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1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300219, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568916

RESUMEN

Aphantasia is characterised by the inability to create mental images in one's mind. Studies investigating impairments in imagery typically focus on the visual domain. However, it is possible to generate many different forms of imagery including imagined auditory, kinesthetic, tactile, motor, taste and other experiences. Recent studies show that individuals with aphantasia report a lack of imagery in modalities, other than vision, including audition. However, to date, no research has examined whether these reductions in self-reported auditory imagery are associated with decrements in tasks that require auditory imagery. Understanding the extent to which visual and auditory imagery deficits co-occur can help to better characterise the core deficits of aphantasia and provide an alternative perspective on theoretical debates on the extent to which imagery draws on modality-specific or modality-general processes. In the current study, individuals that self-identified as being aphantasic and matched control participants with typical imagery performed two tasks: a musical pitch-based imagery and voice-based categorisation task. The majority of participants with aphantasia self-reported significant deficits in both auditory and visual imagery. However, we did not find a concomitant decrease in performance on tasks which require auditory imagery, either in the full sample or only when considering those participants that reported significant deficits in both domains. These findings are discussed in relation to the mechanisms that might obscure observation of imagery deficits in auditory imagery tasks in people that report reduced auditory imagery.


Asunto(s)
Imágenes en Psicoterapia , Imaginación , Humanos , Autoinforme , Imágenes en Psicoterapia/métodos , Percepción Auditiva
2.
J Holist Nurs ; 42(1): 24-33, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459934

RESUMEN

Purpose:The purpose of this study was to determine if a mindfulness-based smartphone application, used for 5 minutes a day for 30 days, could address burnout among acute care nursing staff. Methods: A pretest-posttest design with a midpoint evaluation was utilized. The sample included 31 nursing staff from cardiovascular acute care units. The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised, Perceived Stress Scale, and Brief Resilience Scale were used to measure the impact of the intervention on participants. Findings: In a repeated measures analysis, there were no statistically significant changes in scores on the Brief Resilience Scale across the three timeframes (F = 0.64, df = 1.42, p = .49). There were significant reductions over time for perceived stress (F = 10.56, df = 1.74, p = .002) and personal burnout (F = 11.8, df = 1.10, p = .007), and increased scores on mindfulness (F = 4.76, df = 1.57, p = .039). Conclusions: The utilization of a mindfulness-based smartphone application may promote the health and well-being of cardiovascular nurses in acute care units. Mindfulness-based smartphone apps should be considered as a method of self-care, along with other holistic approaches to improve well-being.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , Atención Plena , Personal de Enfermería , Pruebas Psicológicas , Resiliencia Psicológica , Autoinforme , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Atención Plena/métodos , Agotamiento Profesional/prevención & control , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología
3.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e074508, 2024 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453194

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is still a challenging degenerative joint disease with high morbidity and disease burden. Early-stage KOA, the focus of this study, could present a Window of Opportunity to arrest the disease process and reduce the disease burden. Yijinjing exercise is an important part of physical and psychological therapies in Traditional Chinese Exercise and may be an effective treatment. However, there is no clinical efficacy assessment of Yijinjing exercise for patients with early-stage KOA. Therefore, we designed a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Yijinjing exercise on patients with early-stage KOA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a parallel-design, two-arm, analyst assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial. In total, 60 patients with early-stage KOA will be recruited and randomly assigned to the Yijinjing exercise group (n=30) and health education group (n=30) at a ratio of 1:1, receiving 12 weeks of Yijinjing exercise or health education accordingly. The primary outcome will be measured with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and the secondary outcomes will include the Visual Analogue Scale, Short-Form 36 Item Health Survey Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale, Berg Balance Scale, and Gait Analysis for a comprehensive assessment. Outcome measures are collected at baseline, at 12 week ending intervention and at the 12 week, 24 week and 48 week ending follow-up. The primay time point will be 12 weeks postintervention. Adverse events will be recorded for safety assessment. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the ethical application of the Shanghai Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Ethics Committee (2021SHL-KY-78). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR2200065178.


Asunto(s)
Osteoartritis de la Rodilla , Pruebas Psicológicas , Autoinforme , Humanos , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/terapia , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/complicaciones , China , Resultado del Tratamiento , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
4.
Memory ; 32(3): 383-395, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466582

RESUMEN

ABSTRACTThe ability to remember our past and to imagine the future are critical to our sense of self. Previous research has indicated that they are disrupted in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear (i) whether this is found when examining experimenter-scored indices of content and/or participants' self-report of phenomenological characteristics, and (ii) how these abilities might be related to symptoms. This study sought to address these questions by taking a dimensional approach and measuring positive and negative schizotypal experiences in healthy people (n = 90). Participants were given cue words. For some, they remembered an event from the past and for others they generated an event in the future. No significant relationships were found with any aspect of schizotypy when participants' descriptions were scored by the experimenter according to a standardised episodic content measure. In contrast, several significant positive correlations were observed for past memory and future thinking when examining the positive dimension of schizotypy and participants' ratings, particularly to sensory characteristics of the experience and mental pre- or reliving. These results indicate enhanced subjective experiences of autobiographical memory and future thinking in those who report delusional and hallucinatory-like occurrences, which might be linked to mental imagery or metacognitive alterations.


Asunto(s)
Memoria Episódica , Trastorno de la Personalidad Esquizotípica , Humanos , Autoinforme , Imaginación , Predicción
5.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 12: e52968, 2024 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488513

RESUMEN

Background: Perceived stress in the United States has drastically increased since the COVID-19 pandemic and is associated with negative mental health outcomes such as depression and anxiety. Digital mental health (DMH) interventions are efficacious tools to address negative mental health outcomes and have helped reduce the severity of psychological symptoms, such as anxiety, depression, and perceived stress, compared to waitlist controls. Although DMH tools have been studied in controlled settings, less is known about the real-world evidence of such interventions. Objective: This study aimed to (1) characterize patterns in baseline perceived stress and changes in perceived stress among Headspace members with moderate and severe baseline perceived stress and (2) examine associations between engagement with Headspace content and changes in perceived stress (ie, evaluate whether there is a dose-response relationship). Methods: We evaluated real-world perceived stress and engagement data at 2 time points among Headspace app members with baseline moderate and severe perceived stress. Perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and engagement using active days and active minutes engaged with Headspace as well as the number of user sessions. Descriptive statistics were computed for all variables. Correlations between baseline and follow-up scores, percent change in PSS-10 scores, days between PSS-10 use, active days, active days per week, active minutes, active minutes per day, sessions, and sessions per week were evaluated. We used t tests to investigate differences in the abovementioned parameters between (1) participants who did and those who did not see improvements in PSS-10 scores (yes vs no improvement) and (2) participants who saw ≥30% improvement versus those who saw a <30% improvement in PSS-10 scores. Results: Overall, 21,088 Headspace members were included in these analyses. On average, members saw a 23.52% decrease in PSS-10 scores from baseline to follow-up. On average, members had 2.42 (SD 1.76) active days per week and 25.89 (SD 33.40) active minutes per day, and completed 7.11 (SD 8.34) sessions per week. t tests suggest that members who saw improvements in PSS-10 scores from baseline to follow-up had significantly higher baseline PSS-10 scores (Cohen d=0.56), more active days per week (Cohen d=0.33), and more sessions per week (Cohen d=0.27) than those who did not see improvements in PSS-10 scores (all P<.001). Additional t tests suggest that members with ≥30% improvement in PSS-10 scores had significantly higher baseline PSS-10 scores (Cohen d=0.35), more active days per week (Cohen d=0.36), and more sessions per week (Cohen d=0.31) than those with a >30% improvement (all P<.001). Conclusions: Real-world use of Headspace is associated with decreased perceived stress. Furthermore, data suggest that more engagement, specifically weekly active days and sessions, is associated with a greater likelihood of stress reduction.


Asunto(s)
Atención Plena , Aplicaciones Móviles , Pruebas Psicológicas , Autoinforme , Humanos , Pandemias , Estrés Psicológico/terapia , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
6.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 28(2): 173-180, 2024 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511913

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study introduced Zentangle®, which involves drawing simple, repetitive lines and shapes to create patterns, as a tool to promote wellness for oncology nurses in a clinical practice setting. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether Zentangle used as a meditative activity in an acute time frame decreased stress, fatigue, and burnout while increasing professional quality of life and well-being in oncology nurses. METHODS: Twenty-six oncology nurses participated in a two-hour Zentangle class and received materials to complete art over four weeks. The Perceived Stress Scale, the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-29, and the Professional Quality of Life measure were administered at selected periods. Twenty-four participants completed the study. FINDINGS: Nurses' well-being, socialization, anxiety, fatigue, secondary traumatic stress levels, and stress levels improved significantly. Most participants noted they would continue using Zentangle after the study. Zentangle is another tool to advance nurses' wellness by encouraging self-care.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , Desgaste por Empatía , Atención Plena , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Pruebas Psicológicas , Autoinforme , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Calidad de Vida , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Enfermería Oncológica , Agotamiento Profesional/prevención & control , Desgaste por Empatía/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 776, 2024 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475781

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The elderly, especially those with physical disabilities, often encounter barriers that prevent them from accessing outdoor activities. Their perceptions of the convenience of accessing outdoor activities may be influenced by various factors including their health, the social context, and/or planned behavior. This study aimed to develop predictive models that identify the principal determinants of perceived convenience among this demographic, and it also examined the disparities observed between genders. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of 1216 community-dwelling older people with physical disabilities in rural China. Grounded on the rehabilitation concepts and the theory of planned behavior, structural equation models integrated health and social behavior factors were constructed to predict perceived convenience of accessing outdoor activities. The standardized coefficients explained the contributions of various factors to the variance. RESULTS: The final structural models demonstrated good fit for both female and male participants. Perceptions of the convenience of accessing outdoor activities among both women and men were directly impacted by their physical functioning and their intention to participate, and indirectly by medical expenditure, subjective norms, pain, and role limitation in emotional interactions. Positive mental health was more influential for women, while men were more influenced by subjective norms. CONCLUSIONS: Structural equation models have effectively predicted the self-reported convenience of accessing outdoor activities, underscoring the importance of functional and behavioral rehabilitation. Furthermore, gender-sensitive rehabilitation programs are advised to promote engagement in outdoor activities among elderly individuals with physical disabilities.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Intención , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Autoinforme , Modelos Teóricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 39(9): e94, 2024 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38469966

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of a neurofeedback wearable device for stress reduction. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, controlled study was designed. Participants had psychological stress with depression or sleep disturbances. They practiced either neurofeedback-assisted meditation (n = 20; female, 15 [75.0%]; age, 49.40 ± 11.76 years) or neurofeedback non-assisted meditation (n = 18; female, 11 [61.1%]; age, 48.67 ± 12.90 years) for 12 minutes twice a day for two weeks. Outcome variables were self-reported questionnaires, including the Korean version of the Perceived Stress Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and State Trait Anxiety Index, quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG), and blood tests. Satisfaction with device use was measured at the final visit. RESULTS: The experimental group had a significant change in PSS score after two weeks of intervention compared with the control group (6.45 ± 0.95 vs. 3.00 ± 5.54, P = 0.037). State anxiety tended to have a greater effect in the experimental group than in the control group (P = 0.078). Depressive mood and sleep also improved in each group, with no significant difference between the two groups. There were no significant differences in stress-related physiological parameters, such as stress hormones or qEEG, between the two groups. Subjective device satisfaction was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Neurofeedback-assisted meditation using a wearable device can help improve subjective stress reduction compared with non-assisted meditation. These results support neurofeedback as an effective adjunct to meditation for relieving stress. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0007413.


Asunto(s)
Meditación , Neurorretroalimentación , Pruebas Psicológicas , Autoinforme , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Método Doble Ciego , Meditación/métodos , Meditación/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/terapia , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Masculino
9.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; 29(2): 87-102, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363282

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Vivid mental imagery has been proposed to increase the likelihood of experiencing hallucinations. Typically, studies have employed a modality general approach to mental imagery which compares imagery across multiple domains (e.g., visual, auditory and tactile) to hallucinations in multiple senses. However, modality specific imagery may be a better predictor of hallucinations in the same domain. The study examined the contribution of imagery to hallucinations in a non-clinical sample and specifically whether imagery best predicted hallucinations at a modality general or modality specific level. METHODS: In study one, modality general and modality specific accounts of the imagery-hallucination relationship were contrasted through application of self-report measures in a sample of 434 students. Study two used a subsample (n = 103) to extend exploration of the imagery-hallucinations relationship using a performance-based imagery task. RESULTS: A small to moderate modality general relationship was observed between self-report imagery and hallucination proneness. There was only evidence of a modality specific relationship in the tactile domain. Performance-based imagery measures were unrelated to hallucinations and self-report imagery. CONCLUSIONS: Mental imagery may act as a modality general process increasing hallucination proneness. The observed distinction between self-report and performance-based imagery highlights the difficulty of accurately measuring internal processes.


Asunto(s)
Alucinaciones , Imaginación , Autoinforme , Humanos , Alucinaciones/psicología , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Percepción Visual , Percepción Auditiva
10.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 166(1): 112, 2024 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38411747

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) may experience pain during stereotactic frame (SF) fixation in deep brain stimulation (DBS). We assessed the role of hypnosis during the SF fixation in PD patients undergoing awake bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS. METHODS: N = 19 patients were included (N = 13 males, mean age 63 years; N = 10 allocated to the hypnosis and N = 9 allocated to the control groups). Patients were randomly assigned to the interventional (hypnosis and local anesthesia) or non-interventional (local anesthesia only) groups. The primary outcome was the pain perceived (the visual analogue scale (VAS)). Secondary outcomes were stress, anxiety, and depression, as measured by the perceived stress scale (PSS) and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Procedural distress was measured using the peritraumatic distress inventory (PDI-13). RESULTS: In the hypnosis group, VASmean was 5.6 ± 2.1, versus 6.4 ± 1.2 in the control group (p = 0.31). Intervention and control groups reported similar VASmax scores (7.6 ± 2.1 versus 8.6 ± 1.6 (p = 0.28), respectively). Both groups had similar HADS scores (6.2 ± 4.3 versus 6.7 ± 1.92, p = 0.72 (HADSa) and 6.7 ± 4.2 versus 7.7 ± 3, p = 0.58 (HADSd)), so were the PSS scores (26.1 ± 6.3 versus 25.1 ± 7, p = 0.75). Evolutions of VASmean (R2 = 0.93, 95% CI [0.2245, 1.825], p = 0.03) and PDI-13 scores (R2 = 0.94, 95% CI [1.006, 6.279], p = 0.02) significantly differ over follow-up with patients in the hypnosis groups showing lower scores. CONCLUSION: In this unblinded, randomized study, hypnosis does not influence pain, anxiety, and distress during awake SF fixation but modulates pain memory over time and may prevent the integration of awake painful procedures as a bad experience into the autobiographical memory of patients suffering from PD. A randomized controlled study with more data is necessary to confirm our findings.


Asunto(s)
Hipnosis , Enfermedad de Parkinson , Pruebas Psicológicas , Autoinforme , Masculino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Ansiedad/etiología , Ansiedad/terapia , Dolor , Enfermedad de Parkinson/terapia
11.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 243: 104164, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309223

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Loneliness is quickly becoming an enormous problem among individuals of all age groups. The onset of Covid-19 has worsened this situation. Therefore, there is urgent need for a practical intervention, which may improve the social well-being of an individual addressing the root cause of loneliness. AIM: In this study we examine the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY), a yogic breathing practice to enhance social connectedness among individuals by reducing stress. METHODOLOGY: 473 participants registering for the SKY program enrolled in the current open feasible trial. Assessment of social connectedness was done using Social Connectedness Scale (SCS). Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) pre- and post- SKY intervention. Outcomes were measured at three different time points namely, baseline (pre-program), post-program, and day 40. Day 40 was 40 days after the completion of the Sudarshan Kriya program. RESULTS: Significant increase in SCS scores (p value <0.001) was found immediately after the SKY intervention. The SCS scores improved positively with regular practice of the intervention with a large effect size (p value <0.001, measured on day 40). The Stress scores significantly reduced post-intervention (p value <0.001). CONCLUSION: The study suggested a positive connection between the SKY practice and subsequent improvement in social connectedness. The reduction in stress levels post SKY program as indicated in the study may be a reason of enhanced social connectedness. Large scale studies with inclusion of control group can further affirm the study results.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Meditación , Pruebas Psicológicas , Yoga , Adulto , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Autoinforme , Estudios de Factibilidad
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3548, 2024 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347065

RESUMEN

Effective coping with acute stress is important to promote mental health and to build stress resilience. Interventions improving stress coping usually require long training periods. In this study, we present a hypnosis-based intervention that produces long-term effects after a single hypnosis session. In that session, we established a post-hypnotic safety suggestion that participants can activate afterwards with a cue, the Jena Safety Anchor. We tested 60 participants in our study who all received the hypnosis session and a stress task. The safety group used the Jena Safety Anchor during acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The control group used a neutral anchor. We measured subjective stress responses via self-reports and physiological stress responses via saliva and blood samples as well as heart rate. One week later, all participants filled in an online survey to measure long-term effects of the post-hypnotic safety suggestion. We found that participants using the Jena Safety Anchor during the TSST reported significantly lower stress compared to the control group. The safety group also reported significantly fewer negative thoughts concerning their TSST performance than the control group during the stress recovery phase and 1 week later. All participants indicated that the Jena Safety Anchor still worked 1 week after its establishment. Suggestibility did not affect the efficacy of the Jena Safety Anchor. Our findings demonstrate that post-hypnotic safety suggestions improve stress coping with long-lasting effects, which makes it a promising intervention to promote mental health and establish stress resilience in just one hypnosis session.


Asunto(s)
Hipnosis , Sugestión , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Autoinforme , Habilidades de Afrontamiento
13.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337729

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There has been an increasing global prevalence of depression and other psychiatric diseases in recent years. Perceived stress has been proven to be associated with psychiatric and somatic symptoms. Some animal and human studies have suggested that consuming foods abundant in lignans and phytosterols may be associated with lower levels of stress, depression, and anxiety. Still, the evidence is not yet strong enough to draw firm conclusions. Thus, we investigated the association between dietary intake of these phytochemicals and the level of stress experienced by adult individuals. METHODS: Diet was assessed using self-reported 7-day dietary records. The intakes of lignans and phytosterols were estimated using databases with their content in various food products. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was implemented to measure the level of perceived stress. A logistic regression analysis was used to test for associations. RESULTS: The odds of elevated PSS were negatively associated with dietary intake of total phytosterols, stigmasterol, and ß-sitosterol, with evidence of a decreasing trend across tertiles of phytochemicals. The analysis for doubling the intake reinforced the aforementioned relationships and found protective effects against PSS for total lignans, pinoresinol, and campesterol. CONCLUSIONS: Habitual inclusion of lignans and phytosterols in the diet may play a role in psychological health. To address the global outbreak of depression and other mental health issues triggered by stress, it is important to take a holistic approach. There is a need to develop effective strategies for prevention and treatment, among which certain dietary interventions such as consumption of products abundant in lignans and phytosterols may play a substantial role.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Lignanos , Fitosteroles , Pruebas Psicológicas , Autoinforme , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Polonia , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Fitosteroles/análisis , Dieta , Percepción
14.
Sex Health ; 21(1): NULL, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38194997

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Australia, 17% of women and 6% of men have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Although most IPV research has focused on heterosexual partnerships, studies suggest that men who have sex with men (MSM) may experience IPV at similar or higher rates than those documented among women. IPV may also take different forms among MSM and have different health and social impacts. This study aims to assess the utility of a screening tool for identifying and responding to IPV among MSM attending a sexual health clinic in Sydney, Australia. METHODS: Between 1 June 2020 and 30 June 2022, MSM clients were screened using standardised questions to identify IPV experienced within the preceding 12months. Answers to the screening questions were correlated with data collected routinely at the initial clinic visit, including age, employment, country of birth, drug and alcohol use, sexual partner numbers, and any history of sex work, pre-exposure prophylaxis use and HIV status, as well as any bacterial STI diagnosed at the initial visit. RESULTS: There were 2410 eligible clients and of these, 2167 (89.9%) were screened during the study period. A total of 64 men (3.0%) (95% CI 2.3-3.8%) reported experiencing physical violence or intimidation in the past 12months. Controlling for age, men who were born in Australia were 2.03 (95% CI: 1.04-3.01) times more likely to report IPV, and men who had Medicare were 2.43 (95% CI: 0.95-3.90) times more likely to report IPV than those who did not. Those who had ever injected drugs were 5.8 (95% CI: 1.87-9.73) times more likely to report IPV, and men with sexualised drug use were 4.11 (95% CI: 2.03-6.19) times more likely. Those that were employed or studying were 72% (95%CI: 0.13-0.42) less likely to report IPV. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of reported IPV in our study was lower than that reported by others, which may be due to differences in recruitment methods and questions asked. Associations between IPV in MSM and injecting drug use and sexualised drug use highlight that clinicians should be aware of the impact and potential for IPV particularly in those with risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Salud Sexual , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Anciano , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Homosexualidad Masculina , Autoinforme , Australia/epidemiología , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Parejas Sexuales , Factores de Riesgo , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Prevalencia
15.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 54: 101827, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38181650

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To examine the effectiveness of interventions to ameliorate burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and emotional exhaustion in nurses and midwives. The systematic review was completed with all available studies that reported data on the effect of interventions that targeted burnout using the outcome measures of the Professional Quality of Life scale (ProQOL), or the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). METHODS: We used a systematic review methodology, which included a meta-analysis. A total of 2103 articles resulted from the systematic search; 688 were removed as duplicates, and 1415 articles were reviewed by the title and abstract, of which 255 were eligible for full-text screening. Only 66 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The final meta-analysis consisted of 33 reports divided into 12 studies for ProQOL and 21 studies for the MBI. RESULTS: The results provide an overall effect in studies using the ProQOL measurement was Z = 2.07 (P = 0.04) and a positive improvement mean difference of 9.32. The overall effect in studies using MBI was Z = 3.13 (P = 0.002) and a positive improvement mean difference of 6.58. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst most studies indicated a positive difference, the most effective interventions included clinical supervision or activities that addressed the personal physical and mental well-being of nurses. Less effective interventions were managerial interventions or ones that used a strictly educational approach.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Pruebas Psicológicas , Autoinforme , Humanos , Agotamiento Profesional/prevención & control , Agotamiento Emocional , Calidad de Vida
16.
Int J Nurs Pract ; 30(2): e13233, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38230568

RESUMEN

AIMS: This study aimed to (i) evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in improving self-efficacy, reducing stress and anxiety among peritoneal dialysis patients, and (ii) compare the most effective method of mindfulness based interventions. METHODS: This randomized three-arm controlled trial recruited first-time peritoneal dialysis patients from the peritoneal dialysis outpatient clinic in Singapore. Patients were randomly allocated to either video-assisted mindfulness training, therapist-assisted mindfulness training or treatment-as-usual. All groups received 4.5 days of structured peritoneal dialysis training at the peritoneal dialysis centre, while video-assisted mindfulness training and therapist-assisted mindfulness training groups were taught additional mindfulness-based techniques. The perceived stress scale, self-efficacy, and anxiety (State and Trait Anxiety Inventory) were measured at baseline, 4- and 12 weeks post-randomization, using reliable and valid instruments. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients were recruited (13 in each group). All the therapies showed a significant time trend in anxiety. Only therapist- and video-assisted mindfulness training showed a significant trend in perceived stress scale scores but not treatment-as-usual. All Intervention X Time interactions were not significant. Patients in therapist- and video-assisted mindfulness training groups had reduced perceived stress scale scores compared to treatment-as-usual at week 12. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the potential of mindfulness-based interventions in reducing stress among first-time PD patients.


Asunto(s)
Atención Plena , Diálisis Peritoneal , Pruebas Psicológicas , Autoinforme , Humanos , Atención Plena/métodos , Singapur , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Tecnología
17.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 32(1): 1, 2024 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191460

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: No previous studies have examined the association between attitudes and beliefs of chiropractors and their adherence to low back pain (LBP) guidelines. The aim of this study is: (1) to assess the attitudes and beliefs towards the management of LBP of Dutch and Belgian chiropractors; and (2) to investigate the association of these attitudes and beliefs on the use of diagnostic imaging and on the adherence to diagnostic guidelines and guidelines in the management of patients with LBP. METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using a web-based questionnaire in chiropractic private practices in the Netherlands and Belgium. The survey included sociodemographic characteristics, use of diagnostic imaging, the Pain Attitude and Beliefs Scale-Physiotherapists (PABS.PT) and 6 vignettes (3 acute and 3 chronic LBP patients). We used Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) to categorise the chiropractors into clusters depending on their PABS.PT outcome, whereby the classes differed primarily on the biomedical score. We used linear, logistic, and mixed models to examine the associations between these clusters, and adherence to the recommendations of guidelines on: (1) diagnostic imaging use, and (2) management of LBP (i.e. advice on activity, treatment, return-to-work, and bedrest). RESULTS: The response rate of the Dutch and Belgian chiropractors was 61% (n = 149/245) and 57% (n = 54/95), respectively. The majority of chiropractors scored midrange of the biomedical scale of the PABS.PT. Three clusters were identified using LPA: (1) high biomedical class (n = 18), (2) mid biomedical class (n = 117) and (3) low biomedical class (n = 23). Results from the vignettes suggest that chiropractors in the high biomedical class better adhere to diagnostic imaging guidelines and to LBP guidelines when it concerns advice on return-to-work and activity compared to the other two classes. However, no differences were identified between the classes for treatment of LBP. All chiropractors adhered to the guidelines' recommendation on bedrest. CONCLUSION: The high biomedical class demonstrated better overall adherence to the practice guidelines for the management of LBP and diagnostic imaging than the other classes. Due to the small numbers for the high and low biomedical classes, these results should be interpreted with caution.


Asunto(s)
Quiropráctica , Dolor de la Región Lumbar , Fisioterapeutas , Humanos , Autoinforme , Bélgica , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/diagnóstico por imagen , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/terapia , Países Bajos , Estudios Transversales
18.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 310: 504-508, 2024 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38269860

RESUMEN

Dramatic improvements in patient-facing technologies have demonstrated the potential to transform healthcare delivery for a 360-degree holistic view of care. A key question regarding how such technologies affect patient self-reporting still needs to be answered. This study presents the technologies and their associated key variables via quantitative analysis. Associations were found between single-platform and web-based applications (apps), Android apps and physician view, mental health disease, and user feedback. The results are intended to inform future design, development, and evaluation of patient-facing technologies. More systematic, theory-driven, framework-based design and evaluation are necessary to fully characterize the effectiveness and maintenance of patient-facing technologies toward a sustainable strategy.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Médicos , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Pacientes , Autoinforme , Programas Informáticos
19.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2256206, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166532

RESUMEN

Treatment Rationale: Exposure to repeated sexual trauma, particularly during childhood, often leads to protracted mental health problems. Childhood adversity is specifically associated with complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) presentation, which is particularly tenacious and treatment refractory, and features severe emotion dysregulation. Augmentation approaches have been suggested to enhance treatment efficacy in PTSD thus integrating first-line psychotherapy with mechanistically informed self-neuromodulation procedures (i.e. neurofeedback) may pave the way to enhanced clinical outcomes. A central neural mechanism of PTSD and emotion dysregulation involves amygdala hyperactivity that can be volitionally regulated by neurofeedback. We outline a treatment rationale that includes a detailed justification for the potential of combining psychotherapy and NF and delineate mechanisms of change. We illustrate key processes of reciprocal interactions between neurofeedback engagement and therapeutic goals.Case Study: We describe a clinical case of a woman with complex PTSD due to early and repetitive childhood sexual abuse using adjunctive neurofeedback as an augmentation to an ongoing, stable, traditional treatment plan. The woman participated in (a) ten sessions of neurofeedback by the use of an fMRI-inspired EEG model of limbic related activity (Amygdala Electrical-Finger-Print; AmygEFP-NF), (b) traditional weekly individual psychotherapy, (c) skills group. Before and after NF training period patient was blindly assessed for PTSD symptoms, followed by a 1, 3- and 6-months self-report follow-up. We demonstrate mechanisms of change as well as the clinical effectiveness of adjunctive treatment as indicated by reduced PTSD symptoms and improved daily functioning within this single case.Conclusions: We outline an integrative neuropsychological framework for understanding the unique mechanisms of change conferring value to conjoining NF applications with trauma-focused psychotherapy in complex PTSD.


Self-neuromodulation procedures that regulates limbic-related activity in adjunction to therapy show clinical effectivity in complex PTSD.We present an integrative perspective of neurofeedback embedded in psychotherapy, illustrated by a single case report.A single case provides an illustration of the potential utility of multifaced treatment including psychotherapy with adjunctive neurofeedback.


Asunto(s)
Neurorretroalimentación , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Femenino , Humanos , Neurorretroalimentación/métodos , Psicoterapia , Autoinforme , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento
20.
Behav Ther ; 55(1): 55-67, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38216237

RESUMEN

Mindfulness-based treatments are efficacious for psychotic disorders (PD). However, which components of mindfulness (i.e., attentive monitoring and nonjudgmental acceptance) are most relevant treatment targets is unclear. Further, there is a dearth of literature examining clinical correlates of mindfulness in people with PD. The present study aimed to examine group differences and clinical correlates of mindfulness in people with PD. We hypothesized that PD would report lower monitoring and acceptance than CN and that mindfulness components would be associated with symptoms including dysfunctional beliefs, alexithymia, neurocognitive ability, positive symptoms, and mood symptoms. Groups included individuals with PD (n = 54) and nonpsychiatric controls (n = 55). Participants completed self-report measures of mindfulness and related constructs and clinical interviews of symptoms. Results of ANOVA models indicated that global mindfulness was lower in PD relative to CN, with greatest differences evident for acceptance in the affective psychosis group. Regression models found that greater monitoring was associated with improved neurocognitive performance, while acceptance was associated with lower defeatist beliefs, alexithymia, and depression/anxiety symptoms. Results highlight the importance of targeting acceptance in the psychosocial treatment of PDs, especially for those with mood symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Atención Plena , Trastornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Atención Plena/métodos , Trastornos Psicóticos/terapia , Trastornos Psicóticos/psicología , Cognición , Afecto , Autoinforme
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