whether adding mentalization-based treatment for psychotic disorder (MBTp) to treatment as usual (TAU) results in greater improvement in social functioning. METHODS: Multicenter, rater-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Eighty-four patients with NAPD were assigned to TAU or MBTp plus TAU. Patients in the MBTp group received 18 months of MBTp, consisting of weekly group sessions and one individual session per 2 weeks. Social functioning was measured using the Social Functioning Scale. We conducted ANCOVAs to examine the difference between treatment conditions directly after treatment and at 6-month follow-up and performed moderation and mediation analyses. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat analyses showed no significant differences between groups post-treatment (p = 0.31) but revealed the MBTp group to be superior to TAU at follow-up (p = 0.03). Patients in the MBTp group also seemed to perform better on measures of mentalizing ability, although evidence of a mediation effect was limited (p = 0.06). Lastly, MBTp treatment was less effective in chronic patients than in recent-onset patients (p = 0.049) and overall symptoms at baseline were mild, which may have reduced the overall effectiveness of the intervention. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that MBTp plus TAU may lead to more robust improvements in social functioning compared to TAU, especially for patients with a recent onset of psychosis.


Asunto(s)
Mentalización , Trastornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Terapia Basada en la Mentalización , Trastornos Psicóticos/terapia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Ajuste Social
15.
J Sports Sci ; 39(8): 903-914, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295256

RESUMEN

Retiring professional athletes face multifaceted changes and potential issues of adjustment, occupational development, and well-being, which raises concerns around the world. The study systematically reviewed the available research investigating professional soccer players' sport retirement from social sciences perspectives. The literature search in electronic databases and a "snowballing" procedure yielded 17 eligible studies investigating > 2,200 retired professional soccer players. The review followed the PRISMA statement. Nine studies focused on an early transition phase to retirement period; four studies investigated later periods of ten years or longer after retirement. Around half of the players reported involuntary retirement, often associated with declining performance and/or injury. Studies suggest issues of adjustment and mental health during early years after retirement, while psychological issues had apparently declined around 1-2 decades after retirement. However, available studies had notable limitations including lack of evidenced representative samples, report of measures' reliability, and control for confounders. Furthermore, while theoretical models emphasise a holistic perspective, quantitative research often took a narrow rather than holistic perspective. In summary, available knowledge is fraught with some uncertainty regarding reliability and representativeness of the population of retired professional soccer players. We offer future directions to advance the development of a theory of sport retirement.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Jubilación , Fútbol/psicología , Selección de Profesión , Humanos , Salud Mental , Ocupaciones , Ajuste Social , Apoyo Social
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013305, 2020 07 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628293

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Behavioural activation is a brief psychotherapeutic approach that seeks to change the way a person interacts with their environment. Behavioural activation is increasingly receiving attention as a potentially cost-effective intervention for depression, which may require less resources and may be easier to deliver and implement than other types of psychotherapy. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of behavioural activation compared with other psychological therapies for depression in adults. To examine the effects of behavioural activation compared with medication for depression in adults. To examine the effects of behavioural activation compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/placebo no treatment for depression in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CCMD-CTR (all available years), CENTRAL (current issue), Ovid MEDLINE (1946 onwards), Ovid EMBASE (1980 onwards), and Ovid PsycINFO (1806 onwards) on the 17 January 2020 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of 'behavioural activation', or the main elements of behavioural activation for depression in participants with clinically diagnosed depression or subthreshold depression. We did not apply any restrictions on date, language or publication status to the searches. We searched international trials registries via the World Health Organization's trials portal (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify unpublished or ongoing trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural activation for the treatment of depression or symptoms of depression in adults aged 18 or over. We excluded RCTs conducted in inpatient settings and with trial participants selected because of a physical comorbidity. Studies were included regardless of reported outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened all titles/abstracts and full-text manuscripts for inclusion. Data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessments were also performed by two review authors in duplicate. Where necessary, we contacted study authors for more information. MAIN RESULTS: Fifty-three studies with 5495 participants were included; 51 parallel group RCTs and two cluster-RCTs. We found moderate-certainty evidence that behavioural activation had greater short-term efficacy than treatment as usual (risk ratio (RR) 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10 to 1.78; 7 RCTs, 1533 participants), although this difference was no longer evident in sensitivity analyses using a worst-case or intention-to-treat scenario. Compared with waiting list, behavioural activation may be more effective, but there were fewer data in this comparison and evidence was of low certainty (RR 2.14, 95% CI 0.90 to 5.09; 1 RCT, 26 participants). No evidence on treatment efficacy was available for behavioural activation versus placebo and behavioural activation versus no treatment. We found moderate-certainty evidence suggesting no evidence of a difference in short-term treatment efficacy between behavioural activation and CBT (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.07; 5 RCTs, 601 participants). Fewer data were available for other comparators. No evidence of a difference in short term-efficacy was found between behavioural activation and third-wave CBT (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.33; 2 RCTs, 98 participants; low certainty), and psychodynamic therapy (RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.99; 1 RCT,60 participants; very low certainty). Behavioural activation was more effective than humanistic therapy (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.95; 2 RCTs, 46 participants; low certainty) and medication (RR 1.77, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.76; 1 RCT; 141 participants; moderate certainty), but both of these results were based on a small number of trials and participants. No evidence on treatment efficacy was available for comparisons between behavioural activation versus interpersonal, cognitive analytic, and integrative therapies. There was moderate-certainty evidence that behavioural activation might have lower treatment acceptability (based on dropout rate) than treatment as usual in the short term, although the data did not confirm a difference and results lacked precision (RR 1.64, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.31; 14 RCTs, 2518 participants). Moderate-certainty evidence did not suggest any difference in short-term acceptability between behavioural activation and waiting list (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.93; 8 RCTs. 359 participants), no treatment (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.45 to 2.09; 3 RCTs, 187 participants), medication (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.23 to 1.16; 2 RCTs, 243 participants), or placebo (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.67; 1 RCT; 96 participants; low-certainty evidence). No evidence on treatment acceptability was available comparing behavioural activation versus psychodynamic therapy. Low-certainty evidence did not show a difference in short-term treatment acceptability (dropout rate) between behavioural activation and CBT (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.25; 12 RCTs, 1195 participants), third-wave CBT (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.10; 3 RCTs, 147 participants); humanistic therapy (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.20 to 5.55; 2 RCTs, 96 participants) (very low certainty), and interpersonal, cognitive analytic, and integrative therapy (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.32 to 2.20; 4 RCTs, 123 participants). Results from medium- and long-term primary outcomes, secondary outcomes, subgroup analyses, and sensitivity analyses are summarised in the text. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review suggests that behavioural activation may be more effective than humanistic therapy, medication, and treatment as usual, and that it may be no less effective than CBT, psychodynamic therapy, or being placed on a waiting list. However, our confidence in these findings is limited due to concerns about the certainty of the evidence. We found no evidence of a difference in short-term treatment acceptability (based on dropouts) between behavioural activation and most comparison groups (CBT, humanistic therapy, waiting list, placebo, medication, no treatment or treatment as usual). Again, our confidence in all these findings is limited due to concerns about the certainty of the evidence. No data were available about the efficacy of behaioural activation compared with placebo, or about treatment acceptability comparing behavioural activation and psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal, cognitive analytic and integrative therapies. The evidence could be strengthened by better reporting and better quality RCTs of behavioural activation and by assessing working mechanisms of behavioural activation.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Conductista/métodos , Depresión/terapia , Adulto , Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico , Ansiedad/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Intervalos de Confianza , Humanos , Placebos/uso terapéutico , Psicoterapia Psicodinámica , Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Ajuste Social , Listas de Espera
17.
Nurs Health Sci ; 22(2): 184-196, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358875

RESUMEN

This review aimed to examine the effectiveness of unstructured play interventions on young children's physical, emotional and social wellbeing in various community settings. Eligibility criteria of articles included (1) studies which included young children aged three to seven years; (2) intervention studies which involved unstructured, free or loose parts play; (3) experimental or randomized controlled trial designs, with or without random allocation to groups; and (4) target variables of the study should include measurable physical, social or psychological constructs as modifiable outcomes. Electronic searches were conducted from June 2018 to March 2019 in ERIC, MEDLINE, PubMed, ProQuest, Sage Publications, Web of Science, Scopus, and Sociological Abstracts. Data were extracted from the included studies independently by using a pilot form. The study outcome measures of unstructured play in the eight selected articles were categorized into three aspects of children's physical health, social skills and emotional wellbeing. All studies reported positive impacts on children's physical activity level, social engagement and emotional wellbeing. We conclude that our review with identified impacts would assist future research directions and policy implementation in this promising field..


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Ludoterapia/métodos , Ajuste Social , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ludoterapia/normas
18.
Attach Hum Dev ; 22(1): 124-128, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907251

RESUMEN

This commentary addresses the research conducted by McConnachie et al. (this issue) on attachment in gay father families, lesbian mother families, and heterosexual parent families. Strengths of the research included the inclusion of different family constellations, the focus on between-family and within-family differences, the longitudinal research design, and the age-appropriate assessment of attachment. Some limitations noted included the lack of control for age at adoption in analyses, the lack of information on parenting processes and parental mental health in the formation of attachment, and questions about information obtained from parent reports of children's prior caregiving histories.


Asunto(s)
Homosexualidad Femenina/psicología , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Apego a Objetos , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Ajuste Social , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Padre/psicología , Femenino , Heterosexualidad , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Madres/psicología , Proyectos de Investigación
19.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 19(4): 939-945, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411377

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In recent years, so many people want to alter their physical appearance with the purpose of raising their social and psychological well-being and the demand for minimally invasive cosmetic procedures (MICPs) has continued to rise. Our study aims to investigate the psychological profile of people seeking cosmetic procedures. STUDY DESIGN: The present observational cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 54 participants seeking cosmetic procedures (botulinum toxin injections, soft tissue filler injection, mesotherapy, platelet-rich plasma, and dermaroller treatments). Those patients were compared to the control group, who did not have any kind of cosmetic procedure (including cosmetic surgery) before and who did not want to have any of these procedures. METHODS: The research volunteers were invited to complete the demographic questionnaire (e.g., age, gender and history of procedures) as well as psychological scales. Psychological scales includes the validated and reliable The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Automatic Thoughts Scale (ATS), and Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale (SASS). RESULTS: Users of MICP were mostly female (n = 46, 85%) and had some high school education or higher and showed higher scores on General Severity Index (P = .013), anxiety (P = .018), depression (P = .004), interpersonal sensitivity (P = .008) of BSI and also higher on ATS (P = .022) and lower on SASS (P = .001) scores that mean less social adaptation. There was a statistically positive correlation between age and GSI, anxiety, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, somatization scores of BSI, and negative correlations between SASS scores and age and number of past procedures. CONCLUSION: Our study findings highlight the importance of understanding individuals' psychological symptoms who are seeking cosmetic procedures.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Técnicas Cosméticas/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/psicología , Toxinas Botulínicas/administración & dosificación , Técnicas Cosméticas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/psicología , Rellenos Dérmicos/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mesoterapia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Plasma Rico en Plaquetas , Factores de Riesgo , Autoevaluación (Psicología) , Ajuste Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
20.
Br J Psychiatry ; 216(5): 259-266, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155017

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Around 30% of individuals with schizophrenia remain symptomatic and significantly impaired despite antipsychotic treatment and are considered to be treatment resistant. Clinicians are currently unable to predict which patients are at higher risk of treatment resistance. AIMS: To determine whether genetic liability for schizophrenia and/or clinical characteristics measurable at illness onset can prospectively indicate a higher risk of treatment-resistant psychosis (TRP). METHOD: In 1070 individuals with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorders, schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRS) and large copy number variations (CNVs) were assessed for enrichment in TRP. Regression and machine-learning approaches were used to investigate the association of phenotypes related to demographics, family history, premorbid factors and illness onset with TRP. RESULTS: Younger age at onset (odds ratio 0.94, P = 7.79 × 10-13) and poor premorbid social adjustment (odds ratio 1.64, P = 2.41 × 10-4) increased risk of TRP in univariate regression analyses. These factors remained associated in multivariate regression analyses, which also found lower premorbid IQ (odds ratio 0.98, P = 7.76 × 10-3), younger father's age at birth (odds ratio 0.97, P = 0.015) and cannabis use (odds ratio 1.60, P = 0.025) increased the risk of TRP. Machine-learning approaches found age at onset to be the most important predictor and also identified premorbid IQ and poor social adjustment as predictors of TRP, mirroring findings from regression analyses. Genetic liability for schizophrenia was not associated with TRP. CONCLUSIONS: People with an earlier age at onset of psychosis and poor premorbid functioning are more likely to be treatment resistant. The genetic architecture of susceptibility to schizophrenia may be distinct from that of treatment outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Edad de Inicio , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Fumar Marihuana , Edad Paterna , Trastornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Envejecimiento , Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Variaciones en el Número de Copia de ADN , Resistencia a Medicamentos/genética , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Humanos , Pruebas de Inteligencia , Masculino , Edad Materna , Herencia Multifactorial/genética , Oportunidad Relativa , Trastornos Psicóticos/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastornos Psicóticos/genética , Esquizofrenia/tratamiento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/genética , Ajuste Social , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
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