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1.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 78(4): 810-816, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38284650

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Treatment of functional constipation (FC) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is challenging due to sensory and behavioral issues. We aimed to understand whether antegrade continence enemas (ACEs) are successful in the treatment of FC in children with ASD. METHODS: A single-institution retrospective review was performed in children diagnosed with ASD and FC who underwent appendicostomy or cecostomy placement from 2007 to 2019. Descriptive statistics regarding soiling and complications were calculated. RESULTS: There were 33 patients included, with a median age of 9.7 years at the time of ACE initiation. The average intelligence quotient was 63.6 (SD = 18.0, n = 12), the average behavioral adaptive score was 59.9 (SD = 11.1, n = 13), and the average total Child Behavioral Checklist score was 72.5 (SD = 7.1, n = 10). Soiling rates were significantly lower following ACE initiation (42.3% vs. 14.8%, p = 0.04). Behavioral issues only prevented 1 patient (3.0%) from proper ACE use. Eleven patients (36.6%) were able to transition to laxatives. There were significant improvements in patient-reported outcomes measures and quality of life. CONCLUSION: Placement of an appendicostomy or cecostomy for management of FC in children with severe ASD was successful in treating constipation and improving quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Incontinencia Fecal , Niño , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/complicaciones , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Estreñimiento/terapia , Estreñimiento/complicaciones , Cecostomía/efectos adversos , Enema/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Incontinencia Fecal/etiología , Incontinencia Fecal/terapia , Resultado del Tratamiento
2.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 116(1): 49-51, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37073710

RESUMEN

Rectal perforations due to topical treatments (enemas or foams) are unusual complications and they have been mostly reported in the use of barium enemas or in elderly patients with constipation. Very little has been reported about perforations secondary to topical treatment in patients with ulcerative colitis. We present the case of a patient with ulcerative colitis who suffered a rectal perforation complicated with a superinfected collection after the application of topical mesalazine foam.


Asunto(s)
Colitis Ulcerosa , Perforación Intestinal , Humanos , Anciano , Colitis Ulcerosa/complicaciones , Colitis Ulcerosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Mesalamina/uso terapéutico , Enema/efectos adversos , Perforación Intestinal/inducido químicamente , Enfermedad Iatrogénica , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/uso terapéutico
3.
Eur J Pediatr ; 183(1): 219-227, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37861794

RESUMEN

Intussusception is a common cause of acute abdominal pain in children and the most frequent cause of intestinal obstruction in infants. Although often idiopathic, it can stem from conditions like lymphoma. This study delves into lymphoma-related intussusception in children, aiming to enhance early detection and management. A retrospective review encompassed children admitted from 2012 to 2023 with intussusception due to intestinal lymphoma. Demographic, clinical, and imaging data were meticulously extracted and analyzed. The study included 31 children in the lymphoma-related intussusception group. Contrasted with non-lymphoma-related cases, the patients of lymphoma-related intussusception were notably older (median age: 87 months vs. 18.5 months), predominantly male, and demonstrated protracted abdominal pain. Ultrasound unveiled mesenteric lymph node enlargement and distinct intra-abdominal masses; enema reduction success rates were notably diminished. Detecting lymphoma-related intussusception remains intricate. Age, prolonged symptoms, and distinctive ultrasound findings can arouse suspicion. Timely surgical intervention, based on preoperative imaging, proves pivotal for accurate diagnosis. CONCLUSION:  Swift identification of lymphoma-related intussusception, distinguished by unique clinical and ultrasound features, is imperative for timely intervention and treatment. Further research is warranted to refine diagnostic approaches. WHAT IS KNOWN: • Intussusception in pediatric patients can be caused by a wide spectrum of underlying diseases including lymphoma. • Early Identifying the exact underlying cause of intussusception is crucial for tailored therapy, however often challenging and time-consuming. WHAT IS NEW: • Lymphoma-related intussusception may present with increased abdominal fluid accumulation, intestinal obstruction, and a higher likelihood of failed reduction during enema procedures. • For high-risk children, repeated ultrasound examinations or further investigations may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Intususcepción , Linfoma , Lactante , Niño , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Intususcepción/diagnóstico , Intususcepción/etiología , Intususcepción/terapia , Linfoma/complicaciones , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enema/efectos adversos , Dolor Abdominal/etiología , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 77(2): 191-197, 2023 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37195883

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate long-term outcomes of antegrade continence enema (ACE) treatment in children with constipation or fecal incontinence. METHODS: Prospective cohort study including pediatric patients with organic or functional defecation disorders who started ACE treatment. Data were collected at baseline and at follow-up (FU) from 6 weeks until 60 months. We assessed parent and patient-reported gastrointestinal health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Gastrointestinal Symptoms Module (PedsQL-GI), gastrointestinal symptoms, adverse events, and patient satisfaction. RESULTS: Thirty-eight children were included (61% male, median age 7.7 years, interquartile range 5.5-12.2). Twenty-two children (58%) were diagnosed with functional constipation (FC), 10 (26%) with an anorectal malformation, and 6 (16%) with Hirschsprung disease. FU questionnaires were completed by 22 children (58%) at 6 months, 16 children (42%) at 12 months, 20 children (53%) at 24 months, and 10 children (26%) at 36 months. PedsQL-GI scores improved overall with a significant increase at 12- and 24-month FU for children with FC and a significant increase in parent reported PedsQL-GI score at 36-month FU for children with organic causes. Minor adverse events, such as granulation tissue, were reported in one-third of children, and 10% of children needed a surgical revision of their ACE. The majority of all parents and children reported that they would "probably" or "definitely" choose ACE again. CONCLUSION: ACE treatment is perceived positively by patients and parents and can lead to long-term improvement in gastrointestinal HRQoL in children with organic or functional defecation disorders.


Asunto(s)
Incontinencia Fecal , Humanos , Niño , Masculino , Femenino , Incontinencia Fecal/terapia , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estreñimiento/terapia , Enema/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos
5.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 230: 115392, 2023 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37059036

RESUMEN

Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is an early stage of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), with high incidence and a high rate of clinically missed diagnosis. Early diagnosis of MHE and effective clinical intervention are of great importance. Rhubarb decoction (RD)-induced retention enema can effectively improve the cognitive function of patients with MHE, whereas disturbances in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acid (BAs) can induce MHE. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of RD have not been examined from the perspective of intestinal microbiota and bile metabolomics. In this study, we investigated the effects of RD-induced retention enema on intestinal microbiota and bile metabolites in rats with CCl4- and TAA-induced MHE. RD-induced retention enema significantly improved liver function, reduced blood ammonia levels, alleviated cerebral oedema and restored cognitive function in rats with MHE. In addition, it increased the abundance of intestinal microbes; partially reversed the disorder in the composition of intestinal microbiota, including the Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides genera; and regulated BA metabolism, such as taurine combined with increased BA synthesis. In conclusion, this study highlights the potential importance of BA enterohepatic circulation for RD to improve cognitive function in MHE rats, providing a new perspective on the mechanism of this herb. The findings of this study will facilitate experimental research on RD and help to develop RD-based strategies for clinical application.


Asunto(s)
Encefalopatía Hepática , Rheum , Ratas , Animales , Encefalopatía Hepática/tratamiento farmacológico , Encefalopatía Hepática/diagnóstico , Encefalopatía Hepática/epidemiología , Ácidos y Sales Biliares , Pruebas de Función Hepática , Enema/efectos adversos
6.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 143, 2023 03 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36997992

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To summarize the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of acute intussusception. METHODS: This retrospective study included pediatric patients with acute intussusception admitted to the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Qilu Hospital (Qingdao), Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, from January 2014 to December 2019. RESULTS: A total of 402 infants/children were included (301 males and 101 females) with a mean age of 2.4 ± 1.5 years (2 months to 9 years). Thirty patients (7.5%) had a history of cold food intake, diarrhea, and upper respiratory infection before disease onset. Paroxysmal abdominal pain and crying occurred in 338 patients (84.1%). Eight patients (2.0%) had the typical triad, 167 (41.5%) had vomiting, 24 (6.0%) had bloody stools, and 273 (67.9%) had palpable abdominal mass. The average intussusception depth was 4.0 ± 1.4 cm. Air enema reduction was performed in 344 cases: 335 (97.3%) were successful. Fifty-eight patients were treated with intravenous phloroglucinol (2 mg/kg), and 53 (91.4%) were successful. Sixty-five patients suffered relapses, with a relapse rate of 16.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric acute intussusception is common. There was no obvious etiology. The clinical manifestations are mostly atypical. Abdominal pain is the most common complaint. Air enema reduction is an effective treatment. The recurrence rate is high.


Asunto(s)
Intususcepción , Lactante , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Humanos , Preescolar , Intususcepción/epidemiología , Intususcepción/terapia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Enema/efectos adversos , Dolor Abdominal/etiología , Dolor Abdominal/terapia , Recurrencia
7.
J Pediatr Surg ; 58(7): 1383-1388, 2023 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628693

RESUMEN

AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the medium-term outcomes of ACE in children with fecal incontinence (FI). METHOD: Eligible children were recruited from the colorectal clinic between December 2016 and January 2020 and were followed prospectively for 2-6 years. A series of questionnaires were used to assess QOL, patients and parent satisfaction, and to assess the outcomes of the ACE. RESULT: 24 children aged 6-12 years (mean age 8.17 ± 1.95), including 18 males (75%) and 6 females (25% were studied. Cases included anorectal malformations (45.83%)., Hirschsprung disease (25%), neural tube defects (16.66%), sacrococcygeal teratoma (4.16%), and intractable pseudoincontinence (8.33%). QOL improved from (3) [3 -3] to (16) [16-16],p < 0.05. Fecal incontinence index showed significant improvement: 20 [20-20] versus 3 [0-4],p < 0.05. Bowel symptoms demonstrated improvement in the ability to decide when to pass stools and a decrease in soiling. Stooling survey showed lower scores representing better outcome. ACE questionnaire showed that the range of irrigation volumes used by parents is wide, and that all families recommend the ACE for children with similar condition. Postoperative complications were stenosis (16.66%), stomal prolapse (12.5%), leakage (4.16%), and false passage (4.16%). Satisfaction questionnaire showed a median score of 9 (range, 5-10). CONCLUSION: ACE is an effective method to keep the child with FI clean, more socially active, and with a better QOL and FII in the medium-term. The reported complications were stenosis, false passage, and leakage. ACE mucosa prolapse is a novel complication picked up on medium-term follow up.


Asunto(s)
Incontinencia Fecal , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Humanos , Incontinencia Fecal/terapia , Incontinencia Fecal/complicaciones , Resultado del Tratamiento , Hospitales Pediátricos , Constricción Patológica/etiología , Calidad de Vida , Universidades , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enema/efectos adversos , Prolapso , Estreñimiento/etiología , Estudios de Seguimiento
8.
J Pediatr Surg ; 58(3): 440-444, 2023 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35871857

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Contrast enemas are often made prior to stoma reversal in order to detect distal intestinal strictures distal of the stoma. If untreated these strictures can cause obstruction which might necessitate redo-surgery. However, the value of contrast enemas is unclear. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the contrast enema's diagnostic accuracy in detecting strictures in children with a stoma. METHODS: Young children (≤3 years) treated with a stoma between 1998 and 2018 were retrospectively included. The STARD criteria were followed. Patients treated for anorectal malformations and those that died before stoma reversal were excluded. Surgical identification of strictures during reversal or redo-surgery within three months was used as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and area under the curve (AUC) reflected diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS: In 224 included children, strictures were found during reversal in 10% of which 95% in patients treated for necrotizing enterocolitis. Contrast enema was performed in 68% of all patients and detected 92% of the strictures. In the overall cohort, the sensitivity was 100%, specificity 98%, PPV 88% and NPV 100% whilst the AUC was 0.98. In patients treated for NEC, the sensitivity was 100%, specificity 97%, PPV 88% and NPV 100% whilst the AUC was 0.98. CONCLUSION: Strictures prior to stoma reversal seem to be mainly identified in patients treated for NEC and not in other diseases necessitating a stoma. Moreover, the contrast enema shows excellent diagnostic accuracy in detecting these strictures. For this reason we advise to only perform contrast enemas in patients treated for NEC. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.


Asunto(s)
Enterocolitis Necrotizante , Enfermedades del Recién Nacido , Obstrucción Intestinal , Niño , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Preescolar , Enterocolitis Necrotizante/diagnóstico , Enterocolitis Necrotizante/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Constricción Patológica/cirugía , Obstrucción Intestinal/cirugía , Enema/efectos adversos , Enfermedades del Recién Nacido/terapia
9.
Indian J Pediatr ; 90(12): 1198-1203, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35821554

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To report a 15-y, single-center experience in the management and outcomes of ileocolic intussusception (ICI) episodes. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in patients with ICI episodes, who were treated at a single quaternary referral center from 2005 to 2019. Data evaluated included patient demographics, clinical presentation, treatment modalities, hospital stay, complications, and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 546 ICI episodes (66.1% males) were included, with a median age at diagnosis of 15 mo. Enema reduction was performed in 478 patients (87.6%), with an overall success rate of 85.8%. Hydrostatic saline enema was the most effective method (89.3%) when compared to pneumatic (80.6%) or barium enema (79.8%), this difference being statistically significant (p = 0.031). No associated complications were observed during nonoperative reduction. Surgical treatment was performed in 101 patients, in whom 36 bowel resections were performed. Postoperative complications were reported in 6 patients (5.9%). Hospital stay was significantly longer in patients with operative management (median 5 d vs. 1 d; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Nonoperative management has a high overall success rate and low complication and recurrence rates. Saline enema reduction presents the highest effectiveness, and should be considered the first-line treatment.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades del Íleon , Intususcepción , Masculino , Niño , Humanos , Lactante , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enema/efectos adversos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Recurrencia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Enfermedades del Íleon/etiología , Enfermedades del Íleon/terapia
10.
J Pediatr Urol ; 18(5): 613.e1-613.e8, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109304

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In patients with urinary continent channel (UCC) and Malone Antegrade Continent Enema (MACE) procedures, two separate abdominal stomas are needed. The umbilicus is a preferred site for single channel stomas given the ability to conceal the stoma. However, there are no studies describing outcomes of both stomas being created in the umbilicus. We aimed to describe our experience in patients who underwent UCC and MACE stomas both placed in the umbilicus. METHODS: A retrospective review from 2009 to 2020 was performed in our institution for patients who underwent the creation of UCC and MACE stomas simultaneously in the umbilicus. The variation in the technique involves two V-skin shaped flaps in the umbilicus; the MACE and UCC stomas are delivered from both flaps and placed at the right and left side respectively. Patients with greater than 3 months of follow-up were included in the study. RESULTS: There were 17 patients identified with the median age of 13.5 years and a median follow-up of 32.8 months. The mean BMI percentile was 89.5%. Monti technique and split appendix with cecal extension were utilized in 8 (47.1%) and 7 (41.2%) patients respectively and 13 (76.5%) patients required concurrent urological procedures. All channel-related complications occurred within a mean time of 15.7 months. Skin-level stenosis in the MACE occurred in 5 (29.4%) events, and all were successfully managed by placing an indwelling catheter for up to two weeks. There were 2 (11.8%) complications related to UCC, which required subfascial minor surgical revision. The rate of patients with symptomatic UTI decreased 35.3% postoperatively, and no new onset of UTI occurred in patients without a prior history of UTI. During follow-up, all patients remained dry between CIC, however one had occasional leakage related to delay in catheterization. Total fecal continence was achieved in 14 (82.3%) patients. Additionally, 3 (16.6%) patients experienced improvement in fecal continence with sporadic soiling episodes. COMMENTS: Placement of UCC and MACE stomas in the umbilicus demonstrate a percentage of complication of 7/34 (20.6%) with only 2 patients requiring surgical intervention, comparable to the standard. UTI rate decreased in patients with a prior history of UTI. We believe the patients' perspective and degree of satisfaction will fully determine the benefits of this technique. CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous UCC and MACE stomas placed at the umbilicus showed good functional outcomes and similar complication rates to traditional approach where stomas were placed separately in the abdominal wall.


Asunto(s)
Incontinencia Fecal , Estomas Quirúrgicos , Vejiga Urinaria Neurogénica , Humanos , Adolescente , Cistostomía/métodos , Enema/efectos adversos , Ombligo/cirugía , Vejiga Urinaria Neurogénica/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Incontinencia Fecal/etiología , Estudios de Seguimiento
11.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272915, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951504

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Meconium-related ileus in very low birth weight infants can lead to increased morbidity or mortality and prolonged hospitalization without prompt diagnosis and treatment. This study primarily aimed to identify the incidence of and factors associated with meconium-related ileus and secondarily sought to investigate clinical and growth outcomes after water-soluble contrast media (Gastrografin) enema. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of very low birth weight infants born between February 2009 and March 2019 in the neonatal intensive care unit of a single medical center. Perinatal factors, clinical outcomes, and growth outcomes were compared between the group with meconium-related ileus that received Gastrografin enema and the control group. RESULTS: Twenty-four (6.9%) patients were diagnosed with meconium-related ileus among 347 very low birth weight infants. All achieved successful evacuation of meconium with an average of 2.8 (range: 1-8) Gastrografin enema attempts without procedure-related complications. Initiation of Gastrografin enema was performed at mean 7.0 days (range: 2-16) after birth. Incidences of moderate to severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia were higher and the duration of mechanical ventilation and need for oxygen were longer in the meconium-related ileus group (P = 0.039, 0.046, 0.048, respectively). Meconium-related ileus infants took more time to start enteral feeding and the nothing per oral time was longer (P = 0.001 and 0.018, respectively). However, time to achieve full enteral feeding and Z-scores for weight and height at 37 weeks and at 6 months corrected age did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Gastrografin enema in very low birth weight infants with meconium-related ileus was an effective and safe medical management. Following Gastrografin enema, very low birth weight infants with meconium-related ileus achieved similar subsequent feeding progress and similar growth levels as the control groups without meconium-related ileus.


Asunto(s)
Ileus , Obstrucción Intestinal , Diatrizoato de Meglumina/uso terapéutico , Enema/efectos adversos , Humanos , Ileus/etiología , Ileus/terapia , Recién Nacido , Recién Nacido de muy Bajo Peso , Obstrucción Intestinal/etiología , Meconio , Estudios Retrospectivos
12.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(9): 3531-3536, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732982

RESUMEN

Ileocolic intussusception is a common cause of bowel obstruction. When spontaneous reduction does not occur, non-operative management through enema reduction is necessary. Despite the evidence indicating that sedatives favor success in the reduction, their use is still not a common practice. To determine if midazolam (MDZ) before enema improves the rate of procedure success, we retrospectively reviewed charts of patients admitted to two Italian pediatric emergency departments. Outcome measures were the success rate of the enema, recurrence, and need for surgery. Patients were grouped according to the use of MDZ or not, before hydrostatic reduction attempt. We included 69 and 37 patients in the MDZ and non-MDZ groups, respectively. The two groups did not differ in demographics, clinical characteristics, and ultrasound findings. Intussusception reduction after the first enema attempt occurred in 75% (MDZ group) and 32.4% (non-MDZ group) of patients (P < .001); 27.9% (MDZ group) and 77.8% (non-MDZ group) of patients underwent surgery (P < .001). Among them, spontaneous reduction of intussusception during the induction of general anesthesia occurred in 31.6% and 42.9% of patients, respectively (P .43). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only MDZ had a positive effect on the result of the enema (OR 7.602, 95%CI 2.669-21.652, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Procedural sedation with MDZ for enema reduction of intussusception can increase the success rate and lead to a better management of patients. WHAT IS KNOWN: • Despite the evidence of the usefulness of sedatives in the reduction of intussusception, their use is still not a common practice. WHAT IS NEW: • Midazolam during enema reduction of intussusception can increase the success rate and consequently lead to better management of patients.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades del Íleon , Intususcepción , Niño , Enema/efectos adversos , Humanos , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades del Íleon/etiología , Enfermedades del Íleon/cirugía , Lactante , Intususcepción/etiología , Intususcepción/terapia , Midazolam/uso terapéutico , Premedicación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
13.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 60(6): 672-680, 2022 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510830

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Enemas containing phosphate are widely prescribed and may cause important adverse effects. A systemic review published in 2007 reported the literature on the adverse effects of phosphate enemas from January 1957 to March 2007 and identified 12 deaths. These were thought due to electrolyte disturbances, heart failure and kidney injury. These data raised concerns about the use of phosphate enemas in routine practice. Newer osmotic-based enema alternatives are now available that do not contain absorbable ions. We sought to review the literature since this review and evaluate the latest data on the toxicity of phosphate-containing enemas. To gain a fuller picture we included case series and larger studies as well as case reports. OBJECTIVES: To review the toxicity of phosphate enemas, particularly with respect to acute metabolic consequences and their associated clinical features. To identify risk factors for metabolic toxicity and consider whether phosphate enemas should be relatively contra-indicated in specific patient groups. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Reviews (2005-2021) using the search terms 'phosphate enema or sodium phosphate enema' or 'phosphate-based enema' or (phosphate AND enema) or (Fleet AND enema) or 'sodium phosphate laxatives' or 'sodium phosphate catharsis' or 'sodium phosphate cathartic'. Relevant papers were read, and data were extracted. RESULTS: The searches identified 489 papers of which 25 were relevant: seven papers were case reports or small case series of metabolic abnormalities from the use of phosphate enemas in nine children, six were case reports on 16 adults. Nine papers were large case series or clinical studies that included data on systemic metabolic effects, of varying size from 24 healthy volunteers to a cohort of 70,499 patients. Case reports identified seven adult deaths but none in children. Children most often presented with decreased consciousness (6/9), and tetany (4/9). In adults overall only five cases had clinical features reported, hypotension was seen in four and QT prolongation in two. Treatment was generally symptomatic, with intravenous fluid and calcium salts for electrolyte changes and hypocalcaemia, and vasopressors for severe hypotension. Haemodialysis was used in three children and peritoneal dialysis in one, all of whom survived. In adults, haemodialysis did not prevent death in two of four cases in whom it was used. Common factors underlying toxicity were inappropriately high phosphate dose, or enema retention, both resulting in greater absorption of phosphate. Associated pre-disposing conditions included Hirschsprung disease in children and co-morbidity and renal impairment (2/5) in older adults. Absolute reported changes in serum phosphate or calcium were not accurate indicators of outcome. Larger case series and clinical trials confirm an acute effect of phosphate enemas on serum phosphate, which was related to both dose and retention time. These effects were not seen with non-phosphate preparations. In these cases series, adverse events were rarely reported. CONCLUSION: Phosphate enemas are potentially toxic, particularly in young children with Hirschsprung disease and in the elderly with co-morbidity. Raised awareness of the risk of phosphate enemas is still required. Other less toxic enema preparations are available and should be considered in patients at extremes of age. If phosphate enemas are the only clinical option careful monitoring of biochemical sequelae should be undertaken.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Hirschsprung , Hipotensión , Anciano , Calcio , Niño , Preescolar , Enema/efectos adversos , Enfermedad de Hirschsprung/inducido químicamente , Humanos , Hipotensión/inducido químicamente , Laxativos/toxicidad , Fosfatos/toxicidad
14.
BMC Surg ; 22(1): 169, 2022 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538469

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intussusception recurrence (IR) induced by intestinal lymphoid hyperplasia (ILH) in children is rare, and surgical treatment is the final resort if IR is refractory to medications and non-surgical interventions. To date, only a few case reports have described surgical management of ILH-induced IR in children, all involving bowel resection regardless of whether there are bowel necrosis and perforation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 2-year-old boy was transferred to our department due to IR. His main complaint was abdominal pain. Color Doppler ultrasound confirmed ileocecal intussusception while no other abnormalities were found. A final diagnosis of IR with unknown causes was made. Repeated saline enema reductions and dexamethasone failed to cure the IR. Laparotomy was eventually performed after almost 10 episodes of IR. Intraoperatively, distal ileum thickening with palpable masses without bowel necrosis and perforation was noted. ILH was suspected and a biopsy of the affected intestine was performed. Histopathological analysis confirmed ILH. The intussusception was manually reduced, the terminal ileum and the ileocecal junction were fixed to the paralleled ascending colon and the posterior peritoneum respectively, and no bowel resection was performed. The postoperative recovery was uneventful and no IR was observed during over 5 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: As far as we are aware, this is the first report of successful surgical treatment of ILH-induced pediatric IR without bowel resection in a child. Our experience suggests bowel resection may be unnecessary if bowel necrosis and perforation are absent.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Intestinales , Intususcepción , Niño , Preescolar , Enema/efectos adversos , Humanos , Hiperplasia/complicaciones , Hiperplasia/patología , Íleon/patología , Íleon/cirugía , Enfermedades Intestinales/patología , Intususcepción/etiología , Intususcepción/cirugía , Masculino , Necrosis/patología
15.
J Pediatr Surg ; 57(8): 1681-1686, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570011

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Bowel management programs are efficacious in pediatric patients with fecal incontinence or intractable constipation unresponsive to standard treatment. No studies have been done examining outcomes in adults. The objective of this study was to assess continence and quality of life outcomes in adults who have underwent bowel management program. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients 16 or older at the time they underwent a bowel management program for fecal incontinence or constipation was performed. Data collected included intake and follow-up stool and urinary continence, patient-reported outcomes measures (Cleveland Clinic Constipation Score, Baylor Continence Scale, Vancouver Symptom Score for Dysfunctional Elimination), and an age-adjusted health-related quality of life measure. RESULTS: The cohort included 38 patients with a median age of 19 years (range: 16-55) when they underwent our program. 50% of patients were female and the majority (33, 87%) were White. The most common diagnosis was anorectal malformation (16, 42%) followed by functional constipation (10, 27%). Stool continence rates improved after undergoing the program (52.7% prior to 87.6% at follow-up, p<0.01). There was significant improvement in the Baylor Continence Scale, Cleveland Clinic Constipation Score, and PedsQL (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Adult patients who underwent a bowel management program for severe fecal incontinence or constipation show significant improvement in stool continence rates, patient-reported outcomes measures, and quality of life. A bowel management program (in-person or via telemedicine) is a feasible treatment strategy for adult patients who fail standard management of fecal incontinence or constipation and should be offered when appropriate. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.


Asunto(s)
Incontinencia Fecal , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Estreñimiento/etiología , Enema/efectos adversos , Incontinencia Fecal/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
16.
J Pediatr Surg ; 57(8): 1676-1680, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597676

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Children with severe constipation and a neurodiverse disorder (Autism and/or developmental delay) represent a challenging bowel management group. Treatment outcomes with laxative or enema therapy remain limited and are often complicated by patient/caregiver compliance. We hypothesized that children with neurodiverse disorders and severe constipation would benefit from a bowel management program (BMP) that includes early use of antegrade enemas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children requiring BMP in the Pediatric Colorectal and Pelvic Learning Consortium (PCPLC) registry with diagnosis of constipation and/or constipation with pseudo-incontinence were reviewed. Those with Hirschsprung disease and/or Anorectal Malformation were excluded. BMP needs in patients with a neurodiverse diagnosis were compared to those without to evaluate differences in BMP's. RESULTS: 372 patients requiring a BMP were identified. 95 patients (58 autism spectrum, 54 developmental delay) were neurodiverse, and 277 patients were not. Neurodiverse patients had a higher prevalence of enema therapy 62.1% (59/95) vs. 54.9% (152/273) and use of antegrade enema therapy 33.7% (32/95) vs. 21.2% (58/273), p = 0.126. Neurodiverse patients were older 37.9% (36/95) > 12 years vs. 23.1% (63/273), p = 0.001 and 47.6% (10/21) were changed from laxative to enema therapy over time. 80% (8/10) of those changed from laxatives to enemas used antegrade therapy. 67.3% (35/52) of neurodiverse patients followed over time were on enema therapy at the most recent visit with 80% (28/35) requiring antegrade therapy. CONCLUSION: A large portion of patients with a neurodiverse disorder who fail laxative therapy use antegrade enemas to achieve effective bowel management. Early consideration of an antegrade conduit may simplify treatment in this group of children. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Incontinencia Fecal , Niño , Estreñimiento/etiología , Estreñimiento/terapia , Enema/efectos adversos , Incontinencia Fecal/complicaciones , Incontinencia Fecal/terapia , Humanos , Laxativos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
J Surg Res ; 275: 109-114, 2022 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259668

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Ileocolic intussusception is a common cause of pediatric bowel obstruction. Contrast enema is successful in treating the majority of patients, and if initially unsuccessful, approximately one-third may be reduced with repeat enemas. We sought to study protocol implementation for delayed repeat enema in pediatric patients not reduced completely by an initial contrast enema. Our aims were to assess repeat enema success rates and outcome differences in preprotocol and postprotocol patients with respect to (1) intussusception recurrence, (2) surgical intervention and complication rates, and (3) length of stay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of treatment and clinical outcomes prior to and following protocol implementation for repeat enema for intussusception at two tertiary pediatric referral hospitals. The preprotocol period was defined from 2/2013 to 2/2016, and the postprotocol period was from 8/2016 to 11/2019. RESULTS: There were 112 patients in the preprotocol group, with 74 (66%) having successful reduction following the first enema. Of the 38 patients without successful reduction, 16 (42%) patients underwent repeat enema, and five were successful (31%). The postprotocol group included 122 patients, with 84 (69%) having successful first reduction. Of the 38 patients that failed, 25 patients (66%) underwent repeat enema, of which 13 (52%) were successful. Compared to preprotocol patients, postprotocol patients had significantly more enemas repeated and a trend toward fewer surgical interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Protocol implementation of repeat delayed enemas was significantly associated with an increased rate of repeat enemas at our institutions and reduced need for operative intervention during the index stay.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades del Íleon , Intususcepción , Niño , Enema/efectos adversos , Enema/métodos , Humanos , Enfermedades del Íleon/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades del Íleon/cirugía , Lactante , Intususcepción/diagnóstico por imagen , Intususcepción/terapia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
J Pediatr Surg ; 57(10): 359-364, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35090714

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Malone antegrade continence enemas (MACE) provide a conduit in which the patient can achieve improved continence, be clean of stool, and gain independence in maintaining bowel function. The Mini-ACE® is a low-profile balloon button that is used to facilitate the administration of antegrade enemas. We sought to describe our practice and short-term outcomes. METHODS: This work is a retrospective review of the Mini-ACE® appendicostomy button from April 2019 to March 2021, with follow-up concluding in October 2021. Patient demographics, colorectal diagnoses, and outcomes were examined. RESULTS: Forty-three patients underwent Mini-ACE® placement; 22 (51%) were male. The average age at Mini-ACE® insertion was 9.2 years (range 3-20 years). The most common diagnoses were functional constipation in 19 (44%), anorectal malformation in 15 (35%), and Hirschsprung disease in 3 (7%), spinal differences 3 (7%). There were no intra-operative complications, but 5 (12%) required prolapse resection. The median length of stay was two days (IQR 1, 4). Patients achieved self-catheterization at 4.5 [3,7] months from MACE creation, with 38 children (88%) reporting excellent success in remaining clean of stool. CONCLUSION: The Mini-ACE® appears to be a safe and low-profile option for antegrade continence enema access. Further research is needed directly comparing complications and patient satisfaction rates between different MACE devices and overall quality of life. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV.


Asunto(s)
Incontinencia Fecal , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Colostomía/efectos adversos , Estreñimiento/etiología , Enema/efectos adversos , Incontinencia Fecal/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 1896781, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35097110

RESUMEN

The incidence of CKD seriously endangers people's health. Researchers have proposed that improving the intestinal barrier damage in CKD may be an effective target for delaying the progression of CKD. Rhubarb can effectively improve the intestinal barrier and renal fibrosis, which may be related to the regulation of gut dysbiosis, but the mechanism needs to be further studied. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are important metabolites of the gut microbiota and play an important role in maintaining the intestinal barrier. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether rhubarb enema regulates the production of short-chain fatty acid-related gut microbiota and improves the intestinal barrier damage of CKD. 5/6 nephrectomy rats were used as the animal model, sevelamer was used as the positive control group, and the sham operation rats were used as the control group. After 4 weeks of enema treatment, the general clinical indicators, short-chain fatty acid levels, renal pathology, intestinal tissue pathology, intestinal tight junction protein, and changes in gut microbiota were detected. The results showed that rhubarb enema can increase the level of short-chain fatty acids in the 5/6 nephrectomy model rats, improve the intestinal barrier damage, inhibit the decrease of intestinal tight junction proteins, reduce inflammation levels, improve kidney pathology, reduce blood creatinine levels, and regulate the intestinal tract, the abundance, and composition of the flora. Further correlation analysis showed that rhubarb enema increased the level of short-chain fatty acids in 5/6 nephrectomy model rats, which may be related to the 7 strains that may regulate the production of short-chain fatty acids. This study indicated that rhubarb enema can improve the intestinal barrier damage of 5/6 nephrectomy model rats and improve CKD, which may be related to the regulation of short-chain fatty acid-producing gut microbiota.


Asunto(s)
Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Rheum , Animales , Disbiosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Disbiosis/metabolismo , Enema/efectos adversos , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/metabolismo , Humanos , Ratas , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/metabolismo , Rheum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Uniones Estrechas/metabolismo
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(51): e32361, 2022 Dec 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595842

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Anal sinusitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the anal sinus, anal flap, and anal glands. There are many traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapies for anal sinusitis, and most of them can achieve satisfactory results. Retention enema is one effective treatment for anal sinusitis. Although a number of studies have shown the effectiveness of retention enema with TCM in treating anal sinusitis, the results are inconsistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis was carried out in this study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of retention enema with TCM in the treatment of anal sinusitis. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials on TCM retention enema for treating anal sinusitis were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CNKI, WanFang databases and VIP databases. The search time limit was from the database establishment to November 15, 2022. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted the data, and evaluated the risk of bias in the included studies. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool (RoB 2.0). The meta-analysis was conducted by RevMan 5.3. RESULTS: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed publication. CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis will provide evidence for the efficacy and safety of TCM retention enema in the treatment of anal sinusitis.


Asunto(s)
Enema , Sinusitis , Humanos , Enema/efectos adversos , Medicina Tradicional China/métodos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Sinusitis/terapia , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
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