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1.
Res Vet Sci ; 172: 105253, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579632

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to examine the effects of repeated administrations of antioxidant multiminerals and vitamins in transition buffaloes on udder defense mechanism, antioxidant activity and occurrence of intramammary infection (IMI) in early lactation period. Forty clinically healthy pregnant buffaloes were enrolled 45 days before expected date of calving and randomly allocated into five different supplementation groups (n = 8): only basal ration (control), vitamin E and selenium (VES), multiminerals (MM), ascorbic acid (AA) and chromium (Cr) picolinate in basal diet. The udder defense mechanism was monitored by measuring phagocytic activity (PA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitric oxide (NO) productions in milk leukocytes, antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma and occurrence of IMI was assessed by milk cytology, bacterial count in milk and visible clinical signs of udder until day 28 post-calving. The results showed that the VES and MM supplementations exhibited significantly higher PA, MPO and NO productions of milk leukocytes till first week of lactation whereas, elevated mean TAC in plasma was maintained from day -7 to 1 of calving in MM supplementation group as compared to control group. Statistically, no significant difference in occurrences of subclinical or clinical IMI was noted across the groups until four weeks of lactation. Taken together, it is concluded that repeated administrations of VES and MM to transition buffaloes could be an effective strategy to maintain good udder health by augmenting milk leukocyte functions and antioxidant status and preventing incidence of IMI in early lactation.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Búfalos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Lactancia , Glándulas Mamarias Animales , Vitaminas , Animales , Femenino , Antioxidantes/administración & dosificación , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación , Vitaminas/farmacología , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/efectos de los fármacos , Leche/química , Dieta/veterinaria , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Minerales/administración & dosificación , Embarazo , Distribución Aleatoria
2.
J Anim Sci ; 1022024 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613515

RESUMEN

Angus-crossbred steers (n = 400; 369.7 ±â€…7.6 kg) were used to determine the influence of trace mineral (TM) source and chromium propionate (Cr Prop) supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal and plasma variables in finishing steers. Steers were blocked by body weight (BW) and randomly assigned within block to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with factors being: 1) TM source (STM or HTM) and 2) Cr supplementation (0 or 0.25 mg Cr/kg DM, -Cr or + Cr, respectively). Treatments consisted of the addition of: 1) sulfate TM (STM; 90, 40, and 18 mg/kg DM of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively), 2) STM and 0.25 mg Cr/kg DM from Cr Prop, 3) hydroxychloride TM (HTM; 90, 40, and 18 mg/kg DM of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively), and 4) HTM and 0.25 mg Cr/kg DM from Cr Prop. Each treatment consisted of 10 replicate pens with 10 steers per pen. Body weights were obtained on consecutive days at the initiation and termination of the 154-d study. Steers were fed a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diet. Ractopamine hydrochloride was fed for the last 31 d of the study. Ruminal fluid and blood samples were obtained from one steer per pen on days 28 and 84 for ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA) and plasma TM and glucose analysis. Steers were slaughtered at the end of the study and individual carcass data were collected. No Cr × TM source interactions (P = 0.48) were detected. Steers supplemented with HTM had greater (P = 0.04) hot carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP), longissimus muscle (LM) area, and USDA yield grade (YG), and tended (P = 0.12) to have greater average daily gain (ADG) than those receiving STM. Average daily gain, gain:feed, dressing percentage, and longissimus muscle area were greater (P = 0.04) for + Cr steers compared to-Cr steers. Hot carcass weight tended (P = 0.06) to be greater for + Cr steers. Ruminal acetate concentrations at 28 d were lesser (P = 0.01) for HTM vs. STM steers, and greater (P = 0.04) for + Cr steers compared to-Cr steers. Plasma concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mn were not affected by TM source or Cr supplementation. Steers supplemented with Cr had greater (P = 0.05) plasma glucose concentrations than-Cr steers at 28 but not at 84 d. Results of this study indicate replacing STM with HTM improved carcass characteristics in finishing steers, and Cr Prop supplementation improved steer performance and carcass characteristics.


Trace minerals (TM) are supplemented to finishing cattle diets to prevent TM deficiencies. Sources of TM differ in their bioavailability and effect on rumen fermentation. Chromium is a TM required in low concentrations to enhance insulin activity. We tested the effect of TM source (hydroxychloride; HTM vs. sulfate; STM) and supplemental Cr propionate (Cr Prop) on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing steers. Providing 0.25 mg of supplemental Cr/kg DM, from Cr Prop, improved gain, feed efficiency, and carcass characteristics in steers. Steers supplemented with HTM tended to gain faster and had improved carcass characteristics of economic importance compared to those supplemented with STM.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Propionatos , Oligoelementos , Animales , Bovinos/fisiología , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Masculino , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Dieta/veterinaria , Oligoelementos/farmacología , Oligoelementos/administración & dosificación , Propionatos/farmacología , Propionatos/administración & dosificación , Rumen/efectos de los fármacos , Rumen/metabolismo , Composición Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Cromo/farmacología , Cromo/administración & dosificación , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Distribución Aleatoria , Carne/análisis
3.
J Anim Sci ; 1022024 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632976

RESUMEN

This experiment aimed to investigate the effects of dietary iron supplementation from different sources on the reproductive performance of sows and the growth performance of piglets. A total of 87 sows with similar farrowing time were blocked by body weight at day 85 of gestation, and assigned to one of three dietary treatments (n = 29 per treatment): basal diet, basal diet supplemented with 0.2% ferrous sulfate (FeSO4), and basal diet supplemented with 0.2% iron sucrose, respectively, with 30% iron in both FeSO4 and iron sucrose. Compared with the control (CON) group, iron sucrose supplementation reduced the rate of stillbirth and invalid of neonatal piglets (P < 0.05), and the number of mummified fetuses was 0. Moreover, it also improved the coat color of newborn piglets (P < 0.05). At the same time, the iron sucrose could also achieve 100% estrus rate of sows. Compared with the CON group, FeSO4 and iron sucrose supplementation increased the serum iron content of weaned piglets (P < 0.05). In addition, iron sucrose increased serum transferrin level of weaned piglets (P < 0.05) and the survival rate of piglets (P < 0.05). In general, both iron sucrose and FeSO4 could affect the blood iron status of weaned piglets, while iron sucrose also had a positive effect on the healthy development of newborn and weaned piglets, and was more effective than FeSO4 in improving the performance of sows and piglets.


Sows need more iron to meet the requirements for their and offspring's growth during pregnancy and lactation. Exogenous iron supplementation may improve the reproductive performance of sows and the growth performance of piglets, but different sources of iron have different effects. This study facilitates the understanding of the effects of iron sucrose and ferrous sulfate on the reproductive performance of sows and the growth performance of piglets.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Reproducción , Animales , Femenino , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Dieta/veterinaria , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Porcinos/fisiología , Reproducción/efectos de los fármacos , Embarazo , Animales Recién Nacidos , Hierro/administración & dosificación , Hierro/farmacología , Compuestos Ferrosos/farmacología , Compuestos Ferrosos/administración & dosificación , Sacarato de Óxido Férrico/farmacología , Sacarato de Óxido Férrico/administración & dosificación , Hierro de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Hierro de la Dieta/farmacología
4.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 149: 109534, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575040

RESUMEN

Zinc is one of the essential microelements for the metabolism of animals. Zinc nanoparticles may have higher bioavailability due to their low specific surface area, facilitating absorption by fish. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementation with different zinc-based products on the growth and health of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Zinc, in different sizes (nanoparticles or bulk) and forms (inorganic or organic), were used as a supplement in the tilapia diet at a dose of 15 mg kg feed-1 for 60 days. At the end of the feeding trial, production performance, hemato-immunological parameters, activity of antioxidant system enzymes, exposure to Streptococcus agalactiae and zinc concentration in the muscle were examined. After the bacterial challenge, the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) significantly increased in the fish treated with organic zinc, inorganic nano zinc, and organic nano zinc, while in the control group (inorganic zinc), MCHC remained unchanged. Regarding defense cells, dietary inorganic nano zinc increased the number of basophils (1.50 ± 1.10) compared to organic zinc (0.80 ± 0.90). Lymphocyte count increased after the challenge only in the organic zinc treatments (bulk and nanoparticles). Neutrophils decreased in the control (inorganic zinc) (2.20 ± 1.70) and inorganic nano zinc (2.60 ± 2.70) treatments after the challenge. When compared before and after the bacterial challenge, the plasma antimicrobial titer significantly increased after the bacterial challenge in all treatments. No significant differences were observed for total proteins, enzymes (SOD and CAT), cumulative survival and zinc deposition on fillet. In conclusion, organic zinc in nanoparticles or bulk size increased Nile tilapia innate defense during bacterial infection. However, the other parameters evaluated were not affected by zinc particle size or form (organic or inorganic), indicating that further evaluations should be conducted with organic zinc in nanoparticles or bulk size in the tilapia diet.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Cíclidos , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Enfermedades de los Peces , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus agalactiae , Zinc , Animales , Cíclidos/inmunología , Cíclidos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Zinc/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Dieta/veterinaria , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/veterinaria , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/inmunología , Streptococcus agalactiae/fisiología , Enfermedades de los Peces/inmunología , Distribución Aleatoria , Inmunidad Innata/efectos de los fármacos
5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 149: 109555, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615703

RESUMEN

Developing a low-protein feed is important for the sustainable advancement of aquaculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of essential amino acid (EAA) supplementation in a low-protein diet on the growth, intestinal health, and microbiota of the juvenile blotched snakehead, Channa maculata in an 8-week trial conducted in a recirculating aquaculture system. Three isoenergetic diets were formulated to include a control group (48.66 % crude protein (CP), HP), a low protein group (42.54 % CP, LP), and a low protein supplementation EAA group (44.44 % CP, LP-AA). The results showed that significantly lower weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), and feed efficiency ratio (FER) were observed in fish that were fed LP than in the HP and LP-AA groups (P < 0.05). The HP and LP-AA groups exhibited a significant increase in intestinal villus length, villus width, and muscular thickness compared to the LP group (P < 0.05). Additionally, the HP and LP-AA groups demonstrated significantly higher levels of intestinal total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) compared to the LP group (P < 0.05). The apoptosis rate of intestinal cells in the LP group was significantly higher than those in the LP and HP groups (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of superoxide dismutase (sod), nuclear factor kappa B p65 subunit (nfκb-p65), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and inhibitor of NF-κBα (iκba) in the intestine were significantly higher in the LP group than those in the HP and LP-AA groups (P < 0.05). The 16s RNA analysis indicated that EAA supplementation significantly increased the growth of Desulfovibrio and altered the intestinal microflora. The relative abundances of Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria were positively correlated with antioxidant parameters (CAT and T-AOC), whereas Desulfobacterota was negatively correlated with sod and T-AOC. The genera Bacillus, Bacteroides, and Rothia were associated with the favorable maintenance of gut health. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with EAAs to achieve a balanced amino acid profile could potentially reduce the dietary protein levels from 48.66 % to 44.44 % without adversely affecting the growth and intestinal health of juvenile blotched snakeheads.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos Esenciales , Alimentación Animal , Suplementos Dietéticos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos , Animales , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Aminoácidos Esenciales/administración & dosificación , Perciformes/crecimiento & desarrollo , Perciformes/inmunología , Dieta con Restricción de Proteínas/veterinaria , Dieta/veterinaria , Distribución Aleatoria , Peces/crecimiento & desarrollo , Acuicultura , Channa punctatus
6.
Stress ; 27(1): 2319803, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628154

RESUMEN

Heat stress has been ranked as a critical environmental issue confronting chicken farmers worldwide because of its detrimental effect on the growth, performance and health of the birds. This study evaluated the effects of early-age thermal manipulation (EATC) and supplemental antioxidants on the physiological responses of broilers in a hot tropical environment. A total of 300 day-old Ross broiler chicks were allocated to five thermal and dietary treatments, having 5 replicates of twelve birds each. The treatments were: chicks reared using the conventional method (CC), chicks exposed to early thermal manipulation with a temperature of 38 °C at day 5 with no antioxidant supplementation (TC), TC plus vitamin E at 250 mg/kg of feed (TV), TC plus selenium at 0.5 mg/kg of feed (TS) and the combination of TS and TV(TVS). The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design and data collected were analyzed using SAS (2008). The results showed that TVS broilers had significantly higher (P < 0.05) body weights at the finisher phase than the other treatment groups. The feed conversion ratio of TVS broilers was comparable to the TV group but lower (P < 0.05) than the other treatments. Reduced levels (P < 0.05) of heterophil, lymphocytes and hetrophil and lymphocyte ratio were recorded in the TVS compared to TV, TS and TC broilers. On day 42, the rectal temperature was significantly higher in CC than those in other treatment groups, which were comparable. TVS birds had higher (P < 0.05) weights of spleen, liver and lower abdominal fat than other treatments. The lowest concentration of plasma malondialdehyde and the highest activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were recorded in TV and TVS birds. The study concluded that the growth performance and oxidative status in broilers were improved by the combination of EATC with supplemental Se and vitamin E (TVS).


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Pollos , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Pollos/fisiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Estrés Psicológico , Vitamina E/farmacología
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7657, 2024 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561353

RESUMEN

The present study was conducted to assess the impact of non-encapsulated, air-dried microencapsulated, and lyophilized microencapsulated probiotics in indigenous cattle calves (Bos indicus). Twenty-four (5-7 days old) indigenous cattle calves were selected and assigned into four groups, with six calves in each as follows: control (CON), fed milk and basal diet alone, and treatment groups supplemented with non-encapsulated (NEC), air-dried microencapsulated (AEC) and lyophilized microencapsulated (LEC) probiotic L. reuteri SW23 at 108 CFU/head/day in skim milk as a carrier provided for 60 days. The animals were divided into four groups, adopting a complete randomized design, and the effects were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. Probiotics supplementation increased (p < 0.05) body weight gain (kg), average daily gain, and structural growth measurements in calves of all treatment groups. Dry matter intake (g/d), feed conversion efficiency, and fecal counts of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria were also increased in the treatment groups compared to CON. The fecal consistency index was highest in CON (0.70 ± 0.03), followed by NEC (0.68 ± 0.01), AEC (0.66 ± 0.02), and LEC (0.65 ± 0.02). Fecal pH and ammonia levels were reduced (p < 0.05) in the probiotic-fed groups compared to CON, with a concomitant increase in fecal lactate, acetate, and propionate levels. In addition, cell-mediated and humoral immunity were significantly increased in supplemented groups as compared to CON. Thus, it can be concluded that supplementation of the probiotics in microencapsulated/non-encapsulated forms to neonatal calves had a variety of positive effects on their health, including better performance, improved gut health, and a lower fecal consistency index. Moreover, among all supplemented groups, the lyophilized microencapsulated group outperformed air-dried microencapsulated and non-microencapsulated groups in terms of ADG, DMI, and gut health.


Asunto(s)
Limosilactobacillus reuteri , Probióticos , Animales , Bovinos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácido Láctico , Probióticos/farmacología , Destete
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(15): 8595-8605, 2024 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591744

RESUMEN

The nutritional composition of the diet significantly impacts the overall growth and development of weaned piglets. The current study aimed to explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of dietary tryptophan consumption on muscle fiber type transformation during the weaning period. Thirty weaned piglets with an average body weight of 6.12 ± 0.16 kg were randomly divided into control (CON, 0.14% Trp diet) and high Trp (HT, 0.35% Trp) groups and maintained on the respective diet for 28 days. The HT group of weaned piglets exhibited highly significant improvements in growth performance and an increased proportion of fast muscle fibers. Transcriptome sequencing revealed the potential contribution of differentially expressed circular RNAs toward the transformation of myofiber types in piglets and toward the regulation of expression of related genes by targeting the microRNAs, miR-34c and miR-182, to further regulate myofiber transformation. In addition, 145 DE circRNAs were identified as potentially protein-encoding, with the encoded proteins associated with a myofiber type transformation. In conclusion, the current study greatly advances and refines our current understanding of the regulatory networks associated with piglet muscle development and myofiber type transformation and also contributes to the optimization of piglet diet formulation.


Asunto(s)
MicroARNs , Triptófano , Animales , Porcinos/genética , Triptófano/metabolismo , Destete , ARN Circular/genética , Suplementos Dietéticos , Dieta/veterinaria , MicroARNs/genética
9.
Open Vet J ; 14(1): 586-593, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38633160

RESUMEN

Background: This study discussed the effect of probiotic supplementation on laying hens' diets and the enhancement of egg quality during the cold storage period. Aim: To study the efficacy of the addition of probiotics to hen diets in terms of improving the egg's quality during the cold storage period and protection against enteric pathogens. Methods: 100 table eggs were collected from farms of laying hens on a battery system, 46 weeks old HylineW36 white in Sharkia Government. The collected eggs were separated into 2 groups (50 each); the control group from hens fed on diets without probiotics, and the probiotic group from hens fed on diets with (100 g/ton) of supplemented probiotics preparation. All groups were separated into 5 sub-groups for the examinations; on the fresh day, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days on cold storage at 4°C. Chemical, physical, and microbiological examinations were done for internal egg contents and eggshells. Results: Our results showed that probiotics supplements have advantageous effects on the quality of eggs during cold storage periods. Also, microbiological examination proved that eggshells from hens fed on diets with probiotics supplemented (100 g/ton) have decreased the level of bacterial contamination with Salmonella and Escherichia coli than hens fed on a regular diet. Conclusion: It could be shown that the probiotics supplementation may decrease and reduce the effect of the storage period on the quality of shell, albumen, and yolk.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Probióticos , Animales , Femenino , Óvulo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Dieta/veterinaria
10.
Anim Sci J ; 95(1): e13946, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38651265

RESUMEN

This study explored the effects of a Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus mixture containing the co-fermented products of the two probiotics on growth performance, serum immunity and cecal microbiota of Cherry Valley ducks. This study included 480 one-day-old Cherry Valley ducks divided into four feeding groups: basal diet (control group) and basal diet supplemented with 300, 500, or 700 mg/kg of the probiotic powder; the ducks were raised for 42 days. Compared with the control group, body weight on day 42 and the average daily gain on days 15-42 significantly increased (p < 0.05), and the feed conversion rate significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the experimental groups. Furthermore, the serum immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG, IgM, and interleukin (IL)-4 levels increased significantly (p < 0.05), and IL-1ß, IL-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the experimental groups. Finally, Sellimonas, Prevotellaceae NK3B31 group, Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group and Butyricoccus played an important role in the cecal microbiota of the experimental group. Thus, the probiotic powder has impacts on the growth performance, serum immunity and cecal microbiota of Cherry Valley Ducks.


Asunto(s)
Bacillus subtilis , Ciego , Patos , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Probióticos , Animales , Probióticos/administración & dosificación , Ciego/microbiología , Patos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Patos/microbiología , Patos/inmunología , Patos/sangre , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Dieta/veterinaria , Alimentación Animal , Inmunoglobulinas/sangre , Suplementos Dietéticos
11.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(3): e1461, 2024 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648257

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Astaxanthin is the most prevalent carotenoid in the marine environment and is widely used as an additive in formulated aquafeeds. OBJECTIVES: A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to consider the effect of dietary nanoliposome-coated astaxanthin (NA) on haematological parameters, serum antioxidant activities and immune responses of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. METHODS: A total of 450 healthy fish weighing 31.00 ± 2.09 g were randomly assigned in triplicate (30 fish per replicate) to 5 dietary treatments: 0 (control), 25.00, 50.00, 75.00, and 100.00 mg kg-1 NA. RESULTS: Fish fed the diet supplemented with 50.00 mg kg-1 NA exhibited the highest values of red blood cells, white blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit of 1.64 ± 0.01 × 106 mm-3, 5.54 ± 0.21 × 103 mm-3, 8.73 ± 0.24 g dL-1 and 46.67% ± 0.88%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those fed the basal diet (p < 0.05). The lowest and highest percentages of lymphocytes (67.67% ± 0.33%) and neutrophils (27.33% ± 1.20%) were also obtained in fish fed 50.00 mg kg-1 NA compared to those fed the basal diet (p < 0.05). Fish receiving diet supplemented with 50.00 mg kg-1 NA revealed the highest serum activity in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lysozyme and alternative complement and the lowest level of total cholesterol, cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase than fish receiving the basal diet (p < 0.05). Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) and ACH50 contents significantly increased with increasing dietary NA supplementation to the highest values of 43.17 ± 1.46 and 293.33 ± 2.03 U mL-1, respectively, in fish fed diet supplemented with 50 mg kg-1 NA (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of NA in rainbow trout diet at 50 mg kg-1 exhibited a positive effect on haematological parameters, antioxidant capacity and immune responses. Administration of such dosage can enhance rainbow trout immune responses against unfavourable or stressful conditions, for example disease outbreaks, hypoxic condition, thermal stress and sudden osmotic fluctuations, which usually happen in an intensive culture system.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Antioxidantes , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Xantófilas , Animales , Xantófilas/administración & dosificación , Xantófilas/farmacología , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Distribución Aleatoria , Liposomas , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga
12.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(3): e1460, 2024 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38654672

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the broiler's diets based on corn-soya bean meal, methionine (Met) and cystine (Cys), known as sulphur amino acids (SAAs), are the first limiting indispensable amino acids because of their limited presence, which are supplemented with different synthetic sources. Evaluation of the biological effectiveness of these sources can be important in their correct replacement, especially in the starter and growth diets. OBJECTIVES: The current study was done to assess the relative biological efficacy (RBE) of liquid Met hydroxy analogue-free acid (MHA-FA) in comparison with dl-Met (dl-Met) based on broiler performance traits at different levels of digestible SAA in the 1-11 (starter) and 11-25 (grower) days of age periods. METHODS: Two experiments were developed with treatments consisting of a basal diet without Met addition that met the nutrient and energy requirements of broilers with the exception of SAAs (Met + Cys) and five increasing Met doses for both sources (dl-Met and/or MHA-FA), resulting in digestible SAA concentrations from 0.62% to 1.02% of diet in the starter period (Trial 1) and 0.59% to 0.94% of diet in the grower period (Trial 2). The multi-linear regression model and slope ratio method were employed to calculate the RBE of MHA-FA compared with dl-Met for measured variables. RESULTS: In both experiments, the results obtained during the starter and grower periods with the different Met supplementations show significant growth responses to digestible SAAs levels. By increasing dietary dl-Met and/or MHA-FA levels, the growth performance traits and immune responses were improved (quadratic; p < 0.05). The RBE of MHA-FA compared to dl-Met on an equimolar basis was estimated 66%-89% (59%-79% on a weight-to-weight basis). CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that the RBE of MHA-FA in comparison with dl-Met depends on broiler chicken age and what attribute is being evaluated.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Pollos , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Metionina , Animales , Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pollos/fisiología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Dieta/veterinaria , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Metionina/administración & dosificación , Metionina/metabolismo , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/efectos de los fármacos , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Masculino , Racemetionina/metabolismo , Racemetionina/efectos de los fármacos , Racemetionina/administración & dosificación , Distribución Aleatoria
13.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(3): 117, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568238

RESUMEN

Cereals such as triticale may contain high levels of xylans and arabinoxylans, limiting its use in diets since they act as anti-nutritional factors. The objective was to evaluate the effects of the enzyme xylanase included in triticale-based diets on productive performance, digestibility, carcass traits and meat quality in growing-finishing rabbits. Eighty rabbits (New Zealand X California breed), 35 days old, with an average initial live weight of 821 ± 26 g, were used. Twenty animals for treatment were used in each one of the fourth experimental treatments: 0, 4000, 8000 and 12,000 XU/kg of xylanase inclusion (XilaBlend 6X). The rabbits were fed ad libitum and fecal excretion was collected on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 of the experimental period. At the end of the experimental period, the rabbits were slaughtered and carcass characteristics and meat quality were measured. A higher (P < 0.05) live weight was observed in rabbits fed diets with the addition of xylanase enzyme on days 4 and 7 of the experimental period. On the other hand, in the average total tract digestibility of organic matter, no significant difference was observed, similar to what occurred in the carcass traits and nutritional quality of the meat. The inclusion of 8000 XU/kg of xylanase enzyme provided the best values of apparent digestibility of total tract protein and dry matter on the finished stage of rabbits.


Asunto(s)
Triticale , Animales , Conejos , Fitomejoramiento , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Carne
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8505, 2024 04 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605045

RESUMEN

The 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid isopropyl ester (HMBi), a rumen protective methionine, has been extensively studied in dairy cows and beef cattle and has been shown to regulate gastrointestinal microbiota and improve production performance. However, knowledge of the application of HMBi on cashmere goats and the simultaneous study of rumen and hindgut microbiota is still limited. In this study, HMBi supplementation increased the concentration of total serum protein, the production of microbial protein in the rumen and feces, as well as butyrate production in the feces. The results of PCoA and PERMANOVA showed no significant difference between the rumen microbiota, but there was a dramatic difference between the fecal microbiota of the two groups of Cashmere goats after the HMBi supplementation. Specifically, in the rumen, HMBi significantly increased the relative abundance of some fiber-degrading bacteria (such as Fibrobacter) compared with the CON group. In the feces, as well as a similar effect as in the rumen (increasing the relative abundance of some fiber-degrading bacteria, such as Lachnospiraceae FCS020 group and ASV32), HMBi diets also increased the proliferation of butyrate-producing bacteria (including Oscillospiraceae UCG-005 and Christensenellaceae R-7 group). Overall, these results demonstrated that HMBi could regulate the rumen and fecal microbial composition of Liaoning cashmere goats and benefit the host.


Asunto(s)
Ésteres , Microbiota , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Ácido Butírico/farmacología , Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Ésteres/metabolismo , Rumen/microbiología , Fermentación , Cabras , Dieta/veterinaria , Heces , Bacterias/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Lactancia/fisiología
15.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300864, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635849

RESUMEN

Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed (CS) and Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seed (PS) are used in ruminant diets as energy sources. The current experiment studied the impact of dietary inclusion of CS and PS on nutrient intake and digestibility, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy sheep. Twelve primiparous Texel × Suffolk ewes [70 ± 5 days in milk (DIM); 0.320 ± 0.029 kg milk yield] were distributed in a 4 × 3 Latin square design and fed either a butter-based control diet [CON; 13 g/kg dry matter] or two diets with 61 g/kg DM of either CS or PS. Dietary inclusion of CS and PS did not alter live weight (p >0.1) and DM intake (p >0.1). However, compared to the CON, dietary inclusion of both CS and PS increased the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (p <0.001) and acid detergent lignin (p < 0.001). Milk production (p = 0.001), fat-corrected milk (p < 0.001), and feed efficiency (p < 0.001) were enhanced with PS, while the highest milk protein yield (p < 0.05) and lactose yield (p < 0.001) were for CS-fed ewes. Compared to the CON diet, the ingestion of either CS and/or PS decreased (p < 0.001) the C16:0 in milk. Moreover, both CS and PS tended to enhance the content of C18:3n6 (p > 0.05) and C18:3n3 (p > 0.05). Overall short-term feeding of CS and/or PS (up to 6.1% DM of diet) not only maintains the production performance and digestibility of nutrients but also positively modifies the milk FA composition.


Asunto(s)
Cucurbita , Animales , Femenino , Ovinos , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Lactancia , Salvia hispanica , Detergentes , Fibras de la Dieta/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Semillas/metabolismo , Digestión , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Zea mays/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Rumen/metabolismo
16.
J Anim Sci ; 1022024 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571338

RESUMEN

A total of 720 barrows (line 200 × 400, DNA genetics) were used in two 42-d nursery trials (initially 6.20 ±â€…0.12 kg and 5.63 ±â€…0.16 kg, respectively) to evaluate strategies for allotting pigs to pens in randomized controlled trials. At placement, the population was split into three cohorts with similar average weight and standard deviation and randomly assigned to one of the three allotment strategies. Strategy 1 (random) utilized a simple randomization strategy with each pig randomized to pens independent of all other pigs. Strategy 2 (body weight [BW] distribution) sorted each pig within the cohort into one of the five BW groups. One pig from each weight group was then randomly assigned to a pen such that distribution of BW within pen was uniform across pens. Strategy 3 (BW grouping) sorted pigs within the cohort into 3 BW categories: light, medium, and heavy. Within each BW category, pigs were randomized to pen to create pens of pigs from each BW category. Within each experiment, there were 72 pens with five pigs per pen and 24 pens per allotment strategy. For all strategies, once pigs were allotted to pens, pens were allotted to one of the two treatments for a concurrent trial. In experiment 1, environmental enrichment using ropes tied near the pan of the feeder was compared to a control with no enrichment. In experiment 2, treatment diets consisted of basal levels of Zn and Cu from the trace mineral premix for the duration of the study (110 and 17 mg/kg, respectively; control), or diets (supplemented control) with carbadox (50 g/ton; Mecadox, Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) fed in phase 1 (days 0 to 22) and 2 (days 22 to 43), pharmacological levels of Zn and Cu (2,414 mg/kg Zn from ZnO; 168 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4) fed in phase 1, and only pharmacological levels of Cu (168 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4) fed in phase 2. These treatment designs were used to determine the impact on coefficient of variation (CV) and to estimate the number of replications required to find significant treatment differences based on allotment strategy. There were no meaningful allotment strategy × treatment interactions for either study. For between-pen CV, pigs allotted using BW distribution and BW grouping strategies had the lowest CV at allotment and final weight in both trials. For overall average daily gain in experiments 1 and 2 in experiment 2, the BW distribution strategy required the fewest replications to detect differences in performance. However, there is no meaningful difference between allotment strategies in replications required to detect significant differences for gain:feed ratio.


Decreasing variation between experimental units increases the likelihood of finding a statistically significant difference if one exists. Assignment of animals to experimental units (pens) may contribute to that variation. Therefore, the purpose of this trial was to investigate the effect that different methods of allotting pigs to pens (experimental unit) have on variation and in turn, the number of replications required to detect a significant difference of a given amount between treatments. The random strategy assigned pigs to pens in a completely random fashion. The body weight (BW) distribution strategy ordered pigs from lightest to heaviest and created five groups based on BW. Each pen was randomly assigned one pig from each of the five groups. The BW grouping strategy again ordered pigs from lightest to heaviest but split pigs into three groups based on BW and each pen was randomly assigned pigs from only one BW group such that there were pens of light pigs, pens of medium pigs, and pens of heavy pigs. Ultimately, the best allotment strategy depends on the parameter of interest. For final BW and overall ADG, the BW grouping method required the fewest pens to detect statistically significant differences.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Masculino , Porcinos , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Distribución Aleatoria , Peso Corporal , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Dieta/veterinaria
17.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(4): e14558, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566368

RESUMEN

We aimed to evaluate the effects of rumen-protected lysine (RPL) supplementation during the close-up period on uterine involution and the resumption of ovarian function in dairy cows. Fifty-two multiparous Holstein cows were categorized based on parity and expected calving date and randomly assigned to the RPL or control (CON) groups. The RPL group received 80 g of RPL daily from day 21 before the expected calving date until parturition. Blood samples were obtained twice weekly from pre-supplementation to 6 weeks postpartum. The onset of luteal activity postpartum was determined via ultrasonography twice weekly for up to 6 weeks postpartum. Uterine involution was tracked at 3 and 5 weeks postpartum through the vaginal discharge score, percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) in endometrial cytology samples, presence of intrauterine fluid, and gravid horn diameter via ultrasonography. Before supplementation, the RPL group showed amino acid imbalance, which was improved by RPL supplementation. There were no significant differences in the onset of luteal activity, percentage of PMN, intrauterine fluid, or the diameter of the uterine horn between the two groups. The vaginal discharge score in the RPL group decreased from 3 to 5 weeks postpartum, whereas that in the CON groups did not decrease. The number of cows with clinical endometritis was lower in the RPL group. Overall, RPL supplementation during the close-up period enhanced vaginal discharge clearance, potentially averting clinical endometritis, but did not affect the first ovulation in dairy cows.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Endometritis , Excreción Vaginal , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Embarazo , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Endometritis/prevención & control , Endometritis/veterinaria , Endometritis/metabolismo , Lactancia , Luteína/análisis , Luteína/metabolismo , Lisina/farmacología , Leche/química , Periodo Posparto , Rumen/metabolismo , Excreción Vaginal/veterinaria
18.
Animal ; 18(4): 101127, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574452

RESUMEN

Supplementing a diet with rumen-protected amino acids (AAs) is a common feeding strategy for efficient production. For a cost-effective use of rumen-protected AA, the accurate bioavailability of rumen-protected amino acids should be known and their metabolism after absorption needs to be well understood. The current study determined the bioavailability, absorption, utilization, and excretion of rumen-protected Lys (RP-Lys). Four ruminally cannulated cows in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (12 d for diet adaptation; 5 or 6 d for total collections) received the following treatments: L0, a basal diet; L25, the basal diet and L-Lys infused into the abomasum to provide 25.9 g/d L-Lys; L50, the basal diet and L-Lys infused into the abomasum to provide 51.8 g/d L-Lys; and RPL, the basal diet supplemented with 105 g/d (as-is) of RP-Lys to provide 26.7 g of digestible Lys. During the last 5 or 6 d in each period, 15N-Lys (0.38 g/d) was infused into the abomasum for all cows to label the pool of AA, and the total collection of milk, urine, and feces were conducted. 15N enrichment of samples on d 4 and 5 were used to calculate the bioavailability and Lys metabolism. We used a model containing a fast AA turnover (≤ 5 d) and slow AA turnover pool (> 5 d) to calculate fluxes of Lys. The Lys flux to the fast AA turnover pool (absorbed Lys + Lys from the slow AA turnover pool to fast AA turnover pool) was calculated using 15N enrichment of milk Lys. The flux of Lys from the fast AA turnover pool to milk and urine was calculated using 15N transfer into milk and urine. Then, absorbed Lys was estimated by the sum of Lys flux to milk and urine assuming no net utilization of Lys by body tissues. Duodenal Lys flow was estimated by 15N enrichment of fecal Lys. The bioavailability of RP-Lys was calculated from duodenal Lys flows and Lys absorption for RPL. Increasing Lys supply from L25 to L50 increased Lys utilization for milk by 9 g/d but also increased urinary excretion by 10 g/d. For RPL, absorbed Lys was estimated to be 136 g/d where 28 g of absorbed Lys originated from RP-Lys. In conclusion, 68% of bioavailability was obtained for RP-Lys. The Lys provided from RP-Lys was not only utilized for milk protein (48%) but also excreted in urine (20%) after oxidation.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia , Lisina , Femenino , Bovinos , Animales , Lisina/metabolismo , Rumen/metabolismo , Disponibilidad Biológica , Dieta/veterinaria , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Proteínas de la Leche/metabolismo , Aminas/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo
19.
Animal ; 18(4): 101130, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579665

RESUMEN

To maximize the efficiency of dietary P utilization in swine production, understanding the mechanisms of P utilization in lactating sows is relevant due to their high P requirement and the resulting high inorganic P intake. Gaining a better knowledge of the Ca and P quantities that can be mobilized from bones during lactation, and subsequently replenished during the following gestation, would enable the development of more accurate P requirements incorporating this process of bone dynamics. The objective was to measure the amount of body mineral reserves mobilized during lactation, depending on dietary digestible P and phytase addition and to measure the amount recovered during the following gestation. Body composition of 24 primiparous sows was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry 2, 14, 26, 70 and 110 days after farrowing. Four lactation diets were formulated to cover nutritional requirements, with the exception of Ca and digestible P: 100% (Lact100; 9.9 g Ca and 3.0 g digestible P/kg), 75% (Lact75), 50% without added phytase (Lact50) and 50% with added phytase (Lact50 + FTU). The gestation diet was formulated to cover the nutritional requirements of Ca and digestible P (8.2 g Ca and 2.6 g digestible P/kg). During the 26 days of lactation, each sow mobilized body mineral reserves. The mean amount of mobilized bone mineral content (BMC) was 664 g, representing 240 g Ca and 113 g P. At weaning, the BMC (g/kg of BW) of Lact50 sows tended to be lower than Lact100 sows (-12.8%, linear Ca and P effect × quadratic time effect) while the BMC of Lact50 + FTU sows remained similar to that of Lact100 sows. During the following gestation, BMC returned to similar values among treatments. Therefore, the sows fed Lact50 could recover from the higher bone mineral mobilization that occurred during lactation. The P excretion was reduced by 40 and 43% in sows fed Lact50 and Lact50 + FTU, respectively, relative to sows fed Lact100. In conclusion, the quantified changes in body composition during the lactation and following gestation of primiparous sows show that bone mineral reserves were mobilized and recovered and that its degree was dependent on the dietary P content and from phytase supplementation during lactation. In the future, considering this potential of the sows' bone mineralization dynamics within the factorial assessment of P requirement and considering the digestible P equivalency of microbial phytase could greatly limit the dietary use of inorganic phosphates and, thus, reduce P excretion.


Asunto(s)
6-Fitasa , Fósforo Dietético , Femenino , Animales , Porcinos , Calcio , Lactancia , Calcificación Fisiológica , 6-Fitasa/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Calcio de la Dieta , Minerales , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fósforo/metabolismo
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(4): 131, 2024 Apr 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38637421

RESUMEN

Forty-eight weaned male New Zealand White rabbits aged 6 weeks with an initial body weight of (709.67 ± 13 g) were randomly divided into six experimental groups (8 rabbits each) for 6-14 weeks of age experimental periods. The present study was planned to evaluate the effect of using different forms of Selenium element (inorganic, nanoparticles and organic) as dietary supplementation on productive performance of rabbits. Six experimental groups in completely randomized design were used. The first group (G1, control) was fed the basal diet to cover maintenance and production allowances. Rabbits in the other groups G2, G3, G4 and G5 were fed the basal diet supplemented with Nano- Se at 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05 mg/kg diet, respectively. The 6th group (G6) was fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.1 mg/kg diet of salinized yeast (Se-yeast) as organic form. The results indicated that the highest values of nitrogen free extract (NFE) and crude fiber (CF) digestibility, live body weight, daily weight gain, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage were observed with those supplemented with Nano-Se at all levels compared with other treatments. However, feed conversion, net revenue and economic efficiency values were improved with Nano-Se groups followed by organic Se group in comparisons with the control group. Conclusively, the Nano-Se in rabbit's diet has a positive effect in improving rabbit's performance and economic efficiency compared to the inorganic Selenium.


Asunto(s)
Selenio , Animales , Masculino , Conejos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Selenio/farmacología
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