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1.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 33(5): 629-638, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563830

RESUMEN

Background: The U.S. Public Health Service and the Institute of Medicine recommend that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg of folic acid daily to help prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). Hispanic women are at higher risk of having babies with NTDs than non-Hispanic White women. This study assessed multivitamin (MV) use, a main source of folic acid, among Hispanic women of reproductive age using a survey of solely U.S. Hispanic adults. Materials and Methods: MV use was assessed as part of Porter Novelli's Estilos survey, fielded annually through the largest online U.S. Hispanic panel, Offerwise's QueOpinas. During the study period of 2013-2022, 9,999 surveys were completed; selection was weighted to match the U.S. Census American Community Survey proportions. Log-binomial regression models were applied to estimate MV use trends by age groups, acculturation levels, and pregnancy intention. Results: Among 3,700 Hispanic women of reproductive age, overall no MV use increased from 39.3% in 2013 to 54.7% in 2022 (p for trend <0.0001), especially among Hispanic women aged 18-34 years and those classified as acculturated. Among women planning to get pregnant, daily MV use was 31.1% in 2013 compared with 18.7% in 2020-2022 (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Given the increase in no MV use among Hispanic women of reproductive age, targeted interventions may help reach at-risk groups for NTDs prevention.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácido Fólico , Hispánicos o Latinos , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Vitaminas , Humanos , Femenino , Hispánicos o Latinos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Embarazo , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación , Adolescente , Ácido Fólico/administración & dosificación , Adulto Joven , Defectos del Tubo Neural/prevención & control , Defectos del Tubo Neural/etnología , Suplementos Dietéticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Aculturación
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 241, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580949

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Folic acid, a water-soluble B-complex vitamin, plays a crucial role in DNA synthesis and maintenance, making it particularly significant during reproduction. Its well-known ability to reduce the risk of congenital anomalies during the periconceptional period underscores its importance. The increased requirement for folate during pregnancy and lactation is essential to support the physiological changes of the mother and ensure optimal growth and development of the foetus and offspring. This study assessed the knowledge, awareness, and use of folic acid among pregnant and lactating women of reproductive age residing in Dodowa in the Shai Osu-Doku District, Accra, Ghana. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional design that involved 388 randomly selected participants (97 pregnant and 291 lactating women). Structured questionnaires were administered to gather information on the socioeconomic demographic characteristics, knowledge, awareness, and use of folic acid of the participants. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Pearson's chi-square analysis tests and are presented as frequencies and percentages, means, standard deviations, bar graphs, and pie charts. The significance of the results was determined at a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 31 ± 5.0 years. Among the study participants, 46.1% demonstrated knowledge of folic acid deficiency, while approximately 68.3% had a high awareness of folic acid supplementation. Approximately 75% of the participants indicated that they had not used folic acid supplements within the week, and 15.5% reported consuming folic acid-fortified food per week. CONCLUSIONS: The women exhibited high awareness but poor knowledge regarding the usage of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. Consequently, this lack of knowledge influenced the low use of folic acid supplements and low intake of folate-rich foods among pregnant and lactating mothers.


Asunto(s)
Defectos del Tubo Neural , Complejo Vitamínico B , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , Ácido Fólico/uso terapéutico , Estudios Transversales , Ghana , Lactancia , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Suplementos Dietéticos , Complejo Vitamínico B/uso terapéutico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 37(1): 2334846, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584146

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Neural tube defects (NTDs) represent a spectrum of heterogeneous birth anomalies characterized by the incomplete closure of the neural tube. In Jordan, NTDs are estimated to occur in approximately one out of every 1000 live births. Timely identification of NTDs during the 18-22 weeks of gestation period offers parents various management options, including intrauterine NTD repair and termination of pregnancy (TOP). This study aims to assess and compare parental knowledge and perceptions of these management modalities between parents of affected children and those with healthy offspring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective case-control study was conducted at Jordan University Hospital (JUH) using telephone-administered questionnaires. Categorical variables were summarized using counts and percentages, while continuous variables were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The association between exposure variables and outcomes was explored using binary logistic regression. Data analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows version 26 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). RESULTS: The study sample comprised 143 participants, with 49.7% being parents of children with NTDs. The majority of NTD cases were associated with unplanned pregnancies, lack of folic acid supplementation, and postnatal diagnosis. Concerning parental knowledge of TOP in Jordan, 86% believed it to be legally permissible in certain situations. However, there was no statistically significant difference between cases and controls regarding attitudes toward TOP. While the majority of parents with NTD-affected children (88.7%) expressed a willingness to consider intrauterine surgery, this percentage decreased significantly (to 77.6%) after receiving detailed information about the procedure's risks and benefits (p = .013). CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the first case-control investigational study in Jordan focusing on parental perspectives regarding TOP versus intrauterine repair of myelomeningocele following a diagnosis of an NTD-affected fetus. Based on our findings, we urge the implementation of a national and international surveillance program for NTDs, assessing the disease burden, facilitating resource allocation toward prevention strategies, and promoting early diagnosis initiatives either by using newly suggested diagnostic biomarkers or early Antenatal ultrasonography.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Fólico , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Niño , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Jordania/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Retrospectivos , Defectos del Tubo Neural/diagnóstico , Defectos del Tubo Neural/epidemiología , Defectos del Tubo Neural/terapia , Padres
4.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474883

RESUMEN

Folate, also known as vitamin B9, facilitates the transfer of methyl groups among molecules, which is crucial for amino acid metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. Adequate maternal folate supplementation has been widely acknowledged for its pivotal role in promoting cell proliferation and preventing neural tube defects. However, in the post-fortification era, there has been a rising concern regarding an excess maternal intake of folic acid (FA), the synthetic form of folate. In this review, we focused on recent advancements in understanding the influence of excess maternal FA intake on offspring. For human studies, we summarized findings from clinical trials investigating the effects of periconceptional FA intake on neurodevelopment and molecular-level changes in offspring. For studies using mouse models, we compiled the impact of high maternal FA supplementation on gene expression and behavioral changes in offspring. In summary, excessive maternal folate intake could potentially have adverse effects on offspring. Overall, we highlighted concerns regarding elevated maternal folate status in the population, providing a comprehensive perspective on the potential adverse effects of excessive maternal FA supplementation on offspring.


Asunto(s)
Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Animales , Ratones , Humanos , Suplementos Dietéticos/efectos adversos , Ácido Fólico/uso terapéutico , Defectos del Tubo Neural/prevención & control , Familia
5.
Birth Defects Res ; 116(3): e2321, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457279

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Folic acid is a micronutrient that is effective at preventing neural tube defects (NTDs). In 2016, the FDA authorized the voluntary fortification of corn masa flour (CMF) with folic acid to reduce disparities in NTDs among infants of women who do not regularly consume other fortified cereal grains, in particular Hispanic women of reproductive age (WRA). METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2011 to March 2020 assessing the impact of voluntary fortification of CMF on the folate status of Hispanic WRA. We analyzed folic acid usual intake and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations among non-pregnant, non-lactating Hispanic WRA, comparing pre-fortification (2011-2016) to post-fortification (2017-March 2020) data. RBC folate concentrations were used to create model-based estimation of NTD rates. RESULTS: The proportion of Hispanic WRA with folic acid usual intakes <400 µg/d did not change (2011-2016: 86.1% [95% Confidence Interval, CI: 83.7-88.5]; 2017-March 2020: 87.8% [95% CI: 84.8-90.7]; p = .38) nor did the proportion of Hispanic WRA with RBC folate below optimal concentrations (<748 nmol/L, 2011-2016: 16.0% [95% CI: 13.7-18.2]; 2017-March 2020: 18.1% [95% CI: 12.1-24.0]; p = 0.49). Model-based estimates of NTD rates suggest further improvements in the folate status of Hispanic WRA might prevent an additional 157 (95% Uncertainty Interval: 0, 288) NTDs/year. CONCLUSIONS: Voluntary fortification of CMF with folic acid has yet to have a significant impact on the folate status of WRA. Continued monitoring and further research into factors such as fortified product availability, community knowledge, and awareness of folic acid benefits would inform and improve future public health interventions.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Fólico , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Femenino , Humanos , Encuestas Nutricionales , Zea mays , Harina , Alimentos Fortificados , Defectos del Tubo Neural/prevención & control , Eritrocitos
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(3): e241777, 2024 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457177

RESUMEN

Importance: India has a disproportionately high prevalence of neural tube defects, including spina bifida and anencephaly (SBA), causing a high number of stillbirths, elective pregnancy terminations, and child mortality; India contributes a large proportion of the global burden of SBA. Thirty years after folic acid was shown to be effective in reducing SBA prevalence, only about one-quarter of such births are prevented globally through cereal grain fortification. Objective: To determine the association of folic acid-fortified iodized salt with serum folate concentrations among nonpregnant and nonlactating women of reproductive age. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nonrandomized controlled trial using a preintervention and postintervention design was conducted in 4 rural villages in Southern India from July 1 to November 30, 2022. All households in the villages agreed to participate in the study. Preintervention and postintervention serum folate levels were analyzed among study participants at baseline and after 4 months, respectively. Intervention: Consumption of approximately 300 µg/d of folic acid using double fortified salt (folic acid plus iodine). Median serum folate concentrations were assessed at baseline and 4 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: Change in median serum folate levels between baseline and study end point as the primary outcome of the study. Results: A total of 83 nonpregnant nonlactating women aged 20 to 44 years (mean [SD] age, 30.9 [5.1] years) were eligible for the study and provided serum samples for analysis at baseline and the end point of the intervention. The median serum folate concentration increased from 14.6 (IQR, 11.2-20.6) nmol/L at baseline to 54.4 (IQR, 43.5-54.4) nmol/L at end of study, a 3.7-fold increase from baseline to study end point. Two-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank test showed the median difference in preintervention and postintervention serum folate concentrations to be highly significant (P < .001). The participants found the salt acceptable in color and taste. Conclusions and Relevance: Use of folic acid-fortified iodized salt was associated with increased serum folate concentrations in women of reproductive age. This novel evidence can inform public health policy to accelerate SBA prevention. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT06174883.


Asunto(s)
Yodo , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Cloruro de Sodio Dietético , Disrafia Espinal , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Ácido Fólico/uso terapéutico , Alimentos Fortificados , Adulto Joven
7.
Midwifery ; 132: 103984, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554606

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Folic acid (FA) supplementation before and in early pregnancy is known to improve outcomes such as reducing neural tube defects; however, little is known about groups in Australia at risk of low FA use. AIM: To determine whether differences exist in FA supplementation rates between Australian-born women and migrant women, with a secondary aim of examining the sociodemographic characteristics of women who are not supplementing with FA in early pregnancy. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study from January 2018-July 2022 in a high-migrant population in Western Sydney, Australia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted adjusting for confounders including place of birth, age, ethnicity, parity, history of diabetes, and type of conception. FINDINGS: There were 48,045 women who met inclusion criteria; 65% of whom were migrants. We identified that 39.4% of the study population did not report FA supplementation by early pregnancy. Women who were migrants were more likely to report FA usage than those born in Australia (aOR 1.24; 95%CI 1.17-1.31). Women least likely to report use of FA were women < 20 years of age (aOR 0.54; 95%CI 0.44-0.67) and multiparous women (aOR 0.84; 95%CI 0.82-0.86). Women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were more likely to report FA use (aOR 1.66; 95%CI 1.11-2.48, aOR 1.30; 95%CI 1.05-1.61). CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of the population did not report FA supplementation before or during early pregnancy. To increase uptake of FA supplementation, clinicians and public health messaging should target at-risk groups.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácido Fólico , Migrantes , Humanos , Femenino , Ácido Fólico/uso terapéutico , Ácido Fólico/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Embarazo , Australia , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Retrospectivos , Suplementos Dietéticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Migrantes/psicología , Atención Preconceptiva/métodos , Atención Preconceptiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Preconceptiva/normas , Modelos Logísticos , Defectos del Tubo Neural/prevención & control
8.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1642, 2024 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38388461

RESUMEN

Folate supplementation reduces the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs), birth defects consisting in the failure of the neural tube to form and close. The mechanisms underlying NTDs and their prevention by folate remain unclear. Here we show that folate receptor 1 (FOLR1) is necessary for the formation of neural tube-like structures in human-cell derived neural organoids. FOLR1 knockdown in neural organoids and in Xenopus laevis embryos leads to NTDs that are rescued by pteroate, a folate precursor that is unable to participate in metabolism. We demonstrate that FOLR1 interacts with and opposes the function of CD2-associated protein, molecule essential for apical endocytosis and turnover of C-cadherin in neural plate cells. In addition, folates increase Ca2+ transient frequency, suggesting that folate and FOLR1 signal intracellularly to regulate neural plate folding. This study identifies a mechanism of action of folate distinct from its vitamin function during neural tube formation.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Fólico , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Humanos , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Tubo Neural/metabolismo , Receptor 1 de Folato/genética , Receptor 1 de Folato/metabolismo , Defectos del Tubo Neural/genética , Defectos del Tubo Neural/metabolismo , Placa Neural/metabolismo
9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 114, 2024 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321376

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Folic acid supplementation is recommended for reducing the risk of birth defects. We aimed to assess the protective association of periconception folic acid supplements with birth defects in real-world setting. METHODS: This prospective, population-based cohort study utilized national preconception registered data of married Chinese couples planning a pregnancy within 6 months between 2010 and 2012 in Mainland China. Participated women are freely provided folic acid starting 3 months before conception till 3 months after conception. Birth defects were self-reported at 42 days postpartumn followup. R software (v4.0.2) was applied for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Complete data of 567,547 couples with pregnancy outcomes and folic acid supplementation were extracted for final analysis. A total of 74.7% women were with folic acid supplementation, and 599 birth defects were self-reported. The odd of birth defects was lower among women taking folic acid compared to their counterparts not taking (0.102% vs 0.116%, P < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analyses, the odd of birth defects was lower among couples with maternal folic acid supplementation (OR = 0.78, 95%CI: 0.66-0.95, P = 0.011), especially decreased odd of neural tube defects (NTDs) (OR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.39-0.82, P = 0.003). This association was confirmed by 1:4 and 1:10 case control analysis. Odds of birth defects were significantly lower among women with folic acid supplementation more than 3 months before pregnancy (P < 0.001), and moreover, the odds of cleft (P = 0.007) and NTDs (P = 0.007) were of notable decrease. CONCLUSION: This retrospective case cohort study provides programmatic evidence for public health strategy-making to for reducing the risk of NTDs and clefts.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Fólico , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Defectos del Tubo Neural/prevención & control , Suplementos Dietéticos , China
10.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 20: 17455057231224176, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38279794

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Several countries poorly adhere to the World Health Organization's recommendation of folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period, especially in limited-resource settings. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and the factors associated with folic acid usage in the periconceptional period among pregnant women at Gadarif Maternity Hospital in eastern Sudan. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study was conducted in eastern Sudan from April to September 2022. A total of 720 pregnant women in their first trimester were enrolled. The sociodemographic characteristics and clinical and obstetrical data of pregnant women in their first trimester were assessed using a face-to-face questionnaire. In addition, multivariate regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: In this study, the median (interquartile range) of the age and gravidity of the enrolled women was 26.3 (24.14-29.52) years and 2 (1-4), respectively. Of these 720 women, 423 (58.8%) used folic acid during the periconceptional period, while 27 (3.7%) women used folic acid in the preconceptional period. None of the investigated factors (age, residence, education, employment, body mass index, or gravidity) were associated with periconceptional use of folic acid. CONCLUSION: The study revealed a low prevalence of folic acid usage in preconceptional period among pregnant women in eastern Sudan. Additional efforts are needed to promote folic acid usage in the preconceptional period as well as in the first trimester.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Fólico , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Masculino , Ácido Fólico/uso terapéutico , Estudios Transversales , Suplementos Dietéticos , Sudán/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Defectos del Tubo Neural/epidemiología , Defectos del Tubo Neural/prevención & control
11.
Zool Res ; 45(2): 233-241, 2024 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38287904

RESUMEN

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital neurodevelopmental disorders arising from incomplete neural tube closure. Although folate supplementation has been shown to mitigate the incidence of NTDs, some cases, often attributable to genetic factors, remain unpreventable. The SHROOM3 gene has been implicated in NTD cases that are unresponsive to folate supplementation; at present, however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Neural tube morphogenesis is a complex process involving the folding of the planar epithelium of the neural plate. To determine the role of SHROOM3 in early developmental morphogenesis, we established a neuroepithelial organoid culture system derived from cynomolgus monkeys to closely mimic the in vivo neural plate phase. Loss of SHROOM3 resulted in shorter neuroepithelial cells and smaller nuclei. These morphological changes were attributed to the insufficient recruitment of cytoskeletal proteins, namely fibrous actin (F-actin), myosin II, and phospho-myosin light chain (PMLC), to the apical side of the neuroepithelial cells. Notably, these defects were not rescued by folate supplementation. RNA sequencing revealed that differentially expressed genes were enriched in biological processes associated with cellular and organ morphogenesis. In summary, we established an authentic in vitro system to study NTDs and identified a novel mechanism for NTDs that are unresponsive to folate supplementation.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas del Citoesqueleto , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Animales , Proteínas del Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Tubo Neural/metabolismo , Macaca fascicularis , Defectos del Tubo Neural/genética , Defectos del Tubo Neural/metabolismo , Defectos del Tubo Neural/veterinaria , Células Neuroepiteliales/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Organoides , Citoesqueleto
12.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 230(2): 254.e1-254.e13, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37531989

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia from pregestational diabetes mellitus induces neural tube defects in the developing fetus. Folate supplementation is the only effective way to prevent neural tube defects; however, some cases of neural tube defects are resistant to folate. Excess folate has been linked to higher maternal cancer risk and infant allergy. Therefore, additional interventions are needed. Understanding the mechanisms underlying maternal diabetes mellitus-induced neural tube defects can identify potential targets for preventing such defects. Despite not yet being in clinical use, growing evidence suggests that microRNAs are important intermediates in embryonic development and can serve as both biomarkers and drug targets for disease intervention. Our previous studies showed that maternal diabetes mellitus in vivo activates the inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease 1α (IRE1α) in the developing embryo and that a high glucose condition in vitro reduces microRNA-322 (miR-322) levels. IRE1α is an RNA endonuclease; however, it is unknown whether IRE1α targets and degrades miR-322 specifically or whether miR-322 degradation leads to neural tube defects via apoptosis. We hypothesize that IRE1α can inhibit miR-322 in maternal diabetes mellitus-induced neural tube defects and that restoring miR-322 expression in developing neuroepithelium ameliorates neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify potential targets for preventing maternal diabetes mellitus-induced neural tube defects and to investigate the roles and relationship of a microRNA and an RNA endonuclease in mouse embryos exposed to maternal diabetes mellitus. STUDY DESIGN: To determine whether miR-322 reduction is necessary for neural tube defect formation in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus, male mice carrying a transgene expressing miR-322 were mated with nondiabetic or diabetic wide-type female mice to generate embryos with or without miR-322 overexpression. At embryonic day 8.5 when the neural tube is not yet closed, embryos were harvested for the assessment of 3 miR-322 transcripts (primary, precursor, and mature miR-322), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3), and neuroepithelium cell survival. Neural tube defect incidences were determined in embryonic day 10.5 embryos when the neural tube should be closed if there is no neural tube defect formation. To identify which miR-322 transcript is affected by maternal diabetes mellitus and high glucose conditions, 3 miR-322 transcripts were assessed in embryos from dams with or without diabetes mellitus and in C17.2 mouse neural stem cells treated with different concentrations of glucose and at different time points. To determine whether the endonuclease IRE1α targets miR-322, small interfering RNA knockdown of IRE1α or overexpression of inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease 1α by DNA plasmid transfection was used to determine the effect of IRE1α deficiency or overexpression on miR-322 expression. RNA immunoprecipitation was performed to reveal the direct targets of inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease 1α. RESULTS: Maternal diabetes mellitus suppressed miR-322 expression in the developing neuroepithelium. Restoring miR-322 expression in the neuroepithelium blocked maternal diabetes mellitus-induced caspase-3 and caspase-8 cleavage and cell apoptosis, leading to a neural tube defect reduction. Reversal of maternal diabetes mellitus-inhibited miR-322 via transgenic overexpression prevented TRAF3 up-regulation in embryos exposed to maternal diabetes mellitus. Activated IRE1α acted as an endonuclease and degraded precursor miR-322, resulting in mature miR-322 reduction. CONCLUSION: This study supports the crucial role of the IRE1α-microRNA-TRAF3 circuit in the induction of neuroepithelial cell apoptosis and neural tube defect formation in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus and identifies IRE1α and miR-322 as potential targets for preventing maternal diabetes mellitus-induced neural tube defects.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Gestacional , MicroARNs , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Embarazo en Diabéticas , Humanos , Embarazo , Masculino , Femenino , Ratones , Animales , MicroARNs/genética , MicroARNs/metabolismo , Factor 3 Asociado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Endorribonucleasas/genética , Endorribonucleasas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinasas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Defectos del Tubo Neural/genética , Defectos del Tubo Neural/patología , Embarazo en Diabéticas/genética , Embarazo en Diabéticas/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Glucosa , Ácido Fólico , Inositol
13.
AIDS ; 38(4): 439-446, 2024 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37382903

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In 2018, the Botswana Tsepamo Study reported a nine-fold increased risk of neural tube defects in infants whose mothers were treated with dolutegravir (DTG) from the time of conception. As maternal folate supplementation and status is a well known modifier of neural tube defect (NTD) risk, we sought to evaluate birth outcomes in mice fed normal and low folic acid diets treated with DTG during pregnancy. DESIGN: DTG was evaluated for developmental toxicity using pregnant mice fed normal or low folic acid diet. METHODS: CD-1 mice were provided diet with normal (3 mg/kg) or low (0.3 mg/kg) folic acid. They were treated with water, a human therapeutic-equivalent dose, or supratherapeutic dose of DTG from mouse embryonic day E6.5 to E12.5. Pregnant dams were sacrificed at term (E18.5) and fetuses were inspected for gross, internal, and skeletal defects. RESULTS: Fetuses with exencephaly, an NTD, were present in both therapeutic human equivalent and supratherapeutic exposures in dams fed low folic acid diet. Cleft palates were also found under both folate conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Recommended dietary folic acid levels during mouse pregnancy ameliorate developmental defects that arise from DTG exposure. Since low folate status in mice exposed to DTG increases the risk for NTDs, it is possible that DTG exposures in people living with HIV with low folate status during pregnancy may explain, at least in part, the elevated NTD risk signal observed in Botswana. Based on these results, future studies should consider folate status as a modifier for DTG-associated NTD risk.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Oxazinas , Piperazinas , Piridonas , Humanos , Embarazo , Femenino , Animales , Ratones , Ácido Fólico/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Defectos del Tubo Neural/inducido químicamente , Defectos del Tubo Neural/tratamiento farmacológico , Compuestos Heterocíclicos con 3 Anillos/efectos adversos
14.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 40(1): 163-170, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37452861

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common congenital anomalies and a cause of chronic disability. The study was done to study outcomes of neural tube defects admitted at a tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from 2018 to 2022, a period of 4 years that also coincided with the COVID pandemic. The secondary outcome was to study the clinical presentation, associated anomalies and epidemiological features. METHODS: It was a retrospective observational study; data of infants was obtained from medical records and analysis was done. RESULTS: Thirty-four neonates were enrolled, of which there were 16 (47%) males and 18 (53%) females. History of pre-pregnancy maternal folate intake was present in 4 (11.7%) cases. 33 (97%) babies were diagnosed with meningomyelocele (MMC) and one each had anencephaly, iniencephaly and encephalocele, of which one had frontal and two had occipital encephalocele. The median age of surgery was 16 days of life with primary repair being the most common procedure followed by MMC repair with VP shunt. Twenty babies (58.8%) were discharged successfully, while 9 (26.5%) expired and 5 (14.7%) were discharged against medical advice; which can be attributed to the financial problems of the patients in a developing country. The overall deaths in our series were four (26.5%) which is slightly higher than other studies which may be due to the fact that this study was conducted during the COVID era with lesser rates of folate supplementation, reduced access to prenatal diagnosis coupled with poor follow-up and compliance of patients post-surgical repair. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the importance of periconceptional folic acid supplementation, prenatal diagnosis, early surgery and meticulous follow-up as being pivotal to improving outcomes in children with NTDs.


Asunto(s)
Anencefalia , Meningomielocele , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Embarazo , Masculino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Femenino , Niño , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal , Defectos del Tubo Neural/epidemiología , Defectos del Tubo Neural/cirugía , Ácido Fólico , Meningomielocele/cirugía , Anencefalia/diagnóstico , Encefalocele/diagnóstico
15.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 40(3): 707-713, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37947860

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Myelomeningocele is the most severe birth defect compatible with long-term survival. It accounts for 5.7% of neurological surgeries in Nigeria. However, the exact cause of this neural tube defect remains unidentified. This study aims to determine if seasonal variation is a potential environmental contributor. METHOD: This study prospectively recruited 242 children diagnosed with myelomeningocele at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria, between January 2010 and December 2022. Our primary outcome was the seasonal occurrence of myelomeningocele, while covariates included gender, birth order, maternal folic acid supplementation (FAS), and parental age. The estimated month of conception was derived from the mother's last menstrual period (LMP), and the occurrence of myelomeningocele across the various seasons in which these babies were conceived was assessed using the Lorenz curve and the Gini coefficient. RESULTS: 242 patients were studied with a male-to-female ratio of 1.26. The majority of cases were lumbosacral (93.4%), and none of the mothers commenced FAS before conception. The highest proportion of cases (39.7%) occurred during the hottest period of the dry season (January-March), while the lowest proportion (15.7%) occurred during the early wet season (April-June). The Gini index of 0.29, and the Gini coefficient derived from 100,000 Monte Carlo simulations of 0.24, indicate a significant variation in the distribution of myelomeningocele cases across different seasons of conception. CONCLUSION: The seasonal occurrence of myelomeningocele with a peak in January-March suggests a potential association with environmental factors including oxidative stress induced by solar radiation.


Asunto(s)
Meningomielocele , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Lactante , Niño , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Meningomielocele/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Nigeria/epidemiología , Defectos del Tubo Neural/epidemiología , Hospitales de Enseñanza
16.
Womens Health Issues ; 34(2): 172-179, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37833104

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In the United States, the prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) is higher among infants born to Hispanic women compared with those born to non-Hispanic women. The purpose of this study is to investigate perceptions of NTDs and the use of folic acid and folate as a preventive measure among Hispanic women. METHODS: Purposive sampling was used to recruit Hispanic women from a prenatal clinic in a Northeastern metropolitan city. In-depth interviews were conducted by native Spanish-speaking researchers using a semistructured interview guide. Thematic analysis was used to develop themes related to a priori domains. FINDINGS: The study sample consisted of 26 Hispanic women representing nine countries of origin. Four themes were revealed: dietary sources of folic acid, awareness of folic acid supplementation and fortification, preferences for receiving health information, and factors in decision-making concerning an NTD diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the importance of early and targeted educational interventions sensitive to the cultural needs of this population. Results suggest that current NTD health education efforts may not be sufficient to increase our participants' knowledge of NTD. Additionally, the disparity may be multimodal, potentially influenced by insufficient understanding of prenatal folic acid use and the role of religiosity in decision-making during pregnancy. If Hispanic women are more likely to continue pregnancies affected by NTDs, this factor could be a part of NTD disparities. Exploring factors beyond supplementation and fortification that might influence rates of NTDs at birth in the U.S. Hispanic population can help to inform prevention efforts.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Embarazo , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Defectos del Tubo Neural/prevención & control , Defectos del Tubo Neural/epidemiología , Ácido Fólico/uso terapéutico , Educación en Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud
17.
Arch Dis Child ; 109(2): 106-112, 2024 01 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37875332

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To determine the baseline trends in the total birth prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in England (2000-2019) to enable the impact of folic acid fortification of non-wholemeal wheat flour to be monitored. DESIGN: Population-based, observational study using congenital anomaly (CA) registration data for England curated by the National Congenital Anomaly and Rare Disease Registration Service (NCARDRS). SETTING: Regions of England with active registration in the time period. PARTICIPANTS: Babies that were liveborn or stillborn and pregnancies that resulted in a termination of pregnancy or a late miscarriage (20-23 weeks' gestation) with an NTD. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total birth prevalence of anencephaly, spina bifida and all NTDs in England. Poisson regression analysis was used to evaluate time trends with regional register as a random effect. The progress of national registration across England was assessed. RESULTS: There were 4541 NTD pregnancies out of 3 637 842 births in England; 1982 anencephaly and 2127 spina bifida. NTD prevalence was 12.5 (95% CI 12.1 to 12.9) per 10 000 total births. NTD prevalence per 10 000 total births was significantly higher in 2015-2019 (13.6, 95% CI 12.9 to 14.4) compared with 2010-2014 (12.1, 95% CI 11.7 to 12.5). An increasing trend in NTDs overall was detected (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.01, 1.00 to 1.02), although further analysis determined this effect was confined to 2015-2019 (compared against 2000-2004, IRR 1.14, 1.04 to 1.24). The birth prevalence of anencephaly reflected this pattern. The prevalence of spina bifida remained relatively stable over time. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline NTD prevalence for England has been established. National and standardised CA registration is in place, facilitating the systematic and consistent monitoring of pre-fortification and post-fortification NTD trends and evaluating the impact of fortification on NTD prevalence.


Asunto(s)
Anencefalia , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Disrafia Espinal , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Ácido Fólico , Harina , Prevalencia , Anencefalia/epidemiología , Anencefalia/prevención & control , Estudios de Cohortes , Triticum , Alimentos Fortificados , Defectos del Tubo Neural/epidemiología , Defectos del Tubo Neural/prevención & control , Disrafia Espinal/epidemiología , Disrafia Espinal/prevención & control
18.
FASEB J ; 38(1): e23346, 2024 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38095297

RESUMEN

Folate deficiency contribute to neural tube defects (NTDs) which could be rescued by folate supplementation. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Besides, there is considerable controversy concerning the forms of folate used for supplementation. To address this controversy, we prepared culture medium with different forms of folate, folic acid (FA), and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5mTHF), at concentrations of 5 µM, 500 nM, 50 nM, and folate free, respectively. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were treated with different folates continuously for three passages, and cell proliferation and F-actin were monitored. We determined that compared to 5mTHF, FA showed stronger effects on promoting cell proliferation and F-actin formation. We also found that FOLR1 protein level was positively regulated by folate concentration and the non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway signaling was significantly enriched among different folate conditions in RNA-sequencing analyses. We demonstrated for the first time that FOLR1 could promote the transcription of Vangl2, one of PCP core genes. The transcription of Vangl2 was down-regulated under folate-deficient condition, which resulted in a decrease in PCP activity and F-actin formation. In summary, we identified a distinct advantage of FA in cell proliferation and F-actin formation over 5mTHF, as well as demonstrating that FOLR1 could promote transcription of Vangl2 and provide a new mechanism by which folate deficiency can contribute to the etiology of NTDs.


Asunto(s)
Deficiencia de Ácido Fólico , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Animales , Ratones , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Receptor 1 de Folato/genética , Receptor 1 de Folato/metabolismo , Polaridad Celular/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Vía de Señalización Wnt , Defectos del Tubo Neural/genética , Defectos del Tubo Neural/metabolismo , Deficiencia de Ácido Fólico/metabolismo
19.
Nutrients ; 15(23)2023 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38068802

RESUMEN

Adequate nutrient supply is crucial for the proper development of the embryo. Although nutrient supply is determined by maternal diet, the gut microbiota also influences nutrient availability. While currently there is no cure for neural tube defects (NTDs), their prevention is largely amenable to maternal folic acid and inositol supplementation. The gut microbiota also contributes to the production of these nutrients, which are absorbed by the host, but its role in this context remains largely unexplored. In this study, we performed a functional and morphological analysis of the intestinal tract of loop-tail mice (Vangl2 mutants), a mouse model of folate/inositol-resistant NTDs. In addition, we investigated the changes in gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing regarding (1) the host genotype; (2) the sample source for metagenomics analysis; (3) the pregnancy status in the gestational window of neural tube closure; (4) folic acid and (5) D-chiro-inositol supplementation. We observed that Vangl2+/Lp mice showed no apparent changes in gastrointestinal transit time or fecal output, yet exhibited increased intestinal length and cecal weight and gut dysbiosis. Moreover, our results showed that the mice supplemented with folic acid and D-chiro-inositol had significant changes in their microbiota composition, which are changes that could have implications for nutrient absorption.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Femenino , Embarazo , Ratones , Animales , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Defectos del Tubo Neural/prevención & control , Ácido Fólico/farmacología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Inositol , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad
20.
BMC Womens Health ; 23(1): 662, 2023 12 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38071290

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe birth defects caused by nutritional, genetic or environmental factors. Because NTDs continue to have a significant health and economic impact on children and community at large, it is crucial to investigate potential risk factors in order to develop novel approaches to NTDs prevention. Determinants for the development of NTDs differ by country, region as well as within the country. The objective of this study was to identify the determinants of NTDs among newborns delivered in three hospitals found in eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: A hospital-based matched case-control study was conducted among 138 cases and 138 control women who delivered in three teaching hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia in 2021. Data were collected using a structured and pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Cases were mothers who delivered a neonate with any type of NTDs regardless of gestational age or fetal viability, whereas controls were mothers who delivered an apparently healthy newborn. Chi-square was used to assess the significant difference between the two groups. Conditional logistic regression model was used to generate adjusted odds ratio with its corresponding 95% confidence intervals and compare the two groups. RESULTS: Anencephaly (51.4%) and spinal bifida (34.1%) were the most frequently observed NTDs. None of study participants took preconception folic acid supplementation. Being a non-formal mothers (AOR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.12-0.92, P = 0.034), rural residence, (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.18-9.78, P = 0.023), history of spontaneous abortion (AOR = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.15-7.55, P = 0.023), having severe anemia (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.17-9.87, P = 0.024), history of fever or cold (AOR = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.05-7.15, P = 0.038), and an exposure to various agro-chemicals (AOR = 3.39, 95% CI: 1.11-10.3, P = 0.032) were independent determinants of NTDs. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: In this study, NTDs were associated to several determinant factors in the area, including residential area, history of spontaneous abortion, severe anemia, fever/cold, antibiotic use before or during early pregnancy, and exposure to agrochemicals. Addressing the identified determinants is critical in averting the incidence of NTDs in the study area. Moreover, more research is needed to investigate women's dietary practices as well as the practice of preconception folic acid supplementation for pregnant women in Ethiopia's current health care system.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Espontáneo , Anemia , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Etiopía/epidemiología , Defectos del Tubo Neural/epidemiología , Defectos del Tubo Neural/etiología , Defectos del Tubo Neural/prevención & control , Ácido Fólico/uso terapéutico , Hospitales , Anemia/epidemiología
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