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1.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 66(1): e1-e5, 2024 Feb 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572885

RESUMEN

Persistent challenges in addressing severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia in resource-constrained settings have led to ongoing and often unacceptable rates of morbidity, disability and mortality. These challenges stem from limitations such as inadequate, inefficient or financially inaccessible diagnostic and therapeutic options. However, over the past decade, noteworthy innovations have emerged to address some of these hurdles, and these innovations are increasingly poised for broader implementation. This review provides a concise summary of these novel, economically viable diagnostic solutions, encompassing point-of-care assays and smartphone applications, as well as treatment modalities, notably more effective phototherapy and filtered sunlight. These advancements hold promise and have the potential to meaningfully reduce the burden of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, signifying a promising shift in the landscape of neonatal healthcare.


Asunto(s)
Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal , Ictericia Neonatal , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Ictericia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Ictericia Neonatal/terapia , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/terapia , Fototerapia , Luz Solar , Estudios Longitudinales
2.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e077710, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569681

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preventing readmission to hospital after giving birth is a key priority, as rates have been rising along with associated costs. There are many contributing factors to readmission, and some are thought to be preventable. Nurse and midwife understaffing has been linked to deficits in care quality. This study explores the relationship between staffing levels and readmission rates in maternity settings. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study using routinely collected individual patient data in three maternity services in England from 2015 to 2020. Data on admissions, discharges and case-mix were extracted from hospital administration systems. Staffing and workload were calculated in Hours Per Patient day per shift in the first two 12-hour shifts of the index (birth) admission. Postpartum readmissions and staffing exposures for all birthing admissions were entered into a hierarchical multivariable logistic regression model to estimate the odds of readmission when staffing was below the mean level for the maternity service. RESULTS: 64 250 maternal admissions resulted in birth and 2903 mothers were readmitted within 30 days of discharge (4.5%). Absolute levels of staffing ranged between 2.3 and 4.1 individuals per midwife in the three services. Below average midwifery staffing was associated with higher rates of postpartum readmissions within 7 days of discharge (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.108, 95% CI 1.003 to 1.223). The effect was smaller and not statistically significant for readmissions within 30 days of discharge (aOR 1.080, 95% CI 0.994 to 1.174). Below average maternity assistant staffing was associated with lower rates of postpartum readmissions (7 days, aOR 0.957, 95% CI 0.867 to 1.057; 30 days aOR 0.965, 95% CI 0.887 to 1.049, both not statistically significant). CONCLUSION: We found evidence that lower than expected midwifery staffing levels is associated with more postpartum readmissions. The nature of the relationship requires further investigation including examining potential mediating factors and reasons for readmission in maternity populations.


Asunto(s)
Partería , Humanos , Embarazo , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Readmisión del Paciente , Estudios Longitudinales , Pacientes Internos , Periodo Posparto , Recursos Humanos
3.
Arch Prev Riesgos Labor ; 27(2): 173-189, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38655592

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Diffuse interstitial lung disease (ILD) describes a broad group of pulmonary inflammatory and fibrosis disorders. Asbestosis and silicosis are the main causes linked to occupational exposure. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of cases with possible occupational origin and describe their exposure, clinical, and occupational status. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study of ILD cases between 2017 - 2022 at the University Hospital of Navarra was conducted. Information was supplemented with interviews of cases with possible occupational origin. The occupational proportion was calculated, labor and clinical characteristics analyzed, by statistical comparison of percentages and means. RESULTS: Out of 1067 ILD cases, 56 had a possible occupational origin 5,2% (95% CI 3,9-6,6%). 36 (64,3%) corresponded to asbestosis, 15 (26,8%) to silicosis, and 5 (8,9%) to unspecified pneumoconiosis. The most frequent activities in silicosis were "stone cutting-carving" and in asbestosis "manufacture of iron products". The average age of asbestosis cases was higher than that of silicosis cases (78,2 vs. 67,3 years), as well as their clinical manifestation. Five cases (8,9%) had been recognized as occupational diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a computer tool in medical records has made it possible to estimate the magnitude and assess the evolution of occupational ILD treated in the Public Health Service. Economic activities reflect the economic risk structure of the region. However, there is a lack of recognition of these diseases as occupational illnesses and they represent a preventable burden of respiratory disease.


Introducción: La enfermedad pulmonar intersticial difusa (EPID) describe un amplio grupo de trastornos con inflamación y fibrosis pulmonar. La asbestosis y la silicosis son las principales causas por exposición laboral. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar la proporción de casos de posible origen laboral y describir la exposición, situación clínica y laboral.  Método: Estudio longitudinal retrospectivo de los casos de EPID, en el período 2017-2022 en el Hospital Universitario de Navarra. Se completó la información con entrevista a los casos de posible origen laboral.  Resultados: De un total de 1067 casos de EPID, 56 tuvieron un posible origen laboral, 5,2% (3,9-6,6 IC 95%) 36 (64,3%) correspondieron a asbestosis, 15 (26,8%) a silicosis y 5 (8,9%) a neumoconiosis no especificada. Las actividades más frecuentes en silicosis fueron "corte-tallado de piedra" y para asbestosis "fabricación productos hierro". La media de edad de los casos de asbestosis fue superior a los de silicosis (78,2 vs. 67,3 años), así como su afectación clínica. Cinco casos (8,9%) habían sido reconocidos como enfermedad profesional  Conclusiones: La implementación de una herramienta informática en historia clínica ha hecho posible estimar la magnitud y valorar la evolución de las EPID laborales atendidas en el servicio nacional de salud. Las actividades económicas reflejan la estructura económica de riesgo de la región. Sin embargo, existe una falta de su reconocimiento como enfermedad profesional y suponen una carga de enfermedad respiratoria evitable.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales , Enfermedades Profesionales , Silicosis , Humanos , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , España/epidemiología , Masculino , Estudios Longitudinales , Anciano , Silicosis/epidemiología , Silicosis/complicaciones , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Asbestosis/complicaciones , Asbestosis/epidemiología
4.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 18(2): 88-93, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565463

RESUMEN

The prevalence of overweight and obesity among military personnel has increased substantially in the past two decades. Following military discharge many personnel can receive integrated health care from the Veterans Health Administration. Prior research related to the economic impacts of obesity has not examined health care costs following the transition into civilian life following military discharge. To address this evidence gap, this study sought to compare longitudinal costs over 10 years across weight categories among VA enrollees recently discharged from the military.


Asunto(s)
Costos de la Atención en Salud , Personal Militar , Obesidad , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Costos de la Atención en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/economía , Obesidad/epidemiología , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Estudios Longitudinales , Veteranos/estadística & datos numéricos , Alta del Paciente , Sobrepeso/economía , Sobrepeso/epidemiología
5.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 66(3): 137-143, 2024.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38650510

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) plays an important role in the treatment of patients with refractory Somatic Symptom Disorder and related disorders with complex problems and/or somatic or psychiatric comorbidity (complex SSD). AIM: To gain insight into the possible role of (experiential) acceptance in improved quality of life during and after treatment. METHOD: Observational longitudinal study in 41 patients with complex SSD treated at Altrecht Psychosomatic Medicine Eikenboom. They completed online questionnaires around the start and completion of treatment and after six months of follow-up. Assessed were experiential acceptance (AAQ-II-NL) and three aspects of quality of life (RAND-36: mental health, physical functioning, general health perception). The associations between changes in acceptance and quality of life were determined. RESULTS: Acceptance increased significantly from treatment initiation to follow-up. Mental health increased significantly between start and end of treatment, and general health perception increased significantly in the follow-up period. Physical functioning did not change. During treatment, an increase in acceptance was significantly associated with improvement in mental health and general health perception; during follow-up, an increase in acceptance was associated with an improvement in mental health. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrates that an increase in experiential acceptance goes hand in hand with an improvement in mental health and general health perception. These results indicate the potential importance of acceptance-based treatment in patients with complex SSD. Experimental research with more frequent measurements is needed to test a temporal relationship between (first) increased acceptance and (then) improved quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Estudios Longitudinales , Trastornos Somatomorfos/terapia , Trastornos Somatomorfos/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Síntomas sin Explicación Médica
6.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 188: 114635, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582347

RESUMEN

Over 70% of United States military service members (SMs) regularly use dietary supplements (DSs) and about 18% have reported adverse effects (AEs) associated with use. This investigation examined longitudinal changes in AEs reporting among DS users. On two separate occasions 1.3 ± 0.2 years apart (mean ± standard deviation), 5778 SMs completed identical questionnaires on DS use and associated AEs. Among SMs reporting DS use ≥1 time/week, ≥1 AE was reported by 19% and 15% in the baseline and follow-up phases, respectively. The risk of reporting DS use at follow-up was similar among those reporting and not reporting AEs at baseline for most DS categories including prohormones, proteins/amino acids, individual vitamins and minerals, multivitamin/multiminerals, herbals, fish oils, joint health products, and other DSs. An exception was combination products where those reporting AEs at baseline had an increased risk of use at follow-up (risk ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.09). Those reporting AEs at baseline and continuing DS use in the follow-up were more likely to report AEs at follow-up compared to those not reporting baseline AEs. In conclusion, AEs reported at baseline did not deter many participants from using DSs in the follow-up period, and many SMs reporting AEs at baseline continued reporting them at follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Personal Militar , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Adulto , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Longitudinales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad
7.
J Integr Neurosci ; 23(3): 51, 2024 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538228

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The flavonoid chrysin produces rapid and long-lasting anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in rats. However, it is not known whether low and high doses of chrysin produce differential anti-immobility effects through the Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid sub-type A (GABAA) receptor. The goal of this work was therefore to compare low and high doses of chrysin for their effects on depression-like behavior in a longitudinal study. Moreover, chrysin was compared with the serotonergic fluoxetine and Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)ergic allopregnanolone, and its involvement with the GABAA receptor after chronic treatment was also investigated. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were assigned to five groups (n = 8 each): vehicle, 1 mg/kg chrysin, 5 mg/kg chrysin, 1 mg/kg fluoxetine, and 1 mg/kg allopregnanolone. In the first experiment, treatments were injected daily and the effects on locomotor activity and the forced swim test were evaluated at 0, 1, 14, and 28 days of treatment, and 48 h after the final treatment. In the second experiment, similar groups were treated for 28 days with injection of 1 mg/kg picrotoxin to investigate the role of the GABAA receptor. Depending on the experimental design, one- and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used for statistical analysis, with p < 0.05 set as the criteria for significance. RESULTS: In both experiments, the treatments did not alter locomotor activity. However, low and high doses of chrysin, allopregnanolone, and fluoxetine gradually produced antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test, and maintained this effect for 48 h post-treatment, except with low dose chrysin. Picrotoxin blocked the antidepressant-like effects produced by low dose chrysin, but did not affect those produced by high dose chrysin, allopregnanolone, or fluoxetine. CONCLUSIONS: The differential antidepressant-like effects caused by low and high doses of chrysin are time-dependent. Low dose chrysin produces a rapid antidepressant-like effect, whereas high dose chrysin produces a delayed but sustained the effect, even 48 h after withdrawal. The effect with high dose chrysin was similar to that observed with allopregnanolone and fluoxetine. The mechanism for the antidepressant-like effect of low chrysin appears to be GABAergic, whereas the effect of high dose chrysin may involve other neurotransmission and neuromodulation systems related to the serotonergic system.


Asunto(s)
Fluoxetina , Receptores de GABA-A , Ratas , Masculino , Animales , Fluoxetina/farmacología , Pregnanolona , Ratas Wistar , Receptores de GABA , Picrotoxina , Estudios Longitudinales , Antidepresivos/farmacología , Flavonoides/farmacología , Ácido gamma-Aminobutírico
8.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Feb 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474711

RESUMEN

(1) Background: Ultra-endurance exercise involves a high physical impact, resulting in muscle damage, inflammatory response and production of free radicals that alter the body's oxidative state. Supplementation with antioxidants, such as beetroot, may improve recovery in ultra-endurance runners. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between beetroot intake and recovery of serum oxidative status, inflammatory response and muscle damage parameters after an ultra-endurance race. (2) Methods: An observational and longitudinal study was conducted by means of surveys and blood samples collected from 32 runners during the IX Penyagolosa Trails CSP®® race and the two following days. The variables C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), the activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) as well as the oxidative damage markers malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl groups (CG) and loss of muscle strength using the squat jump (SJ) test were analyzed to discriminate whether beetroot consumption can modulate the recovery of ultra-trail runners. (3) Results: Significant differences were observed between runners who ingested beetroot and those who did not, in terms of oxidative status, specifically in serum GPx activity at 24 and 48 h, muscle damage variables CK and LDH and regarding the SJ test results at the finish line. Therefore, the intake of supplements containing beetroot positively influences the recovery of serum oxidative status and muscle damage after ultra-endurance running.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Estrés Oxidativo , Estudios Longitudinales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Oxidación-Reducción , Suplementos Dietéticos , Verduras/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
9.
Res Dev Disabil ; 147: 104688, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431998

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prognostic factors from naturalistic treatment studies of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) remain largely unknown. We aimed to identify baseline and treatment-related prognostic predictors at 1-year follow-up after Integrative Care Practices (ICPs). METHODS: Eighty-nine preschool children with severe ASD were given ICP combining nine therapeutic workshops based on children's needs. Participants were assessed at baseline and during 12 months follow-up with the Psycho-educational Profile-3-R, Children Autism Rating Scale, Parental Global Impression, and the Autistic Behaviors Scale. We assessed prognostic predictors using multivariable regression models and explored treatment ingredients influencing outcome using Classification and Regression Trees (CART). RESULTS: Multivariable models showed that being a child from first generation immigrant parents predicted increased maladaptive behaviors, whereas play activities had an opposite effect; severity of ASD symptoms and impaired cognitive functions predicted worse autism severity at follow-up; and lower play activities predicted worse parent impression. Regarding treatment effects, more emotion/behavioral interventions predicted better outcomes, and more communication interventions predicted lower autism severity, whereas more education and cognitive interventions had an opposite effect. CART confirmed that more hours of intervention in the emotion/behavioral domain helped classifying cases with better outcomes. More parental support was associated with decreased maladaptive behaviors. Sensorimotor and education interventions also significantly contributed to classifying cases according to outcomes but defined subgroups with opposite prognosis. CONCLUSION: Children who exhibited the best prognosis following ICPs had less autism severity, better cognition, and non-immigrant parents at baseline. Emotion/behavior interventions appeared key across all outcomes and should be promoted.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Preescolar , Humanos , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Prospectivos , Emociones , Padres/psicología
10.
Biom J ; 66(2): e2200333, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499515

RESUMEN

Many statistical models have been proposed in the literature for the analysis of longitudinal data. One may propose to model two or more correlated longitudinal processes simultaneously, with a goal of understanding their association over time. Joint modeling is then required to carefully study the association structure among the outcomes as well as drawing joint inferences about the different outcomes. In this study, we sought to model the associations among six nutrition outcomes while circumventing the computational challenge posed by their clustered and high-dimensional nature. We analyzed data from a 2 × $\times$ 2 randomized crossover trial conducted in Kenya, to compare the effect of high-dose and low-dose iodine in household salt on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in women of reproductive age and their household matching pair of school-aged children. Two additional outcomes, namely, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in women and children were measured repeatedly to monitor the amount of iodine excreted through urine. We extended the model proposed by Mwangi et al. (2021, Communications in Statistics: Case Studies, Data Analysis and Applications, 7(3), 413-431) allowing flexible piecewise joint models for six outcomes to depend on separate random effects, which are themselves correlated. This entailed fitting 15 bivariate general linear mixed models and deriving inference for the joint model using pseudo-likelihood theory. We analyzed the outcomes separately and jointly using piecewise linear mixed-effects (PLME) model and further validated the results using current state-of-the-art Jones and Kenward methodology (JKME model) used for analyzing randomized crossover trials. The results indicate that high-dose iodine in salt significantly reduced blood pressure (BP) compared to low-dose iodine in salt. Estimates for the random effects and residual error components showed that SBP and DBP had strong positive correlation, with effect of the random slope indicating that significantly related outcomes are strongly associated in their evolution. There was a moderately strong inverse relationship between evolutions of UIC and BP both in women and children. These findings confirmed the original hypothesis that high-dose iodine salt has significant lowering effect on BP. We further sought to evaluate the performance of our proposed PLME model against the widely used JKME model, within the multivariate joint modeling framework through a simulation study mimicking a 2 × 2 $2\times 2$ crossover design. From our findings, the multivariate joint PLME model performed exceptionally well both in estimation of random-effects matrix (G) and Hessian matrix (H), allowing satisfactory model convergence during estimation. It allowed a more complex fit to the data with both random intercepts and slopes effects compared to the multivariate joint JKME model that allowed for random intercepts only. When a hierarchical viewpoint is adopted, in the sense that outcomes are specified conditionally upon random effects, the variance-covariance matrix of the random effects must be positive definite. In some cases, additional random effects could explain much variability in the data, thus improving precision in estimation of the estimands (effect size) parameters. The key highlight in this evaluation shows that multivariate joint JKME model is a powerful tool especially while fitting mixed models with random intercepts only, in crossover design settings. Addition of random slopes may lead to model complexities in most cases, resulting in unsatisfactory model convergence during estimation. To circumvent convergence pitfalls, extention of JKME model to PLME model allows a more flexible fit to the data (generated from crossover design settings), especially in the multivariate joint modeling framework.


Asunto(s)
Yodo , Modelos Estadísticos , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Cruzados , Modelos Lineales , Estudios Longitudinales , Adulto , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(3)2024 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541188

RESUMEN

Background and objectives: Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain significantly impacts physical activity and quality of life in older adults, potentially influencing mortality. This study explored the relationship between MSK pain, physical activity, muscle mass, and mortality among older adults. Material and Methods: We studied 1000 participants in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA), a prospective, population-based cohort study of people aged 65 years or older. Survival status was tracked over a 5-year period. Correlations between low back pain (LBP), knee pain, regular exercise, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), and other variables were analyzed. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors for mortality. Results: Of the total participants, 829 (82.9%) survived over a 5-year period. Survivors tended to be younger, had a higher BMI, and were more active in regular exercise. In contrast, non-survivors exhibited a higher prevalence of both LBP and knee pain, along with increased instances of multiple MSK pains. Lower ASM correlated moderately with LBP and knee pain, whereas higher ASM was associated with regular exercise. There was a moderate correlation between LBP and knee pain, both of which were associated with a lack of regular exercise. Age, sex, ASM, and regular exercise were significant predictors, even though MSK pain itself did not directly predict all-cause mortality. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the independent association between ASM, regular exercise, and mortality. Although MSK pain did not directly correlate with all-cause mortality, the non-survivor group had higher levels of both single and multiple MSK pains. Recognizing the interplay of MSK pain, physical activity, and muscle mass for older adults, the research underscores the need for holistic strategies to enhance health outcomes in older individuals with MSK pain.


Asunto(s)
Dolor de la Región Lumbar , Dolor Musculoesquelético , Humanos , Anciano , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios de Cohortes , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Prospectivos , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico , República de Corea/epidemiología , Músculos
12.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 67(6): 544-553, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479538

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Despite making do-not-resuscitate or comfort care decisions during advance care planning, terminally ill patients sometimes receive life-sustaining treatments as they approach end of life. OBJECTIVES: To examine factors contributing to nonconcordance between end-of-life care and advance care planning. METHODS: In this longitudinal retrospective cohort study, terminally ill patients with a life expectancy shorter than six months, who had previously expressed a preference for do-not-resuscitate or comfort care, were followed up after palliative shared care intervention. An instrument with eight items contributing to non-concordant care, developed through literature review and experts' consensus, was employed. An expert panel reviewed electronic medical records to determine factors associated with non-concordant care for each patient. Statistical analysis, including descriptive statistics and the chi-square test, examines demographic characteristics, and associations. RESULTS: Among the enrolled 7871 patients, 97 (1.2%) received non-concordant care. The most prevalent factor was "families being too distressed about the patient's deteriorating condition and therefore being unable to let go" (84.5%) followed by "limited understanding of medical interventions among patients and surrogates" (38.1%), and "lack of patient participation in the decision-making process" (25.8%). CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that factors related to relational autonomy, emotional support, and health literacy may contribute to non-concordance between advance care planning and end-of-life care. In the future, developing an advance care planning model emphasizes respecting relational autonomy, providing emotional support, and enhancing health literacy could help patients receiving a goal concordant and holistic end-of-life care.


Asunto(s)
Planificación Anticipada de Atención , Cuidado Terminal , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Longitudinales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Órdenes de Resucitación , Prioridad del Paciente , Enfermo Terminal , Cuidados Paliativos
13.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 49(6): 1024-1032, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431758

RESUMEN

The 22q11.2 locus contains genes critical for brain development. Reciprocal Copy Number Variations (CNVs) at this locus impact risk for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Both 22q11.2 deletions (22qDel) and duplications (22qDup) are associated with autism, but 22qDel uniquely elevates schizophrenia risk. Understanding brain phenotypes associated with these highly penetrant CNVs can provide insights into genetic pathways underlying neuropsychiatric disorders. Human neuroimaging and animal models indicate subcortical brain alterations in 22qDel, yet little is known about developmental differences across specific nuclei between reciprocal 22q11.2 CNV carriers and typically developing (TD) controls. We conducted a longitudinal MRI study in a total of 385 scans from 22qDel (n = 96, scans = 191, 53.1% female), 22qDup (n = 37, scans = 64, 45.9% female), and TD controls (n = 80, scans = 130, 51.2% female), across a wide age range (5.5-49.5 years). Volumes of the thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and anatomical subregions were estimated using FreeSurfer, and the linear effects of 22q11.2 gene dosage and non-linear effects of age were characterized with generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs). Positive gene dosage effects (volume increasing with copy number) were observed for total intracranial and whole hippocampus volumes, but not whole thalamus or amygdala volumes. Several amygdala subregions exhibited similar positive effects, with bi-directional effects found across thalamic nuclei. Distinct age-related trajectories were observed across the three groups. Notably, both 22qDel and 22qDup carriers exhibited flattened development of hippocampal CA2/3 subfields relative to TD controls. This study provides novel insights into the impact of 22q11.2 CNVs on subcortical brain structures and their developmental trajectories.


Asunto(s)
Variaciones en el Número de Copia de ADN , Síndrome de DiGeorge , Dosificación de Gen , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Variaciones en el Número de Copia de ADN/genética , Adulto , Adolescente , Niño , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad , Preescolar , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/patología , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Longitudinales , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagen , Hipocampo/patología , Hipocampo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/patología , Encéfalo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Amígdala del Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagen , Amígdala del Cerebelo/patología , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagen , Tálamo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Tálamo/patología , Tamaño de los Órganos
14.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0297614, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446774

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Child birthweight is a measure of fetal nutrition that is primarily determined by prenatal maternal (PM) diet. Child birthweight and child obesity/overweight risk are well established to be linked. Nevertheless, no studies have investigated the impact of PM dietary exclusion on child obesity/overweight risk or body mass index z-score (BMIz). OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine whether PM dietary exclusion affected the child's BMIz, obesity/overweight risk, whether child birthweight serves as a mediator of this, and whether PM use of dietary supplements can protect against this. METHODS: Waves within the years 2004-2019 from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a population-based cohort study, were analyzed. The participants were aged 0 to 15 years during these waves of the study. Analysis was conducted using logistic and linear models. A total of 5,107 participants were involved in the first wave of the study. RESULTS: The PM exclusion of fish was associated with a higher risk of being underweight at age 14 or 15 years and mild-to-moderate obesity at age 6 or 7 years. The PM exclusion of egg was associated with a higher risk of being overweight at age 14 or 15 years. The exclusion of dairy was associated with more mixed effects. Mediation effects did not reach statistical significance. Moderation effects involving PM dietary supplement use, when they did occur, were associated with higher child BMIz and usually a higher risk of obesity/overweight. CONCLUSIONS: Fish and eggs are likely important parts of PM diets for preventing childhood obesity and overweight. Further studies will be needed to determine reasons for this and the apparent adverse effects of dietary supplements on overweight/obesity risk.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad Infantil , Niño , Animales , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Adolescente , Obesidad Infantil/epidemiología , Obesidad Infantil/etiología , Obesidad Infantil/prevención & control , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/etiología , Peso al Nacer , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Longitudinales , Australia/epidemiología , Dieta , Vitaminas
15.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 39(3): e6077, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468424

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The relationship between spirituality and depressive symptoms among the Chinese elderly is not well known. The current study explores this relationship using longitudinal data and trajectory modeling of depressive symptoms. METHODS: A longitudinal study design was used to measure depressive symptoms repeatedly from 2012 to 2021 using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Group-based trajectory modeling analysis was conducted to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms, and multiple logistic regression was used to explore the association between spirituality and depressive symptom trajectories. RESULTS: A total of 2333 participants completed at least two GDS measures, and these were included in the Group-based trajectory modeling analysis. An optimal model of three trajectories was derived: no depressive symptoms group (75.2%), new-onset depressive symptoms group (14.4%), and persistent depressive symptoms group (10.4%). Logistic regression modeling revealed that higher spirituality was associated with a lower risk of both new-onset depressive symptoms (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.49-0.93) and persistent depressive symptoms (OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.23-0.45). CONCLUSIONS: Spirituality predicts a lower risk of new-onset depressive symptoms and persistent symptoms among older adults in mainland China.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Espiritualidad , Humanos , Anciano , Depresión/diagnóstico , Estudios Longitudinales , Proyectos de Investigación , Factores de Riesgo , China/epidemiología
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6706, 2024 03 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509160

RESUMEN

This study investigates the relationship between labor values and two forms of envy-benign and malicious-as well as the potential mediating role of mindfulness using a mindfulness reperceiving model. Two thousand three hundred sixty three Chinese teenagers participated in a longitudinal study over an eight-month period, completing questionnaires measuring labor values, benign envy, malicious envy, and mindfulness. The cross-sectional data showed that labor values had an immediate negative effect on malicious envy, with mindfulness partially mediating this relationship. Additionally, labor values had an immediate positive effect on benign envy, but mindfulness did not mediate this relationship. Longitudinal data analysis revealed that the delayed effect of labor values on later benign/malicious envy was similar to its immediate effect. However, mindfulness only played a mediating role in the relationship between labor values and later malicious envy. Cross-gender stability was found in both the immediate effect model and the delayed effect model. Overall, this study sheds light on the influence of labor values on the development of social emotions and the potential mediating role of mindfulness in the Chinese cultural context.


Asunto(s)
Celos , Atención Plena , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Transversales , Emociones
17.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0294977, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427660

RESUMEN

The impact of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) (initiated in 2000 in Ghana and ran for 12 years) in mitigating soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in LF-endemic areas is unknown. During a 1-year hiatus which ensued between 2011 and 2012, a longitudinal study was conducted to determine GPELF effect on hookworm infections in selected communities involved in the programme since its inception, while measuring the effectiveness of biannual ALB treatments on schoolchildren living in such communities. A total of 399 school children aged 3 to 18 years were randomly selected from four communities in the Kpandai district of northern Ghana. Each presented a single stool sample at baseline, 21 days post-treatment, at the 3rd and 6th months, 21 days post-second intervention (i.e. following sample collection and treatment with ALB in the 6th month), and in the ninth month of the study period. Haemoglobin (hb) levels were also measured at all time points using finger prick blood samples and a URIT digital test kit. Each participant submitting a sample, was treated with a single-dose ALB (400mg) at baseline and in the sixth month. Stool samples were processed by preparing duplicate Kato-Katz slides per sample, and examined by microscopy. The Body Mass Index-for-age z-scores (BAZ) of participants were assessed following the determination of BMIs at each time point by measuring their height and weight with a stadiometer and weighing scale. Overall hookworm prevalences were 25.68% (95% CI = 20.51-31.75) at baseline, 11.18% (95% CI = 7.87-15.41) 21 days post-treatment, 11.78% (95% CI = 8.38-16.11) and 6.95% (95% CI = 4.41-10.43) in the 3rd and 6th months, 0.91% (95% CI = 0.19-2.65) 21 days post-second intervention, and 8.46% (95% CI = 5.62-12.23) in the ninth month. Observed overall faecal egg count reduction rates (ERRs) were 94.21% (95% CI = 81.50%- 100.00%) 21 days after baseline treatment, 97.70% (95% CI = 85.08-100.00) and 96.95% (95% CI = 84.18%- 100.00%) in the 3rd and 6th months, 99.98% (95% CI = 86.42%- 100.00%) 21 days post-second intervention, and 17.18% (95% CI = 14.07%- 20.67%) in the 9th month. Respective cure rates (CRs) were 62.35% (95% CI = 46.71-81.56%), 85.88% (95% CI = 67.32-100.00%), 87.06% (95% CI = 68.36%- 100.00%), 98.82% (95% CI = 78.83%- 100.00%), and 36.36% (95% CI = 9.91%- 93.11%). Additionally, increases in the percent frequency of 'normal hb' (p < 0.01) were observed across the study time points, whilst 'normal BAZ' cases remained high (from 94.87% to 98.87%) throughout the study period. These findings primarily indicate satisfactory effectiveness of ALB which may be maintainable in mass drug administration programmes by the modification of treatment strategies from annual to bi-annual regimes. This could minimize the likelihood of emerging poorly-responding hookworm phenotypes in Ghana. Additionally, a positive impact of bi-annual treatment on participant anaemia status is herein indicated with particular regard to the school children in our cohort.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , Antihelmínticos , Filariasis Linfática , Helmintiasis , Infecciones por Uncinaria , Niño , Humanos , Albendazol/uso terapéutico , Índice de Masa Corporal , Ghana/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Infecciones por Uncinaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Anemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Anemia/epidemiología , Heces , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Suelo
18.
Am J Prev Med ; 66(6): 1078-1088, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309672

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Physical activity (PA) promotion combined with multimicronutrient supplementation (MMNS) among school-age children may reduce fat mass accrual and increase muscle mass through different mechanisms and so benefit child health. This study determined the efficacy of combined interventions on body composition among South African schoolchildren and determined if micronutrients mediate these effects. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cluster randomized controlled trial of children followed from 2019 to 2021. Statistical analyses carried from 2022 to 2023. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,304 children 6-12 years of age recruited from public schools in Gqeberha, South Africa. INTERVENTION: Children were randomized by classes to either: (a) a physical activity group (PA); (b) a MMNS group; (c) a physical activity + multimicronutrient supplementation group (PA + MMNS); and (d) a placebo control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trajectories of overall and truncal fat free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) estimates in modeled at 9 and 21 months using latent growth curve models (LGCM). Changes in micronutrient concentrations at 9 months from baseline. RESULTS: An increased FFM trajectory was found among children in the MMNS arm at 9 months (Beta 0.16, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.31). The PA and MMNS arms both had positive indirect effects on this trajectory at 9 months (Beta 0.66, 95% CI = 0.44, 0.88 and Beta 0.32 95% CI = 0.1 0.5, respectively) and similarly at 21 months when mediated by zinc concentration changes. A reduced FM trajectory was found among children in the PA promotion arm at 9 months when using this collection point as the referent intercept. This arm was inversely associated with the FM trajectory at 9 months when mediated by zinc changes. CONCLUSIONS: PA and MMNS promotion in school-based interventions directly contributed to reductions in FM and increased FFM among South African children and indirectly through changes in micronutrient status. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN29534081. Registered on August 9, 2018 Institutional review board: Ethikkommission Nordwest- und Zentralschweiz" (EKNZ, project number: Req-2018-00608). Date of approval: 2018.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ejercicio Físico , Micronutrientes , Humanos , Sudáfrica , Micronutrientes/administración & dosificación , Niño , Masculino , Femenino , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Estudios Longitudinales
19.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 34(5): 1189-1197, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342722

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Assessing the relationship between vitamin K1 intakes, using region-specific food databases, with both all-cause, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality warrants further investigation to inform future preventative strategies. Consequently, we examined the aforementioned associations in the Perth Longitudinal Study of Ageing Women (PLSAW). METHODS AND RESULTS: 1436 community-dwelling older Australian women (mean ± SD age 75.2 ± 2.7 years) completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline (1998). Vitamin K1 intake was calculated based on an Australian vitamin K food database, supplemented with published data. All-cause and CVD mortality data was obtained from linked health records. Associations were examined using restricted cubic splines within Cox-proportional hazard models, adjusted for a range of cardiovascular and lifestyle related risk factors. Over 15 years of follow-up, 601 (41.9%) women died, with 236 deaths (16.4%) due to CVD. Compared to women with the lowest vitamin K1 intakes (Quartile 1, median 49.1 µg/day), those with the highest intakes (Quartile 4, median 119.3 µg/day) had lower relative hazards for all-cause mortality (HR 0.66 95%CI 0.51-0.86) and CVD mortality (HR 0.61 95%CI 0.41-0.92). A plateau in the inverse association was observed from vitamin K1 intakes of approximately ≥80 µg/day. CONCLUSION: Higher vitamin K1 intakes were associated with lower risk for both all-cause and CVD mortality in community-dwelling older women, independent of CVD related risk factors. A higher intake of vitamin K1 rich foods, such as leafy green vegetables, may support cardiovascular health.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Masculino , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Vitamina K 1 , Estudios Longitudinales , Vida Independiente , Estudios Prospectivos , Australia/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
20.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2314913, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362742

RESUMEN

Background: Stressful events increase the risk for treatment-resistant depression (TRD), and trauma-focused psychotherapy can be useful for TRD patients exposed to early life stress (ELS). Epigenetic processes are known to be related to depression and ELS, but there is no evidence of the effects of trauma-focused psychotherapy on methylation alterations.Objective: We performed the first epigenome-wide association study to investigate methylation changes related to trauma-focused psychotherapies effects in TRD patients.Method: Thirty TRD patients assessed for ELS underwent trauma-focused psychotherapy, of those, 12 received trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, and 18 Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR). DNA methylation was profiled with Illumina Infinium EPIC array at T0 (baseline), after 8 weeks (T8, end of psychotherapy) and after 12 weeks (T12 - follow-up). We examined differentially methylated CpG sites and regions, as well as pathways analysis in association with the treatment.Results: Main results obtained have shown 110 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) with a significant adjusted p-value area associated with the effects of trauma-focused psychotherapies in the entire cohort. Several annotated genes are related to inflammatory processes and psychiatric disorders, such as LTA, GFI1, ARID5B, TNFSF13, and LST1. Gene enrichment analyses revealed statistically significant processes related to tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor and TNF signalling pathway. Stratified analyses by type of trauma-focused psychotherapy showed statistically significant adjusted p-value area in 141 DMRs only for the group of patients receiving EMDR, with annotated genes related to inflammation and psychiatric disorders, including LTA, GFI1, and S100A8. Gene set enrichment analyses in the EMDR group indicated biological processes related to inflammatory response, particularly the TNF signalling pathway.Conclusion: We provide preliminary valuable insights into global DNA methylation changes associated with trauma-focused psychotherapies effects, in particular with EMDR treatment.


Stressful events increase treatment-resistant depression, and trauma-focused psychotherapy can be useful for these patients.Epigenome-wide data shows changes associated with trauma-focused psychotherapies, especially eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, in treatment-resistant depression patients.Genes and biological pathways related to inflammatory and immune systems are among the most statistically significant results.


Asunto(s)
Metilación de ADN , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Humanos , Metilación de ADN/genética , Depresión/genética , Depresión/terapia , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Longitudinales , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Psicoterapia
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