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1.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 18: 829-843, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38524877

RESUMEN

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been recognized as crucial agents for treating various tumors, and one of their key targets is the intracellular site of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). While TKIs have demonstrated their effectiveness in solid tumor patients and increased life expectancy, they can also lead to adverse cardiovascular effects including hypertension, thromboembolism, cardiac ischemia, and left ventricular dysfunction. Among the TKIs, sorafenib was the first approved agent and it exerts anti-tumor effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by inhibiting angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation through targeting VEGFR and RAF. Unfortunately, the adverse cardiovascular effects caused by sorafenib not only affect solid tumor patients but also limit its application in curing other diseases. This review explores the mechanisms underlying sorafenib-induced cardiovascular adverse effects, including endothelial dysfunction, mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, dysregulated autophagy, and ferroptosis. It also discusses potential treatment strategies, such as antioxidants and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, and highlights the association between sorafenib-induced hypertension and treatment efficacy in cancer patients. Furthermore, emerging research suggests a link between sorafenib-induced glycolysis, drug resistance, and cardiovascular toxicity, necessitating further investigation. Overall, understanding these mechanisms is crucial for optimizing sorafenib therapy and minimizing cardiovascular risks in cancer patients.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hipertensión , Neoplasias Renales , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Sorafenib/efectos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patología , Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular , Niacinamida , Compuestos de Fenilurea/efectos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Receptores de Factores de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Renales/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/efectos adversos
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5592, 2024 03 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454105

RESUMEN

To provide evidence for optimization of multi-kinase inhibitors (MKIs) use in the clinic, we use the public database to describe and evaluate electrolyte disorders (EDs) related to various MKIs treated for renal cell carcinoma. We analyzed spontaneous reports submitted to the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS) in an observational and retrospective manner. Selecting electrolyte disorders' adverse events to multikinase inhibitors (axitinib, cabozantinib, lenvatinib, pazopanib, sunitinib, and sorafenib). We used Reporting Odds Ratio (ROR), Proportional Reporting Ratio (PRR), Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network (BCPNN), and multi-item gamma Poisson shrinker (MGPS) algorithms to analyze suspected adverse reactions of electrolyte disorders induced by MKIs (which were treated for renal cell carcinoma) between January 2004 and December 2022. As of December 2022, 2772 MKIs (which were treated for renal cell carcinoma) ICSRs were related to electrolyte disorders AEs. In general, there were more AEs cases in males, except lenvatinib and 71.8% of the cases were submitted from North America. ICSRs in this study, the age group most frequently affected by electrolyte disorders AEs was individuals aged 45-64 years for axitinib, cabozantinib, pazopanib, and sunitinib, whereas electrolyte disorders AEs were more common in older patients (65-74 years) for sorafenib and lenvatinib. For all EDs documented in ICSRs (excluding missing data), the most common adverse outcome was hospitalization(1429/2674, 53.4%), and the most serious outcome was death/life-threat(281/2674, 10.5%). The prevalence of mortality was highest for sunitinib-related EDs (145/616, 23.5%), excluding missing data (n = 68), followed by cabozantinib-related EDs (20/237, 8.4%), excluding missing data (n = 1). The distribution of time-to-onset of Each drug-related ICSRs was not all the same, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). With the criteria of ROR, the six MKIs were all significantly associated with electrolyte disorders AEs, the strongest association was the association between cabozantinib and hypermagnesaemia. MKIs have been reported to have significant electrolyte disorders AEs. Patients and physicians need to recognize and monitor these potentially fatal adverse events.


Asunto(s)
Anilidas , Carcinoma de Células Renales , Indazoles , Neoplasias Renales , Compuestos de Fenilurea , Piridinas , Pirimidinas , Quinolinas , Sulfonamidas , Anciano , Humanos , Masculino , Axitinib/uso terapéutico , Teorema de Bayes , Carcinoma de Células Renales/tratamiento farmacológico , Electrólitos , Neoplasias Renales/patología , Farmacovigilancia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sorafenib/efectos adversos , Sunitinib/efectos adversos , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad
3.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 125: 102718, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521009

RESUMEN

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have gained therapeutical significance in cancer therapy over the last years. Due to the high efficacy of each substance group, additive or complementary effects are considered, and combinations are the subject of multiple prospective trials in different tumor entities. The majority of available data results from clinical phase I and II trials. Although regarded as well-tolerated therapies ICI-TKI combinations have higher toxicities compared to monotherapies of one of the substance classes and some combinations were shown to be excessively toxic leading to discontinuation of trials. So far, ICI-TKI combinations with nivolumab + cabozantinib, pembrolizumab + axitinib, avelumab + axitinib, pembrolizumab + lenvatinib have been approved in advanced renal cell (RCC), with pembrolizumab + lenvatinib in endometrial carcinoma and with camrelizumab + rivoceranib in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several ICI-TKI combinations are currently investigated in phase I to III trials in various other cancer entities. Further, the optimal sequence of ICI-TKI combinations is an important subject of investigation, as cross-resistances between the substance classes were observed. This review reports on clinical trials with ICI-TKI combinations in different cancer entities, their efficacy and toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Carcinoma de Células Renales , Neoplasias Renales , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Compuestos de Fenilurea , Quinolinas , Humanos , Axitinib , Estudios Prospectivos
4.
Adv Ther ; 41(4): 1711-1727, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443649

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Systemic therapies have been associated with clinically significant events (CSEs) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (uHCC). We evaluated the incidence of CSEs (bleeding, clotting, encephalopathy, and portal hypertension), and their impact on healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and costs, in patients with uHCC treated with first-line (1L) atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (A + B), lenvatinib (LEN), or sorafenib (SOR) in the USA. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using medical/pharmacy claims from Optum® Clinformatics® Data Mart. Patients diagnosed with HCC who initiated 1L A + B between June 01, 2020 and December 31, 2020 or LEN/SOR between January 01, 2016 and May 31, 2020 were included. Outcomes included incidence rates of CSEs, HCRU, and costs. Subgroup analysis was performed in patients with no CSEs or ≥ 1 CSE. RESULTS: In total, 1379 patients were selected (A + B, n = 271; LEN, n = 217; SOR, n = 891). Clotting (incidence rate per 100 patient-years [PY] 94.9) and bleeding (88.1 per 100 PY) were the most common CSEs in the A + B cohort. The most common CSEs in the LEN cohort were clotting (78.6 per 100 PY) and encephalopathy (66.3 per 100 PY). Encephalopathy (73.0 per 100 PY) and portal hypertension (72.3 per 100 PY) were the most common CSEs in the SOR cohort. Mean total all-cause healthcare costs per patient per month (PPPM) were $32,742, $35,623, and $29,173 in the A + B, LEN, and SOR cohorts, respectively. Mean total all-cause healthcare costs PPPM were higher in patients who had ≥ 1 CSE versus those who did not (A + B $34,304 versus $30,889; LEN $39,591 versus $30,621; SOR $31,022 versus $27,003). CONCLUSION: Despite improved efficacy of 1L systemic therapies, CSEs remain a concern for patients with uHCC, as well as an economic burden to the healthcare system. Newer treatments that reduce the risk of CSEs, while improving long-term survival in patients with uHCC, are warranted.


Certain treatments for liver cancer can cause serious side effects, including bleeding, blood clots, brain injury (encephalopathy), or increased blood flow to the liver (portal hypertension). We used an insurance database to find out how often these events, known as clinically significant events, occurred in people with liver cancer who were given treatments that target the immune system (immunotherapy) or specific proteins involved in cancer growth and survival (targeted therapy). The study included 1379 patients treated with atezolizumab (immunotherapy) plus bevacizumab (targeted therapy), or lenvatinib or sorafenib alone (both targeted therapies), as their first treatment. Clotting and bleeding were the most common clinically significant events in patients treated with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab, whereas clotting and encephalopathy were the most common clinically significant events with lenvatinib, and encephalopathy and portal hypertension were the most common clinically significant events with sorafenib. On average, for every 100 patients treated for 1 year, there were more than 50 of each of these events. Average healthcare costs per patient per month ranged from around $29,000 to around $36,000 in the three different treatment groups, and were higher in people who had at least one clinically significant event. These results suggest that clinically significant events are common in people with liver cancer who are given various types of treatment. As well as raising concerns for patient safety, these events result in higher costs to healthcare systems. Therefore, newer treatments that are less likely to cause clinically significant events, while improving survival in patients with liver cancer, are needed.


Asunto(s)
Encefalopatías , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hipertensión Portal , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Compuestos de Fenilurea , Quinolinas , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamiento farmacológico , Incidencia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sorafenib , Hemorragia
5.
J Sep Sci ; 47(5): e2300923, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466147

RESUMEN

Regorafenib is a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor with severe hepatotoxicity. It undergoes metabolism mainly by CYP3A4 to generate active metabolites regorafenib-N-oxide (M2) and N-desmethyl-regorafenib-N-oxide (M5). Wuzhi capsule (WZC) is an herbal preparation derived from Schisandra sphenanthera and is potentially used to prevent regorafenib-induced hepatotoxicity. This study aims to explore the effect of WZC on the pharmacokinetics of regorafenib in rats. An efficient and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to quantitatively determine regorafenib and its main metabolites in rat plasma. The proposed method was applied to the pharmacokinetic study of regorafenib in rats, with or without WZC. Coadministration of regorafenib with WZC resulted in a prolonged mean residence time (MRT) of the parent drug but had no statistically significant difference in other pharmacokinetic parameters. While for the main metabolites of regorafenib, WZC decreased the area under the curve and maximum concentration (Cmax ), delayed the time to reach Cmax , and prolonged the MRT of M2 and M5. These results indicate that WZC delayed and inhibited the metabolism of regorafenib to M2 and M5 by suppressing CYP3A4. Our study provides implications for the rational use of the WZC-regorafenib combination in clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Compuestos de Fenilurea , Piridinas , Animales , Ratas , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Cromatografía Liquida , Óxidos
6.
Cancer Res ; 84(6): 827-840, 2024 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38241695

RESUMEN

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modification is the most common and conserved epigenetic modification in mRNA and has been shown to play important roles in cancer biology. As the m6A reader YTHDF1 has been reported to promote progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), it represents a potential therapeutic target. In this study, we evaluated the clinical significance of YTHDF1 using human HCC samples and found that YTHDF1 was significantly upregulated in HCCs with high stemness scores and was positively associated with recurrence and poor prognosis. Analysis of HCC spheroids revealed that YTHDF1 was highly expressed in liver cancer stem cells (CSC). Stem cell-specific conditional Ythdf1 knockin (CKI) mice treated with diethylnitrosamine showed elevated tumor burden as compared with wild-type mice. YTHDF1 promoted CSCs renewal and resistance to the multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitors lenvatinib and sorafenib in patient-derived organoids and HCC cell lines, which could be abolished by catalytically inactive mutant YTHDF1. Multiomic analysis, including RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing, m6A methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing, ribosome profiling, and RNA sequencing identified NOTCH1 as a direct downstream of YTHDF1. YTHDF1 bound to m6A modified NOTCH1 mRNA to enhance its stability and translation, which led to increased NOTCH1 target genes expression. NOTCH1 overexpression rescued HCC stemness in YTHDF1-deficient cells in vitro and in vivo. Lipid nanoparticles targeting YTHDF1 significantly enhanced the efficacy of lenvatinib and sorafenib in HCC in vivo. Taken together, YTHDF1 drives HCC stemness and drug resistance through an YTHDF1-m6A-NOTCH1 epitranscriptomic axis, and YTHDF1 is a potential therapeutic target for treating HCC. SIGNIFICANCE: Inhibition of YTHDF1 expression suppresses stemness of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and enhances sensitivity to targeted therapies, indicating that targeting YTHDF1 may be a promising therapeutic strategy for liver cancer.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Compuestos de Fenilurea , Quinolinas , Humanos , Animales , Ratones , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamiento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Sorafenib , Resistencia a Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Adenosina/farmacología , ARN Mensajero , ARN , Receptor Notch1/genética , Proteínas de Unión al ARN/genética
7.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 68(2): e2300569, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38059808

RESUMEN

SCOPE: The optimization of anti-cancer drug effectiveness through dietary modifications has garnered significant attention among researchers in recent times. Astaxanthin (AST) has been identified as a safe and biologically active dietary supplement. METHODS AND RESULTS: The tumor-bearing mice are treated with sorafenib, along with supplementation of 60 mg kg-1 AST during the treatment. The coadministration of AST and a subclinical dosage of 10 mg kg-1 sorafenib demonstrates a tumor inhibition rate of 76.5%, which is notably superior to the 45% inhibition rate observed with the clinical dosage of 30 mg kg-1 sorafenib (p < 0.05). The administration of AST leads to a tumor inhibition increase of around 25% when combined with the clinical dose of 30 mg kg-1 sorafenib (p <0.05). AST enhances the inhibitory effect of sorafenib on tumor angiogenesis through the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Furthermore, AST exhibits a reduction in hypoxia within the tumor microenvironment. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that AST supplement enhances the inhibitory effects of sorafenib on hepatocellular carcinoma. This study presents a new dietary management program for oncology patients.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Factor de Transcripción STAT3 , Humanos , Ratones , Animales , Sorafenib/farmacología , Sorafenib/uso terapéutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamiento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patología , Microambiente Tumoral , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patología , Compuestos de Fenilurea/farmacología , Compuestos de Fenilurea/uso terapéutico , Línea Celular Tumoral , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Transducción de Señal , Apoptosis , Hipoxia/tratamiento farmacológico , Niacinamida/farmacología , Janus Quinasa 2/metabolismo , Janus Quinasa 2/farmacología , Xantófilas
9.
Oncology ; 102(3): 239-251, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37729889

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Systemic therapy is recommended for patients with Child-Pugh A in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We analyzed the outcomes of a cohort of patients with HCC who received either sorafenib (Sor), lenvatinib (Len) or atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (Atezo + Bev) as first-line systemic therapy for HCC, with the aim of identifying prognostic factors for survival. METHODS: A total of 825 patients with advanced HCC and Child-Pugh A or B received either Sor, Len or Atezo + Bev as first-line systemic therapy. Liver function was assessed according to the Child-Pugh score and the modified albumin-bilirubin (mALBI) grade. RESULTS: Prognosis was analyzed according to liver function such as Child-Pugh classifications, scores, and mALBI grades that worsened with a decline in liver function (p <0.001 for all). A Child-Pugh score of 7 was a factor significantly associated with OS. In patients with a Child-Pugh score of 7, an mALBI grade of 3 was an independent predictor of OS. In Child-Pugh B patients with HCC, receiving Atezo + Bev was identified as a factor associated with PFS. CONCLUSION: Determining the hepatic reserve of patients with unresectable HCC might be useful for identifying patents suitable for systemic treatment for HCC. Atezo + Bev might prolong the PFS of patients with a Child-Pugh score of 7.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Compuestos de Fenilurea , Quinolinas , Humanos , Sorafenib , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamiento farmacológico , Bevacizumab , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Albúminas , Bilirrubina
10.
Eur J Cancer ; 195: 113286, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37968194

RESUMEN

To the editor: Hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR), characterized by skin abnormalities on palmoplantar surfaces, has an overall incidence of about 35% upon vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR-TKIs) treatment.1 Zinc, which plays a role in maintaining skin health, may be implicated in the pathogenesis of HFSR.2 Zinc deficiency has been shown to associate with dermatological toxicities of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-TKI.3, 4 Regorafenib, an oral multi-kinase inhibitor targeting VEGFR 1-3, PDGFR, cKIT, BRAF, and RET1, is approved for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) but commonly causes HFSR.5 This phase II randomized trial aimed to investigate whether zinc supplementation can reduce the severity of HFSR induced by regorafenib within the first 8 weeks of treatment (NCT03898102).


Asunto(s)
Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular , Zinc , Humanos , Incidencia , Compuestos de Fenilurea/efectos adversos , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/efectos adversos , Suplementos Dietéticos
11.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 16844, 2023 10 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37803074

RESUMEN

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, affecting nearly 600,000 new patients worldwide. Treatment with the BRAF inhibitor sorafenib partially prolongs progression-free survival in thyroid cancer patients, but fails to improve overall survival. This study examines enhancing sorafenib efficacy by combination therapy with the novel HSP90 inhibitor onalespib. In vitro efficacy of sorafenib and onalespib monotherapy as well as in combination was assessed in papillary (PTC) and anaplastic (ATC) thyroid cancer cells using cell viability and colony formation assays. Migration potential was studied in wound healing assays. The in vivo efficacy of sorafenib and onalespib therapy was evaluated in mice bearing BHT-101 xenografts. Sorafenib in combination with onalespib significantly inhibited PTC and ATC cell proliferation, decreased metabolic activity and cancer cell migration. In addition, the drug combination approach significantly inhibited tumor growth in the xenograft model and prolonged the median survival. Our results suggest that combination therapy with sorafenib and onalespib could be used as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of thyroid cancer, significantly improving the results obtained with sorafenib as monotherapy. This approach has the potential to reduce treatment adaptation while at the same time providing therapeutic anti-cancer benefits such as reducing tumor growth and metastatic potential.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma Anaplásico de Tiroides , Neoplasias de la Tiroides , Humanos , Animales , Ratones , Sorafenib/farmacología , Sorafenib/uso terapéutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/patología , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/farmacología , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/uso terapéutico , Carcinoma Anaplásico de Tiroides/tratamiento farmacológico , Proliferación Celular , Compuestos de Fenilurea/farmacología , Compuestos de Fenilurea/uso terapéutico , Línea Celular Tumoral
12.
BMC Cancer ; 23(1): 1033, 2023 Oct 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37880661

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of TACE combined with Donafenib and Toripalimab versus TACE combined with Sorafenib in the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), aiming to guide personalized treatment strategies for HCC and improve patient prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data of 169 patients with unresectable advanced-stage HCC who underwent treatment at the Interventional Department of Wuhan Union Hospital from January 2020 to December 2022. Based on the patients' treatment strategies, they were divided into two groups: TACE + Donafenib + Toripalimab group (N = 81) and TACE + Sorafenib group (N = 88). The primary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) of the two groups' tumors. The secondary endpoint was the occurrence of treatment-related adverse events in the two groups of patients. RESULTS: The TACE + Donafenib + Toripalimab group showed higher ORR and DCR compared to the TACE + Sorafenib group (66.7% vs. 38.6%, 82.6% vs. 68.2%, P < 0.05). The TACE + Donafenib + Toripalimab group also demonstrated longer median progression-free survival (mPFS) (10.9 months vs. 7.0 months, P < 0.001) and median overall survival (mOS) (19.6 months vs. 10.9 months, P < 0.001) compared to the TACE + Sorafenib group. When comparing the two groups, the TACE + Sorafenib group had a higher incidence of grade 3-4 hypertension (14.8% vs. 4.9%, P = 0.041), higher incidence of diarrhea (all grades) (18.2% vs. 7.4%, P = 0.042), and higher incidence of hand-foot syndrome (all grades) (26.1% vs. 12.3%, P = 0.032). CONCLUSION: TACE combined with Donafenib and Toripalimab demonstrates superior efficacy and safety in treating unresectable HCC patients. This combination therapy may serve as a feasible option to improve the prognosis of unresectable HCC patients.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Quimioembolización Terapéutica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Sorafenib/efectos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamiento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patología , Quimioembolización Terapéutica/efectos adversos , Niacinamida/efectos adversos , Compuestos de Fenilurea/efectos adversos
13.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 30(12)2023 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37902083

RESUMEN

Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) is a critical component of the DNA damage response and a potential target in the treatment of cancers. An ATR inhibitor, BAY 1895344, was evaluated for its use in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) therapy. BAY 1895344 inhibited cell viability in four DTC cell lines (TPC1, K1, FTC-133, and FTC-238) in a dose-dependent manner. BAY 1895344 treatment arrested DTC cells in the G2/M phase, increased caspase-3 activity, and caused apoptosis. BAY 1895344 in combination with either sorafenib or lenvatinib showed mainly synergistic effects in four DTC cell lines. The combination of BAY 1895344 with dabrafenib plus trametinib revealed synergistic effects in K1 cells that harbor BRAFV600E. BAY 1895344 monotherapy retarded the growth of K1 and FTC-133 tumors in xenograft models. The combinations of BAY 1895344 plus lenvatinib and BAY 1895344 with dabrafenib plus trametinib were more effective than any single therapy in a K1 xenograft model. No appreciable toxicity appeared in animals treated with either a single therapy or a combination treatment. Our findings provide the rationale for the development of clinical trials of BAY 1895344 in the treatment of DTC.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias de la Tiroides , Animales , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/patología , Compuestos de Fenilurea/farmacología , Compuestos de Fenilurea/uso terapéutico , Sorafenib/farmacología , Adenocarcinoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Proteínas de la Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutada
14.
Eur J Cancer ; 192: 113248, 2023 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37672814

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is undergoing a historic transformation with the approval of several new systemic therapies in the last few years. This study aimed to examine the impact of this changing landscape on survival and costs in a Western nationwide, real-world cohort. METHODS: A nationwide representative claims database (InGef) was screened for HCC cases between 2015 and 2020. Survival in an era with only sorafenib (period A, January 2015 to July 2018) and after approval of lenvatinib and other systemic treatments (period B, August 2018 to December 2020) was analysed. Health care costs were assessed. RESULTS: We identified 2876 individuals with HCC in the study period. The proportion of patients receiving systemic therapy increased significantly over time, from 11.8% in 2015 to 15.1% in 2020 (p < 0.0001). The median overall survival in period B was 6.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9-8.9) and in period A was 5.3 months (95% CI: 4.5-6.3; p = 0.046). In period B, the median overall survival with lenvatinib was 9.7 months (95% CI: 6.3-18.4) versus 4.8 months with sorafenib (95% CI: 4.0-7.1, p = 0.008). Costs for prescription drugs per patient increased from €6150 in 2015 to €9049 in 2020 (p < 0.0001), and costs for outpatient care per patient increased from €1646 to €2149 (p = 0.0240). CONCLUSION: The approval of new systemic therapies resulted in a survival benefit in patients with HCC. The magnitude of the effect is modest and associated with a moderate increase in health costs.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamiento farmacológico , Sorafenib/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Compuestos de Fenilurea/uso terapéutico
15.
Med Oncol ; 40(9): 258, 2023 Jul 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37524925

RESUMEN

Most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer have a good prognosis after radioactive iodine-131 treatment, but there are still a small number of patients who are not sensitive to radioiodine treatment and may subsequently show disease progression. Therefore, radioactive-iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine usually shows reduced radioiodine uptake. Thus, when sodium iodine symporter expression, basolateral membrane localization and recycling degradation are abnormal, radioactive-iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer may occur. In recent years, with the deepening of research into the pathogenesis of this disease, an increasing number of molecules have become or are expected to become therapeutic targets. The application of corresponding inhibitors or combined treatment regimens for different molecular targets may be effective for patients with advanced radioactive-iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. Currently, some targeted drugs that can improve the progression-free survival of patients with radioactive-iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer, such as sorafenib and lenvatinib, have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of radioactive-iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. However, due to the adverse reactions and drug resistance caused by some targeted drugs, their application is limited. In response to targeted drug resistance and high rates of adverse reactions, research into new treatment combinations is being carried out; in addition to kinase inhibitor therapy, gene therapy and rutin-assisted iodine-131 therapy for radioactive-iodine refractory thyroid cancer have also made some progress. Thus, this article mainly focuses on sodium iodide symporter changes leading to the main molecular mechanisms in radioactive-iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer, some targeted drug resistance mechanisms and promising new treatments.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias de la Tiroides , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/radioterapia , Radioisótopos de Yodo/uso terapéutico , Sorafenib/uso terapéutico , Compuestos de Fenilurea/uso terapéutico , Supervivencia sin Progresión , Adenocarcinoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/uso terapéutico
16.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 91(5): 413-425, 2023 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37010549

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The objective was to develop a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model linking everolimus and sorafenib exposure with biomarker dynamics and progression-free survival (PFS) based on data from EVESOR trial in patients with solid tumors treated with everolimus and sorafenib combination therapy and to simulate alternative dosing schedules for sorafenib. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Everolimus (5-10 mg once daily, qd) and sorafenib (200-400 mg twice daily, bid) were administered according to four different dosing schedules in 43 solid tumor patients. Rich PK and PD sampling for serum angiogenesis biomarkers was performed. Baseline activation of RAS/RAF/ERK (MAPK) pathway was assessed by quantification of mRNA specific gene panel in tumor biopsies. The PK-PD modeling was performed using NONMEM® software. RESULTS: An indirect response PK-PD model linking sorafenib plasma exposure with soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (sVEGFR2) dynamics was developed. Progression-free survival (PFS) was described by a parametric time-to-event model. Higher decreases in sVEGFR2 at day 21 and higher baseline activation of MAPK pathway were associated with longer PFS (p = 0.002 and p = 0.007, respectively). The simulated schedule sorafenib 200 mg bid 5 days-on/2 days-off + continuous everolimus 5 mg qd was associated with median PFS of 4.3 months (95% CI 1.6-14.4), whereas the median PFS in the EVESOR trial was 3.6 months (95% CI 2.7-4.2, n = 43). CONCLUSION: Sorafenib 200 mg bid 5 days-on/2 days-off + everolimus 5 mg qd continuous was selected for an additional arm of EVESOR trial to evaluate whether this simulated schedule is associated with higher clinical benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01932177.


Asunto(s)
Everolimus , Neoplasias , Humanos , Sorafenib/uso terapéutico , Supervivencia sin Progresión , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular , Niacinamida , Compuestos de Fenilurea , Resultado del Tratamiento , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Biomarcadores
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 448: 130936, 2023 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36764256

RESUMEN

The fate characteristics of isoproturon (IPU) from garlic cultivation to household processing was elucidated by a tracing UHPLC-MS/MS based on the favorable storage stability. The occurrence, pharmacokinetics dissipation and terminal magnitude of IPU were reflected by parameters including original deposition of 31-170 µg kg-1, half-lives of 11.5-19.4 d, and final concentrations of <1.0-250.6 µg kg-1. The processing factors of IPU were further clarified in terms of washing, stir-frying and pickling, with processing factors of 0.008-0.828. The chronic dietary risks (%ADI) were assessed as 1.516-5.242 %, whereas the short-term exposures from green garlic should be continuously emphasized over 99th percentile with unacceptable %ARfD of 147.144-5074.018 %. The acute and chronic risk magnitude significantly decreased by a factor 2.0-125.0 and 2.2-3.3 from raw garlic crops to processed products, respectively. What was noteworthy was the unacceptable acute risks of IPU from green garlic at 99.9th percentile even after a series of processing procedures.


Asunto(s)
Ajo , Herbicidas , Humanos , Herbicidas/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Compuestos de Fenilurea , Antioxidantes
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36768736

RESUMEN

Despite the fact that sorafenib is recommended for the treatment of oncological diseases of the liver, kidneys, and thyroid gland, and recently it has been used for combination therapy of brain cancer of various genesis, there are still significant problems for its widespread and effective use. Among these problems, the presence of the blood-brain barrier of the brain and the need to use high doses of sorafenib, the existence of mechanisms for the redistribution of sorafenib and its release in the brain tissue, as well as the high resistance of gliomas and glioblastomas to therapy should be considered the main ones. Therefore, there is a need to create new methods for delivering sorafenib to brain tumors, enhancing the therapeutic potential of sorafenib and reducing the cytotoxic effects of active compounds on the healthy environment of tumors, and ideally, increasing the survival of healthy cells during therapy. Using vitality tests, fluorescence microscopy, and molecular biology methods, we showed that the selenium-sorafenib (SeSo) nanocomplex, at relatively low concentrations, is able to bypass the mechanisms of glioblastoma cell chemoresistance and to induce apoptosis through Ca2+-dependent induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress, changes in the expression of selenoproteins and selenium-containing proteins, as well as key kinases-regulators of oncogenicity and cell death. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) also have a high anticancer efficacy in glioblastomas, but are less selective, since SeSo in cortical astrocytes causes a more pronounced activation of the cytoprotective pathways.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos , Glioblastoma , Selenio , Humanos , Sorafenib/farmacología , Sorafenib/uso terapéutico , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Selenio/uso terapéutico , Astrocitos/metabolismo , Niacinamida/farmacología , Compuestos de Fenilurea/farmacología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Apoptosis
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