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Medicinas Complementárias
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1.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 46(2): 256-266, 2024 May 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38291897

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: efficacy of therapeutic cholecalciferol supplementation for severe COVID-19 is sparingly studied. OBJECTIVE: effect of single high-dose cholecalciferol supplementation on sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score in moderate-to-severe COVID-19. METHODS: participants with moderate to severe COVID-19 with PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 200 were randomized to 0.6 million IU cholecalciferol oral (intervention) or placebo. OUTCOMES: primary outcome was change in Day 7 SOFA score and pre-specified secondary outcomes were SOFA and 28-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS: in all, 90 patients (45 each group) were included for intention-to-treat analysis. 25(OH)D3 levels were 12 (10-16) and 13 (12-18) ng/ml (P = 0.06) at baseline; and 60 (55-65) ng/ml and 4 (1-7) ng/ml by Day 7 in vitamin D and placebo groups, respectively. The SOFA score on Day 7 was better in the vitamin D group [3 (95% CI, 2-5) versus 5 (95% CI, 3-7), P = 0.01, intergroup difference - 2 (95% CI, -4 to -0.01); r = 0.4]. A lower all-cause 28-day mortality [24% compared to 44% (P = 0.046)] was observed with vitamin D. CONCLUSIONS: single high-dose oral cholecalciferol supplementation on ICU admission can improve SOFA score at Day 7 and reduce in-hospital mortality in vitamin D-deficient COVID-19. ClinicalTrials.gov  id: NCT04952857 registered dated 7 July 2021. What is already known on this topic-vitamin D has immunomodulatory role. Observational and isolated intervention studies show some benefit in COVID-19. Targeted therapeutic vitamin D supplementation improve outcomes in severe COVID-19 is not studied in RCTs. What this study adds-high-dose vitamin D supplementation (0.6 Million IU) to increase 25(OH)D > 50 ng/ml is safe and reduces sequential organ failure assessment score, in-hospital mortality in moderate to severe COVID-19. How this study might affect research, practice or policy-vitamin D supplementation in vitamin D-deficient patients with severe COVID-19 is useful may be practiced.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Colecalciferol , SARS-CoV-2 , Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Método Doble Ciego , Persona de Mediana Edad , COVID-19/mortalidad , COVID-19/complicaciones , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/tratamiento farmacológico , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/complicaciones , Colecalciferol/administración & dosificación , Colecalciferol/uso terapéutico , Anciano , Vitamina D/sangre , Vitaminas/uso terapéutico , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación , Puntuaciones en la Disfunción de Órganos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Tratamiento Farmacológico de COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Resultado del Tratamiento , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Betacoronavirus
2.
East. Mediterr. health j ; 28(12): 896-903, 2022-12.
Artículo en Inglés | WHOLIS | ID: who-367777

RESUMEN

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected many aspects of human life, including physical and mental health. The public health measures to prevent COVID-19 transmission led to social isolation, physical inactivity, anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, obesity, and consumption of unhealthy food. Aims: To evaluate changes in lifestyle behaviour during the fifth wave of COVID-19 in Iranian medical students. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. In September 2021, an online questionnaire containing 32 questions was administered to 1143 medical students in Teheran universities. Some 286 completed copies of the questionnaire were excluded because of incomplete answers. Descriptive statistics of central tendency measures and dispersion were used and independent t-test and a Chi-square test between two variables were conducted. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 24. Results: A total of 462 (53.9%) students had COVID-19 during the fifth wave of the disease, 657 (76.7%) were deprived of social and sports activities, and 278 (32.4%) had difficulty completing their academic studies. Students who took vitamin supplements experienced lower levels of stress and 711 (83.0%) reported bodyweight change. There were significant relationships between bodyweight change, stress level and hospitalization due to COVID-19. There was a significant relationship between smoking, bodyweight change and hospitalization rate. A total of 426 (50.3%) students did not have a regular sleep–wake pattern, 701 (81.8%) spent more time using social media, 197 (23.0%) consumed more fast food, and 674 (78.6%) experienced stress or anxiety. Conclusion: There was an increased tendency towards unhealthy lifestyle among medical students in Tehran during COVID-19 lockdown. These findings can be useful in assessing lifestyle behaviours among students and in planning for improvements.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Brotes de Enfermedades , Betacoronavirus , Estudiantes de Medicina , Irán
7.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2022. (WHO/2019-nCoV/therapeutics/2022.5).
en Inglés, Ruso, Chino, Arabe | WHOLIS | ID: who-362843
8.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2022. (WHO/2019-nCoV/therapeutics/2022.4).
en Inglés, Chino, Ruso | WHOLIS | ID: who-359774
9.
J Gen Virol ; 102(4)2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830908

RESUMEN

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has caused a pandemic with tens of millions of cases and more than a million deaths. The infection causes COVID-19, a disease of the respiratory system of divergent severity. No treatment exists. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major component of green tea, has several beneficial properties, including antiviral activities. Therefore, we examined whether EGCG has antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. EGCG blocked not only the entry of SARS-CoV-2, but also MERS- and SARS-CoV pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited virus infections in vitro. Mechanistically, inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 spike-receptor interaction was observed. Thus, EGCG might be suitable for use as a lead structure to develop more effective anti-COVID-19 drugs.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/farmacología , Catequina/análogos & derivados , SARS-CoV-2/efectos de los fármacos , Té/química , Animales , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/virología , Catequina/farmacología , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lentivirus/efectos de los fármacos , Lentivirus/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Células Vero , Acoplamiento Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Replicación Viral/efectos de los fármacos
11.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-01-11. (OPS/IMS/HSS/COVID-19/20-0032).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-53188

RESUMEN

This document presents considerations to support decision-making and actions to help strengthen response capacity at the first level of care (FLC) based on the values laid out in the Strategy for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage (right to health, equity, and solidarity), the principles and attributes of primary health care, and integrated health services networks. It addresses discrimination based on ethnicity, gender, and gender identity, sexuality, socioeconomic level, geographical location, and disability as important factors that can increase the risk of infection for people in these groups, limit their access to services, undermine the broader response to COVID-19, and exacerbate underlying inequities. This document is aimed at health authorities, managers of health services networks, health program directors and coordinators, and managers of FLC staff, with a view to ensuring their health.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Control de Infecciones , Atención a la Salud , Servicios de Salud , Sistemas de Salud , Américas
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113319, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882361

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Due to the outbreaks such as SARS, bird flu and swine flu, which we frequently encounter in our century, we need fast solutions with no side effects today more than ever. Due to having vast ethnomedical experience and the richest flora (34% endemic) of Europe and the Middle East, Turkey has a high potential for research on this topic. Plants that locals have been using for centuries for the prevention and treatment of influenza can offer effective alternatives to combat this problem. In this context, 224 herbal taxa belonging to 45 families were identified among the selected 81 studies conducted in the seven regions of Turkey. However, only 35 (15.6%) of them were found to be subjected to worldwide in vitro and in vivo research conducted on anti-influenza activity. Quercetin and chlorogenic acid, the effectiveness of which has been proven many times in this context, have been recorded as the most common (7.1%) active ingredients among the other 56 active substances identified. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study has been carried out to reveal the inventory of plant species that have been used in flu treatment for centuries in Turkish folk medicine, which could be used in the treatment of flu or flu-like pandemics, such as COVID 19, that humanity has been suffering with, and also compare them with experimental studies in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The investigation was conducted in two stages on the subject above by using electronic databases, such as Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, Medline, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, HighWire Press, PubMed and Google Scholar. The results of both scans are presented in separate tables, together with their regional comparative analysis. RESULTS: Data obtained on taxa are presented in a table, including anti-influenza mechanism of actions and the active substances. Rosa canina (58.7%) and Mentha x piperita (22.2%) were identified as the most common plants used in Turkey. Also, Sambucus nigra (11.6%), Olea europaea (9.3%), Eucalyptus spp., Melissa officinalis, and Origanum vulgare (7.0%) emerged as the most investigated taxa. CONCLUSION: This is the first nationwide ethnomedical screening work conducted on flu treatment with plants in Turkey. Thirty-nine plants have been confirmed in the recent experimental anti-influenza research, which strongly shows that these plants are a rich pharmacological source. Also, with 189 (84.4%) taxa, detections that have not been investigated yet, they are an essential resource for both national and international pharmacological researchers in terms of new natural medicine searches. Considering that the production of antimalarial drugs and their successful use against COVID-19 has begun, this correlation was actually a positive and remarkable piece of data, since there are 15 plants, including Centaurea drabifolia subsp. Phlocosa (an endemic taxon), that were found to be used in the treatment of both flu and malaria.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/farmacología , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Etnofarmacología/métodos , Gripe Humana/tratamiento farmacológico , Pandemias , Plantas Medicinales/clasificación , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Fitoterapia , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Turquía
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 142298, 2021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207460

RESUMEN

Governments across the globe are currently besieged with the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Although some countries have been largely affected by this pandemic, others are only slightly affected. In this regard, every government is taking precautionary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in wastewater raising an alarm for Africa due to the poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities. Also, most countries in Africa do not have resilient policies governing sanitation and water management systems, which expose them to higher risk levels for the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, this study unearthed the likely sources and routes of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in water systems (mainly wastewater) in Africa through a holistic review of published works. This provided the opportunity to propose sustainable remedial measures, which can be extrapolated to most developing countries in the world. The principal sources and routes of potential transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in water systems are hospital sewage, waste from isolation and quarantine centres, faecal-oral transmission, contaminated surface and groundwater sources, and contaminated sewage. The envisioned overwhelming impact of these sources on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through water systems in Africa suggests that governments need to put stringent and sustainable measures to curtail the scourge. Hence, it is proposed that governments in Africa must put measures like improved WASH facilities and public awareness campaigns, suburbanization of wastewater treatment facilities, utilizing low-cost point-of-use water treatment systems, legally backed policy interventions, and Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). SARS-CoV-2 in water systems can be inactivated and destroyed by integrating ozonation, chlorination, UV irradiation, and sodium hypochlorite in low-cost point-of-use treatment systems. These proposed sustainable remedial measures can help policymakers in Africa to effectively monitor and manage the untoward impact of SARS-CoV-2 on water systems and consequently, on the health of the general public.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Agua , África , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 23: 1-9, 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146933

RESUMEN

Objetivou avaliar o efeito antes e depois de uma sessão de auriculoterapia nos níveis de ansiedade, depressão e estresse nos profissionais de enfermagem escalados para atuar na assistência durante a pandemia do coronavírus. Estudo de caso, com casos múltiplos e uma unidade de análise. Estabeleceu-se uma amostra por conveniência de 41 profissionais. Aplicou-se o instrumento de caracterização sociodemográfica e a escala de Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, antes e após uma sessão de auriculoterapia com protocolo de 10 acupontos. Teste de Wilcoxon e T emparelhado foram empregados para análise. Níveis de ansiedade, depressão e estresse apresentaram resultados significativos, cujas medianas reduziram de seis para quatro (p<0,001), nas variáveis depressão e ansiedade, e a média de estresse reduziu de 19,37 para 11,95 (p<0,001). A auriculoterapia foi efetiva na redução de distúrbios emocionais nos profissionais de enfermagem.


This study aimed to evaluate the levels of anxiety, depression and stress before and after an auriculotherapy session, in nursing professionals working during the coronavirus pandemic. Case study, with multiple cases and one unit of analysis. A convenience sample of 41 professionals was established. The sociodemographic characterization instrument and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale were applied before and after an auriculotherapy session with a 10-acupoint protocol. The Wilcoxon and t tests were paired for analysis. Anxiety, depression and stress levels showed significant results, the medians decreased from six to four (p<0.001), in the variables depression and anxiety, and the average stress decreased from 19.37 to 11.95 (p<0.001). Auriculotherapy was effective in reducing emotional disorders in nursing professionals.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ansiedad/terapia , Estrés Psicológico/terapia , Acupuntura Auricular/psicología , Depresión/terapia , Enfermeras Practicantes/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Pandemias , Betacoronavirus
15.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260798

RESUMEN

Evidence from observational studies is accumulating, suggesting that the majority of deaths due to SARS-CoV-2 infections are statistically attributable to vitamin D insufficiency and could potentially be prevented by vitamin D supplementation [...].


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Neumonía Viral , Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , Nutrientes , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamina D , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/epidemiología
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 25(12): 4945-4956, Dec. 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1142715

RESUMEN

Resumo A pandemia de Covid-19 revelou a existência de ameaça concreta e imediata à segurança alimentar e nutricional (SAN), em especial de grupos vulnerabilizados. O estudo buscou identificar as estratégias governamentais implementadas no Brasil para prover o Direito Humano à Alimentação Adequada e Saudável em contextos de elevada vulnerabilidade social frente à Covid-19. Foi realizado um estudo transversal, com análise de documentos oficiais publicados entre 20 de março e 30 de julho de 2020 pela União, Distrito Federal, estados e capitais brasileiras, com foco em medidas que assegurem disponibilidade e acesso físico ou financeiro a alimentos. As estratégias implementadas envolvem fundamentalmente distribuição de alimentos e garantia de renda mínima. Foram instituídas: Renda Básica Emergencial (União); Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos (PAA) e auxílio financeiro emergencial (estados); programas de doação emergencial de alimentos (estados e municípios). Medidas existentes foram adaptadas frente à pandemia, como o Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar (PNAE), o Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos (PAA) nacional, a distribuição de alimentos e de cestas básicas. Embora importantes, essas estratégias têm alcance limitado e são insuficientes para assegurar a SAN.


Abstract The Covid-19 pandemic revealed a concrete and immediate threat to food and nutrition security (FNS), especially for vulnerable groups. This study aimed to identify government strategies implemented in Brazil to provide the Human Right to Adequate and Healthy Food in high social vulnerability contexts during the Covid-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study was carried out, with analysis of official documents published between March 20 and July 30, 2020, by the Federal Government, Federal District, Brazilian states, and capitals, focusing on measures to ensure availability and physical or financial access to food. Strategies implemented mainly involve food distribution and minimum income assurance. The following were implemented: Basic Emergency Income (Federal Government); Food Acquisition Program (PAA), and emergency financial aid (states); emergency food donation programs (states and municipalities). Existing measures were adapted to the pandemic, such as the National School Food Program (PNAE), the National Food Acquisition Program (PAA), and the distribution of food and staple food baskets. While essential, these strategies have limited scope and are insufficient to ensure FNS.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiología , Áreas de Pobreza , Estudios Transversales , Regulación Gubernamental , Urgencias Médicas , Asistencia Alimentaria/legislación & jurisprudencia , Asistencia Alimentaria/organización & administración , Financiación Gubernamental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/economía , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/métodos , Dieta Saludable , Renta , Programas Nacionales de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Programas Nacionales de Salud/organización & administración
18.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 26(S2): 108-111, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245702

RESUMEN

COVID-19 or SARS CoV-2 is a worldwide public health emergency. The first case of COVID-19 was described in Wuhan, China in December, 2019 and within a short time the infection had spread quickly to the rest of China and then the world. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a huge impact on patients who do not have COVID-19 but other diseases like cancer, diabetes, and many more non-communicable diseases; their care is compromised because of the pandemic. COVID-19 also poses a work-related health risk for healthcare workers who are treating patients with COVID-19, and many have themselves become infected. Healthcare workers involved in diagnosing and treating patients with COVID-19 should be evaluated for stress, anxiety and depression.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Personal de Salud , Pandemias , Admisión del Paciente , Neumonía Viral , COVID-19 , China/epidemiología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 26(S2): 94-99, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245701

RESUMEN

Exposure to viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens is unavoidable. Yet, the mere presence of these threats is not enough to automatically predispose to illness. The susceptibility of an individual to viral or bacterial infections is dependent upon immune competence. Many factors can interfere with the functioning of the immune system. Epigenetic alterations in the form of lifestyle or environmental factors can lead to impaired immunity. For example, exposure to air pollution can increase the risk of complications and mortality from COVID-19. Obesity can also exacerbate the damaging effects of air pollution on the lungs and may enhance the association between air pollution and increased COVID-19 severity. Poor sleep is another factor leading to impaired immunity, likely due to the coinciding melatonin depletion. Melatonin has been found to have antiviral and immune-enhancing effects, and it has been proposed that this hormone may be beneficial in COVID-19 patients. Zinc and vitamins D and C have also been well studied for their ability to shorten the duration of upper respiratory infections, and vitamin D has been found to reduce mortality in COVID-19 patients. Cannabidiol can both directly and indirectly improve immunity by enhancing natural killer cell activity, reducing inflammation, and relieving stress. Other dietary supplements backed by solid scientific evidence to show they act as immune enhancers are astragalus, a yeast fermentate (EpiCor®), olive leaf extract, berberine, N-acetyl cysteine, and garlic.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Sistema Inmunológico , Inmunocompetencia , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , COVID-19 , Humanos , Sistema Inmunológico/fisiopatología , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 26(S2): 112-116, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245703

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: SARS-CoV-2 is a new virus responsible for the outbreak of COVID-19. Studies have shown that the expression of ACE2 was found in the smaller salivary glands was higher than that in the lungs, suggesting that salivary glands may be a potential target of the virus. This may indicate that one of the main gateways to coronavirus infection is the oral cavity. OBJECTIVE: This review intended to evaluate the comorbidities of the oral cavity and their relationships to COVID-19 and to show the benefits of homeopathic therapies as adjuvant treatments to increase oral and general health and mitigate the devastating effects of the coronavirus. DESIGN: The authors conducted a narrative review of articles published in indexed journals and websites of dental institutions and the WHO. They were selected oral pathological manifestations, sleep disorders, mood, orofacial pain and bruxism, associated with the oral-facial manifestations of Covid-19 and articles of evidence of homeopathy in dentistry. SETTING: Study done in Brazil with research professors in Homeopathy and Periodontics in universities. RESULTS: Some studies report that patients who are more susceptible to anxiety and stress during the pandemic, due to social confinement, may have disorders in the stomatognathic system such as: neuralgic pain in the face and teeth, fractures of teeth and dental prostheses, nibbled mucosa, stomatitis, ulcers, pain in the Temporal Mandibular Joint, otalgias, dental tightening, bruxism, xerostomia, peeling of the mucous membranes and skin, facial paralysis. CONCLUSIONS: The researchers concluded that homeopathy is a safe and viable therapy for the control of COVID-19 symptoms, as scientific evidence has proven its benefits through clinical trials and use in previous epidemics. In dentistry, this therapy allows the dentist to act fully in the promotion of oral health and in the prevention of oral and systemic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Homeopatía , Salud Bucal , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sistema Estomatognático
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