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1.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 104: adv39927, 2024 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629891

RESUMEN

Narrow-band TL-01 ultraviolet B phototherapy (TL-01) is an effective and widely used treatment for many skin diseases. The purpose of the investigation was to assess the risk of skin cancers in patients treated with TL-01 phototherapy who have not received any other phototherapy modalities. This cohort study included 4,815 TL-01 treated patients in Finland with psoriasis or atopic dermatitis. Clinical information was collected from the hospital records and linked with Finnish Cancer Registry data. The follow-up started from the first TL-01 treatment and the mean follow-up time was 8.4 years. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated for basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous melanoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. The standardized incidence ratio for basal cell carcinoma was 2.5 (95% confidence interval 1.8-3.5), for cutaneous melanoma 4.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-6.8) and for squamous cell carcinoma 3.7 (95% confidence interval 1.7-7.0). For basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the standardized incidence ratios remained similar during the whole follow-up time while the standardized incidence ratio for cutaneous melanoma was markedly higher during the first 5 years of follow-up. In conclusion, an increased incidence of skin cancers was observed among TL-01 treated patients. It should be confirmed in the future whether the skin cancer risk of TL-01 phototherapy will remain high in a longer follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Basocelular , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Melanoma , Psoriasis , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Terapia Ultravioleta , Humanos , Neoplasias Cutáneas/epidemiología , Neoplasias Cutáneas/etiología , Melanoma/epidemiología , Melanoma/complicaciones , Estudios de Cohortes , Fototerapia/efectos adversos , Terapia Ultravioleta/efectos adversos , Psoriasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiología , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiología , Carcinoma Basocelular/terapia
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e245295, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625704

RESUMEN

Importance: Organized screening outreach can reduce differences in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality between demographic subgroups. Outcomes associated with additional outreach, beyond universal outreach, are not well known. Objective: To compare CRC screening completion by race and ethnicity, age, and sex after universal automated outreach and additional personalized outreach. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational cohort study included screening-eligible individuals aged 50 to 75 years assessed during 2019 in a community-based organized CRC screening program within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) integrated health care delivery setting. For KPNC members who are not up to date with screening by colonoscopy, each year the program first uses automated outreach (mailed prescreening notification postcards and fecal immunochemical test [FIT] kits, automated telephone calls, and postcard reminders), followed by personalized components for nonresponders (telephone calls, electronic messaging, and screening offers during office visits). Data analyses were performed between November 2021 and February 2023 and completed on February 5, 2023. Exposures: Completed CRC screening via colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or FIT. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of participants completing an FIT or colonoscopy after each component of the screening process. Differences across subgroups were assessed using the χ2 test. Results: This study included 1 046 745 KPNC members. Their mean (SD) age was 61.1 (6.9) years, and more than half (53.2%) were women. A total of 0.4% of members were American Indian or Alaska Native, 18.5% were Asian, 7.2% were Black, 16.2% were Hispanic, 0.8% were Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and 56.5% were White. Automated outreach significantly increased screening participation by 31.1%, 38.1%, 29.5%, 31.9%, 31.8%, and 34.5% among these groups, respectively; follow-up personalized outreach further significantly increased participation by absolute additional increases of 12.5%, 12.4%, 13.3%, 14.4%, 14.7%, and 11.2%, respectively (all differences P < .05 compared with White members). Overall screening coverage at the end of the yearly program differed significantly among members who were American Indian or Alaska Native (74.1%), Asian (83.5%), Black (77.7%), Hispanic (76.4%), or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (74.4%) compared with White members (82.2%) (all differences P < .05 compared with White members). Screening completion was similar by sex; older members were substantially more likely to be up to date with CRC screening both before and at the end of the screening process. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of a CRC screening program, sequential automated and personalized strategies each contributed to substantial increases in screening completion in all demographic groups. These findings suggest that such programs may potentially reduce differences in CRC screening completion across demographic groups.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios de Cohortes , Neoplasias Colorrectales/diagnóstico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Grupos Raciales , Etnicidad
3.
Clin. transl. oncol. (Print) ; 26(4): 917-923, Abr. 2024. graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-VR-54

RESUMEN

Objective: The present study aims to assess the mortality trends in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in Spain from 1980 to 2021. Methods: Deaths and mid-year population data were collected from the National Institute of Statistics. We estimated age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) per 100,000 person-years for all ages and ages 35–64. Joinpoint regression identified significant changes in mortality trends. The independent effects of age, period and birth cohort on MDS mortality were also examined. Results: MDS-related deaths gradually increased from 36 in 1980 to 1118 in 2021, with an overall increase of 6.6% in age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) for both men and women. Joinpoint analysis identified four periods for both men and women: 1980–1987 (stable rates), 1987–1990 (sharp increase), 1990–1999 (slower increase) and 1999–2021 (stable rates). ASMRs (35–64 years) increased by 2.5% over the study period, with a turning point identified in 1996 when rates decreased. Mortality from MDS increases with age and is higher in men. The cohort's relative risk increased until the mid-1950s and then stabilised, whilst the period relative risk increased between 1982 and 1996 and then stabilised. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate a progressive increase in MDS-related deaths in Spain between 1980 and 2021. Notably, this increase was more pronounced in men than in women. Analysis of birth cohort trends revealed shifts in MDS risk, characterised by an increase until the mid-twentieth century, followed by a stabilisation. Using joinpoint analysis, four distinct periods were identified, shedding light on the changing patterns of mortality over time. These findings help to shape future research directions and inform public health strategies. They also provide optimism for advances in MDS treatment and potential reductions in mortality.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Síndromes Mielodisplásicos , Mortalidad , España , Estudios de Cohortes
4.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 335, 2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609867

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Frailty and polypharmacy are common conditions in older adults, especially in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, we analyzed the association of polypharmacy and incident frailty and the effect modification by CKD in very old adults. METHODS: In non-frail individuals within the Berlin Initiative (cohort) Study, polypharmacy (≥ 5 medications) was assessed according to multiple definitions based on the number of regular and on demand prescription and over the counter drugs, as well as vitamins and supplements. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73m2 and/or an albumin-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g. Incident frailty was assessed at follow-up using Fried criteria. Logistic regression was applied to assess (1) the association of different polypharmacy definitions with incident frailty and (2) effect modification by CKD. RESULTS: In this cohort study, out of 757 non-frail participants (mean age 82.9 years, 52% female, 74% CKD), 298 (39%) participants reported polypharmacy. Over the observation period of 2.1 years, 105 became frail. Individuals with polypharmacy had 1.96 adjusted odds (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-3.19) of becoming frail compared to participants without polypharmacy. The effect of polypharmacy on incident frailty was modified by CKD on the additive scale (relative excess risk due to interaction: 1.56; 95% CI 0.01-3.12). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates an association of polypharmacy and incident frailty and suggests strong evidence for an effect modification of CKD on polypharmacy and incident frailty. Revision of prescriptions could be a target strategy to prevent frailty occurrence, especially in older adults with CKD.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Masculino , Estudios de Cohortes , Fragilidad/diagnóstico , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Polifarmacia , Vitaminas , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/diagnóstico , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología
5.
Food Funct ; 15(8): 4436-4445, 2024 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563400

RESUMEN

Background: Garlic has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular improvement and other beneficial effects on human health. However, few studies have evaluated the association of garlic intake with the risk of depressive symptoms. The aim of this prospective cohort was to examine the association between the frequency of raw garlic consumption and depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Methods: A total of 7427 participants (mean ± standard deviation: 39.7 ± 10.5 years) without baseline depressive symptoms were included in the cohort study. Garlic consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and depressive symptoms were assessed by a Chinese version of the Self-rating Depression Scale score (SDS score ≥ 45). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association between garlic consumption and the risk of depressive symptoms. Results: This study identified 1070 cases of depressive symptoms during a median follow-up of 2.0 years, with a depression prevalence of 73.4 cases per 1000 person-years. After multivariate adjustment, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for depressive symptoms in males were 1.00 (reference) for almost never, 1.05 (0.84, 1.32) for ≤1 time per week, 1.16 (0.90, 1.49) for 2-3 times per week, and 1.31 (0.97, 1.78) for ≥4 times per week, and in females, they were 1.00 (reference) for almost never, 0.85 (0.69, 1.06) for ≤1 time per week, 0.72 (0.54, 0.97) for 2-3 times per week, and 0.78 (0.53, 1.13) for ≥4 times per week. Conclusion: In a large general population, we demonstrate for the first time that moderate raw garlic consumption is associated with a reduced risk of depressive symptoms in females, but not in males. Additional prospective studies with long-term follow-up and randomized controlled trials are necessary to confirm the preliminary results of the current study.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Ajo , Humanos , Ajo/química , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Depresión/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Factores de Riesgo , China/epidemiología
6.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e079635, 2024 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594184

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Little study has reported the association of maternal weight gain in early pregnancy with fetal congenital heart disease (CHD). We aimed to explore the potential relationship based on a China birth cohort while adjusting by multiple factors. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: China birth cohort study conducted from 2017 to 2021. PARTICIPANTS: The study finally included 114 672 singleton pregnancies in the 6-14 weeks of gestation, without missing data or outliers, loss to follow-up or abnormal conditions other than CHD. The proportion of CHD was 0.65% (749 cases). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Association between maternal pre-pregnancy weight gain and CHD in the offspring were analysed by multivariate logistic regression, with the unadjusted, minimally adjusted and maximally adjusted methods, respectively. RESULTS: The first-trimester weight gain showed similar discrimination of fetal CHD to that period of maternal body mass index (BMI) change (DeLong tests: p=0.091). Compared with weight gain in the lowest quartile (the weight gain less than 0.0 kg), the highest quartile (over 2.0 kg) was associated with a higher risk of fetal CHD in unadjusted (OR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.72), minimally adjusted (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.29, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.62) and maximally adjusted (aOR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.63) models. The association remains robust in pregnant women with morning sickness, normal pre-pregnancy BMI, moderate physical activity, college/university level, natural conception or with folic acid (FA) and/or multivitamin supplementation. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Although the association of maternal pre-pregnancy weight gain on fetal CHD is weak, the excessive weight gain may be a potential predictor of CHD in the offspring, especially in those with morning sickness and other conditions that are routine in the cohort, such as normal pre-pregnancy BMI, moderate physical activity, college/university level, natural conception or with FA and/or multivitamin supplementation.


Asunto(s)
Ganancia de Peso Gestacional , Cardiopatías Congénitas , Náuseas Matinales , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios de Cohortes , Aumento de Peso , Índice de Masa Corporal , Cardiopatías Congénitas/epidemiología , Peso al Nacer
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e247373, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38639937

RESUMEN

Importance: Subarachnoid hemorrhage is typically diagnosed by noncontrast head computed tomography (CT); lumbar puncture is recommended if computed tomography is nondiagnostic, although CT cerebral angiography has been promoted as an alternative to lumbar puncture in this diagnostic pathway. The outcomes of this debate in practice have not been studied. Objective: To determine whether CT cerebral angiography use has increased in lieu of lumbar puncture among emergency department (ED) patients with headache, with an increase in unruptured intracranial aneurysm detection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study took place in 21 community EDs of an integrated health care system in Northern California between 2015 and 2021. Participants were adult (aged >17 years) health plan members with a chief concern of headache. Exclusions were prior diagnoses of subarachnoid hemorrhage, unruptured intracranial aneurysm, cerebral arteriovenous malformation, or cerebrospinal fluid shunt. Data were analyzed from October to November 2023. Exposures: CT cerebral angiography and/or lumbar puncture during the ED encounter. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary and secondary outcomes were 14-day and 90-day unruptured intracranial aneurysm detection, respectively. Safety outcomes were missed diagnoses of subarachnoid hemorrhage or bacterial meningitis. The annual incidence of unruptured intracranial aneurysm detection was normalized to the incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (UIA:SAH ratio). Average annualized percentage changes were quantified using joinpoint regression analysis. Results: Among 198 109 included ED encounters, the mean (SD) age was 47.5 (18.4) years; 140 001 patients (70.7%) were female; 29 035 (14.7%) were Black or African American, 59 896 (30.2%) were Hispanic or Latino, and 75 602 (38.2%) were White. Per year, CT cerebral angiography use increased (18.8%; 95% CI, 17.7% to 20.3%) and lumbar punctures decreased (-11.1%; 95% CI, -12.0% to -10.4%), with a corresponding increase in the 14-day UIA:SAH ratio (3.5%; 95% CI, 0.9% to 7.4%). Overall, computed tomography cerebral angiography use increased 6-fold relative to lumbar puncture, with a 33% increase in the detection of UIA. Results were similar at 90 days and robust to sensitivity analyses. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (1004 cases) and bacterial meningitis (118 cases) were misdiagnosed in 5% and 18% of cases, respectively, with no annual trends (P = .34; z1003 = .95 and P = .74; z117 = -.34, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of ED patients with headache, increases in CT cerebral angiography use were associated with fewer lumbar punctures and higher detection of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, with no significant change in missed diagnoses of subarachnoid hemorrhage or bacterial meningitis. While this shift in diagnostic strategy appeared safe in the short-term, the long-term consequences remain unclear.


Asunto(s)
Aneurisma Intracraneal , Meningitis Bacterianas , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea/diagnóstico por imagen , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea/epidemiología , Aneurisma Intracraneal/diagnóstico por imagen , Aneurisma Intracraneal/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Retrospectivos , Cefalea/etiología , Angiografía por Tomografía Computarizada , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Meningitis Bacterianas/complicaciones
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613167

RESUMEN

The study aimed to explore the association between five heavy metals exposure (Cadmium, Lead, Mercury, Manganese, and Selenium) and mortality [all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer-related]. We integrated the data into the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2011 to 2018 years. A total of 16,092 participants were recruited. The link between heavy metals exposure and mortality was analyzed by constructing a restricted cubic spline (RCS) curve, Cox proportional hazard regression model, and subgroup analysis. The RCS curve was used to show a positive linear relationship between Cadmium, Lead, and all-cause mortality. In contrast, there was a negative linear correlation between Mercury and all-cause mortality. Additionally, Manganese and Selenium also had a J-shaped and L-shaped link with all-cause mortality. The positive linear, positive linear, negative liner, J-shaped, and L-shaped relationships were observed for Cadmium, Lead, Mercury, Manganese, and Selenium and CVD mortality, respectively. Cadmium, Lead, Mercury, and Selenium were observed to exhibit positive linear, U-shaped, negative linear, and L-shaped relationships with cancer-related mortality, respectively. There was an increase and then a decrease in the link between Manganese and cancer-related morality. This study revealed the correlation between the content of different elements and different types of mortality in the U.S. general population.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Mercurio , Metales Pesados , Neoplasias , Selenio , Humanos , Cadmio/análisis , Manganeso , Selenio/análisis , Causas de Muerte , Encuestas Nutricionales , Estudios de Cohortes , Mercurio/análisis
9.
BMC Palliat Care ; 23(1): 86, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556868

RESUMEN

Harmful use of illicit drugs and/or alcohol is linked to life-limiting illness and complex health and social care needs, but people who use substances and have complex needs do not receive timely palliative care and fail to achieve quality standards for a good death. They and their families often require support from multiple health and social care services which are shown to be poorly integrated and fail to deliver interdisciplinary care. This study aimed to identify the existing barriers and facilitators within and between services in providing this population with a good death. Using a mixed methods approach of survey, focus groups and semi-structured interviews, we explored the perspectives of practitioner and management staff across a range of health and social disciplines and organisations in one combined authority in a large city in the north west of England. Our findings indicate that practitioners want to provide better care for this client group, but face structural, organisational and professional boundary barriers to delivering integrated and shared care. Differences in philosophy of care, piecemeal commissioning and funding of services, and regulatory frameworks for different services, lead to poor and inequitable access to health and social care services. Ways forward for improving care are suggested as bespoke hostel-based accommodation for palliative care for this client group, and specialist link workers who can transcend professional and organisational boundaries to support co-ordination of services and support. We conclude that it is no longer adequate to call for more training, better communication and improved joint working. Complex care at the end of life requires creative and cohesive systemic responses that enable multi-disciplinary practitioners to provide the care they wish to give and enables individuals using substances to get the respect and quality service they deserve.


Asunto(s)
Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud , Cuidados Paliativos al Final de la Vida , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Cuidado Terminal , Humanos , Estudios de Cohortes , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia
10.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 30: 1611664, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559567

RESUMEN

Background: Several factors can affect overall survival of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients, including characteristics of the cancer disease and response to treatments. However, patients' nutritional status and the effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy (MNT) can also impact overall survival. The primary goal of our research was to collect real-life data on the use of MNT in HNC patients and to specifically investigate the correlation between survival and the duration of uninterrupted (persistent) nutrition. Method: The data of this retrospective, analytical, cohort study was collected from electronic healthcare records from the Hungarian National Health Insurance Fund Management. Overall, 38,675 HNC patients' data of the period between 2012 and 2021 was used. We applied multi-step exclusions to identify patient groups accurately and to avoid biasing factors. Statistical analysis was done by the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox regression analysis. Results: Throughout the investigated period 16,871 (64%) patients received MNT therapy out of 26,253 newly diagnosed patients (≥18 years). In terms of the persistence of MNT, we divided the patients into three groups (1-3; 4-6; ≥7-month duration of MNT). When comparing these groups, we found that patients receiving long-term (≥7 months) MNT had a significantly longer overall survival (p < 0.0001) than those who received MNT for a shorter duration, both in locally advanced and recurrent/metastatic cases. Conclusion: The main outcome of the study is that there is a positive correlation between the persistence of MNT and the overall survival in HNC patients when nutritional intervention lasts several months. It highlights the responsibility of the specialists during the patient journey to use MNT early and to continue its use for as long as it is beneficial to the patients.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello , Terapia Nutricional , Humanos , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Retrospectivos , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/terapia
11.
Elife ; 122024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578269

RESUMEN

Background: Circulating omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with various chronic diseases and mortality, but results are conflicting. Few studies examined the role of omega-6/omega-3 ratio in mortality. Methods: We investigated plasma omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs and their ratio in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a large prospective cohort, the UK Biobank. Of 85,425 participants who had complete information on circulating PUFAs, 6461 died during follow-up, including 2794 from cancer and 1668 from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Associations were estimated by multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression with adjustment for relevant risk factors. Results: Risk for all three mortality outcomes increased as the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 PUFAs increased (all Ptrend <0.05). Comparing the highest to the lowest quintiles, individuals had 26% (95% CI, 15-38%) higher total mortality, 14% (95% CI, 0-31%) higher cancer mortality, and 31% (95% CI, 10-55%) higher CVD mortality. Moreover, omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs in plasma were all inversely associated with all-cause, cancer, and CVD mortality, with omega-3 showing stronger effects. Conclusions: Using a population-based cohort in UK Biobank, our study revealed a strong association between the ratio of circulating omega-6/omega-3 PUFAs and the risk of all-cause, cancer, and CVD mortality. Funding: Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institute of Health under the award number R35GM143060 (KY). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.


Fatty acids play an essential role in health. Studies have shown that diets high in omega-3 fatty acids found in foods like fish, fish oil, flaxseed and walnuts may be beneficial. Yet some studies have raised concern that too many omega-6 fatty acids in Western diets rich in vegetable oils may be harmful. Some scientists have proposed that the balance of omega-3 and omega-6 in diets is vital to health. They hypothesize that a higher omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids ratio is detrimental. But, proving that a higher ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids is harmful has been difficult. Many studies have found conflicting results. Scientists have struggled to accurately measure fatty acid intake as tracking an individual's dietary intake is challenging and self-reported dietary intake may be incorrect. Additionally, scientists must follow individuals for many years to determine if a high ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 is linked with cancer, heart disease, or death. But, measuring circulating fatty acids in an individual's blood may offer an easier and more reliable approach to studying the health impacts of these vital nutrients. Zhang et al. show that people with higher ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids in their blood are at greater risk of dying from cancer, heart disease, or any cause than those with lower ratios. The experiments measured omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid levels in more than 85,000 participants in the UK Biobank who scientists followed for an average of about 13 years. Participants with the highest ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids were 26% more likely to die of any cause, 14% more likely to die of cancer, and 31% more likely to die of heart disease than individuals with the lowest ratios. Individually, high levels of omega-6 fatty acids and high levels of omega-3 fatty acids were both associated with a lower risk of dying. But the protective effects of omega-3 were greater. For example, individuals with the highest levels of omega-6 fatty acids were 23% less likely to die of any cause. By comparison, those with the highest levels of omega-3s were 31% less likely to die. The stronger protection offered by high levels of omega-3s likely explains why having a high ratio of omega-6s to omega-3s was linked to harm. Both are protective. But the protection provided by omega-3s is more robust. The experiments support dietary interventions to raise omega-3 fatty acid levels and maintain a low omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio to prevent early deaths from cancer, heart disease or other causes. More research is needed to understand the impact of dietary fatty acid intake on other diseases and how genetics may influence the health impact of fatty acids.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3 , Neoplasias , Humanos , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Prospectivos , Biobanco del Reino Unido , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Ácidos Grasos Omega-6 , Neoplasias/epidemiología
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 236, 2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575874

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To analyze the impact of the time of natural cessation of the umbilical cord on maternal and infant outcomes in order to explore the time of clamping that would be beneficial to maternal and infant outcomes. METHODS: The study was a cohort study and pregnant women who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Qilu Hospital of Shandong University from September 2020 to September 2021. Analysis using Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test, Pearson's Chi-squared test, generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) and repeated measures ANOVA. If the difference between groups was statistically significant, the Bonferroni test was then performed. A two-sided test of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 345 pregnants were included in this study. The subjects were divided into the ≤60 seconds group (n = 134), the 61-89 seconds group (n = 106) and the ≥90 seconds group (n = 105) according to the time of natural arrest of the umbilical cord. There was no statistically significant difference in the amount of postpartum hemorrhage and the need for iron, medication, or supplements in the postpartum period between the different cord spontaneous arrest time groups for mothers (P > 0.05). The weight of the newborns in the three groups was (3316.27 ± 356.70) g, (3387.26 ± 379.20) g, and (3455.52 ± 363.78) g, respectively, and the number of days of cord detachment was 12.00 (8.00, 15.75) days, 10.00 (7.00, 15.00) days and 9.00 (7.00, 13.00) days, respectively, as the time of natural cessation of the cord increased. The neonatal lymphocyte ratio, erythrocyte pressure, and hemoglobin reached a maximum in the 61-89 s group at (7.41 ± 2.16) %, (61.77 ± 8.17) % and (194.52 ± 25.84) g/L, respectively. Lower incidence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in the 61-89 s group compared to the ≥90s group 0 vs 4.8 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In full-term singleton vaginal births, maternal and infant outcomes are better when waiting for 61-89 s after birth for the cord to stop pulsating naturally, suggesting that we can wait up to 90s for the cord to stop pulsating naturally, and if the cord does not stop pulsating after 90s, artificial weaning may be more beneficial to maternal and infant outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Hemorragia Posparto , Cordón Umbilical , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Prospectivos , Nacimiento a Término
13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e47396, 2024 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630528

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Maternal preeclampsia is associated with a risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in offspring. However, it is unknown whether the increased ASD risk associated with preeclampsia is due to preeclampsia onset or clinical management of preeclampsia after onset, as clinical expectant management of preeclampsia allows pregnant women with this complication to remain pregnant for potentially weeks depending on the onset and severity. Identifying the risk associated with preeclampsia onset and exposure provides evidence to support the care of high-risk pregnancies and reduce adverse effects on offspring. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to fill the knowledge gap by assessing the ASD risk in children associated with the gestational age of preeclampsia onset and the number of days from preeclampsia onset to delivery. METHODS: This retrospective population-based clinical cohort study included 364,588 mother-child pairs of singleton births between 2001 and 2014 in a large integrated health care system in Southern California. Maternal social demographic and pregnancy health data, as well as ASD diagnosis in children by the age of 5 years, were extracted from electronic medical records. Cox regression models were used to assess hazard ratios (HRs) of ASD risk in children associated with gestational age of the first occurrence of preeclampsia and the number of days from first occurrence to delivery. RESULTS: Preeclampsia occurred in 16,205 (4.4%) out of 364,588 pregnancies; among the 16,205 pregnancies, 2727 (16.8%) first occurred at <34 weeks gestation, 4466 (27.6%) first occurred between 34 and 37 weeks, and 9012 (55.6%) first occurred at ≥37 weeks. Median days from preeclampsia onset to delivery were 4 (IQR 2,16) days, 1 (IQR 1,3) day, and 1 (IQR 0,1) day for those first occurring at <34, 34-37, and ≥37 weeks, respectively. Early preeclampsia onset was associated with greater ASD risk (P=.003); HRs were 1.62 (95% CI 1.33-1.98), 1.43 (95% CI 1.20-1.69), and 1.23 (95% CI 1.08-1.41), respectively, for onset at <34, 34-37, and ≥37 weeks, relative to the unexposed group. Within the preeclampsia group, the number of days from preeclampsia onset to delivery was not associated with ASD risk in children; the HR was 0.995 (95% CI 0.986-1.004) after adjusting for gestational age of preeclampsia onset. CONCLUSIONS: Preeclampsia during pregnancy was associated with ASD risk in children, and the risk was greater with earlier onset. However, the number of days from first preeclampsia onset to delivery was not associated with ASD risk in children. Our study suggests that ASD risk in children associated with preeclampsia is not increased by expectant management of preeclampsia in standard clinical practice. Our results emphasize the need to identify effective approaches to preventing the onset of preeclampsia, especially during early pregnancy. Further research is needed to confirm if this finding applies across different populations and clinical settings.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos , Preeclampsia , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Retrospectivos , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/epidemiología , Preeclampsia/epidemiología
14.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 114(5): 490-501, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528199

RESUMEN

To elucidate the precise upstream and downstream regulatory mechanisms of inflammatory factors in osteoporosis (OP) progression and to establish a causal relationship between inflammatory factors and OP. We conducted bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using data for 41 cytokines obtained from three independent cohorts comprising 8293 Finnish individuals. Estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) data were derived from 426,824 UK Biobank White British individuals (55% female) and fracture data from 416,795 UK Biobank participants of European ancestry. The inverse variance-weighted method was the primary MR analysis approach. We employed other methods as complementary approaches for mutual corroboration. To test for pleiotropy and heterogeneity, we used the MR-Egger regression, MR-pleiotropy residual sum and outlier global test, and the Cochrane Q test. Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and interleukin (IL)-12p70 expression associated negatively and causally with eBMD (ß = -0.017 [MIP-1α], ß = -0.011 [IL-12p70]). Conversely, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand was associated with a decreased risk of fractures (Odds Ratio: 0.980). Additionally, OP influenced the expression of multiple inflammatory factors, including growth-regulated oncogene-α, interferon-gamma, IL-6, beta nerve growth factor, and IL-2. Finally, we discovered complex bidirectional causal relationships between IL-8, IL-10, and OP. Specific inflammatory factors may contribute to OP development or may be causally affected by OP. We identified a bidirectional causal relationship between certain inflammatory factors and OP. These findings provide new perspectives for early prediction and targeted treatment of OP. Larger cohort studies are necessary in the future to further validate these findings.


Asunto(s)
Densidad Ósea , Citocinas , Inflamación , Análisis de la Aleatorización Mendeliana , Osteoporosis , Humanos , Análisis de la Aleatorización Mendeliana/métodos , Femenino , Osteoporosis/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamación/genética , Masculino , Densidad Ósea/genética , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes
15.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 775, 2024 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475730

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The relationship between parental age at pregnancy and offspring development in low- and middle-income countries remains unclear. We aimed to examine the associations of parental age at pregnancy with adolescent development in rural China. METHODS: We conducted a prospective birth cohort study of offspring born to pregnant women who participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial in rural Western China. Adolescent cognitive development and emotional and behavioural problems were assessed by using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV and the Youth Self-Report-2001, respectively. After accounting for the possible nonlinear relationships, we examined the linear associations between parental age (in years) at pregnancy and scores of adolescent cognitive development and emotional and behavioural problems by performing generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Among 1897 adolescents followed from birth to early adolescence, 59.5% were male with a mean age of 11.8 (standard deviation (SD): 0.8) years. The mean ages of mothers and fathers at pregnancy were 24.6 (SD: 4.4) and 27.9 (SD: 4.1) years old, respectively. All the P values of the nonlinear terms between parental age and adolescent development in all domains were greater than 0.05. Each one-year increase in maternal age at pregnancy was associated with a 0.29-point (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06, 0.52) increase in the full-scale intelligence quotient in early adolescence. After parental age was categorized into quartiles, the total behavioural problem scores of adolescents with fathers with an age in the fourth quartile (Q4) were 6.71 (95% CI 0.86, 12.57) points higher than those of adolescents with fathers with an age in the first quartile (Q1), with a linear trend P value of 0.01. Similarly, higher scores (worse behavioural problems) were observed for internalizing behavioural problems and other emotional and behavioural symptoms related to anxiety, withdrawal, social problems, thought problems and aggressive behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: At conception, older maternal age was independently linked to better adolescent cognitive development, whereas advanced paternal age was independently associated with a greater risk of adolescent emotional and behavioral problems. These findings suggest that public health policies targeting an optimal parental age at pregnancy should be developed in the context of offspring developmental consequences.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo del Adolescente , Cohorte de Nacimiento , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Embarazo , Cognición , Estudios de Cohortes , Madres/psicología , Padres/psicología , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(3)2024 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541188

RESUMEN

Background and objectives: Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain significantly impacts physical activity and quality of life in older adults, potentially influencing mortality. This study explored the relationship between MSK pain, physical activity, muscle mass, and mortality among older adults. Material and Methods: We studied 1000 participants in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA), a prospective, population-based cohort study of people aged 65 years or older. Survival status was tracked over a 5-year period. Correlations between low back pain (LBP), knee pain, regular exercise, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), and other variables were analyzed. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors for mortality. Results: Of the total participants, 829 (82.9%) survived over a 5-year period. Survivors tended to be younger, had a higher BMI, and were more active in regular exercise. In contrast, non-survivors exhibited a higher prevalence of both LBP and knee pain, along with increased instances of multiple MSK pains. Lower ASM correlated moderately with LBP and knee pain, whereas higher ASM was associated with regular exercise. There was a moderate correlation between LBP and knee pain, both of which were associated with a lack of regular exercise. Age, sex, ASM, and regular exercise were significant predictors, even though MSK pain itself did not directly predict all-cause mortality. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the independent association between ASM, regular exercise, and mortality. Although MSK pain did not directly correlate with all-cause mortality, the non-survivor group had higher levels of both single and multiple MSK pains. Recognizing the interplay of MSK pain, physical activity, and muscle mass for older adults, the research underscores the need for holistic strategies to enhance health outcomes in older individuals with MSK pain.


Asunto(s)
Dolor de la Región Lumbar , Dolor Musculoesquelético , Humanos , Anciano , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios de Cohortes , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Prospectivos , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico , República de Corea/epidemiología , Músculos
18.
BMC Nephrol ; 25(1): 117, 2024 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553732

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Relationship between serum phosphorus time in range and mortality risk in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients remains uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the association between serum phosphorus time in range and all-cause mortality in Chinese PD population. METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective, cohort study of 1,915 patients collected from January 2008 to October 2020 in 4 Chinese centers. Serum phosphorus time in range was estimated as the months during the first year that a patient's serum phosphorus level was within the target range (defined as 1.13-1.78 mmol/L). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The secondary outcomes were cardiovascular (CV) mortality and PD withdrawal. Cox proportional hazards regression model with comprehensive adjustments was used to assess the association. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in 249 (13.0%) PD patients over a median follow-up of 28 months. Overall, the serum phosphorus time in range was negatively associated with all-cause mortality (per 3-month increments, adjusted HR [aHR], 0.83; 95%CI: 0.75-0.92), CV mortality (per 3-month increments, aHR, 0.87; 95%CI: 0.77-0.99), and PD withdrawal (per 3-month increments, aHR, 0.89; 95%CI: 0.83-0.95). Competing-risk model showed that the relationship of serum phosphorus time in range with all-cause mortality remained stable. None of the variables including demographics, history of diabetes and CV disease, as well as several PD-related and clinical indicators modified this association. CONCLUSIONS: PD patients with longer serum phosphorus time in range in the first year was negatively associated with all-cause mortality and CV mortality. Our findings highlight the importance of maintaining serum phosphorus levels within 1.13-1.78 mmol/L for PD patients.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Diálisis Peritoneal , Humanos , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Retrospectivos , Fósforo , Diálisis Peritoneal/efectos adversos , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales
19.
Thromb Res ; 236: 130-135, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430904

RESUMEN

Multiple myeloma (MM) significantly increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) within 6 months of treatment initiation. The IMPEDE VTE score is a VTE risk prediction model which is recently incorporated into the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, but it lacks validation among Asians, including Chinese MM patients. We performed a retrospective chart review of 405 Chinese with newly diagnosed MM who started therapy at Beijing Jishuitan Hospital between April 2013 to October 2022. The 6-month cumulative incidence of VTE was 3.8 % (95 % CI:1.6-7.6), 8.6 % (95 % CI: 5.3-21.9) and 40.5 % (95 % CI: 24.9-55.7) in the low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups (P < 0.001), respectively. The C-statistic of the IMPEDE VTE scores for predicting VTE within 6 months of treatment initiation was 0.74 (95 % CI: 0.65-0.83). Of note, in this single-center cohort study, we propose that the anticoagulant LMWH may be more effective than the antiplatelet aspirin in potentially preventing VTE in newly diagnosed MM patients. Our findings suggest that the IMPEDE VTE score is a valid evidence-based risk stratification tool in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed MM.


Asunto(s)
Mieloma Múltiple , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiple/complicaciones , Mieloma Múltiple/tratamiento farmacológico , Heparina de Bajo-Peso-Molecular , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiología , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Anticoagulantes , China/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
20.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 19(1): 105, 2024 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454433

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess medication adherence and demographic, clinical, and psychopathological parameters such as quality of life, depression, and anxiety levels that can affect pediatrics with Wilson's Disease (WD). METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted at an outpatient clinic in Turkey among pediatric patients (2 to 18 years) with WD between November 2022 and April 2023. The Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS-5) as a subjective and Medication Possession Ratio (MPR) as an objective assessment were scored. Physical, genetic and biochemical parameters, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) for both parents and patients, Childhood Depression Inventory, State Trait Anxiety Inventory were also administered. RESULTS: A total of 30 pediatric outpatients who were prescribed D-penicillamine (n = 27) or trientine (n = 3) as chelators and zinc (n = 29) and pyridoxine (n = 19) as supplements were included. Proteinuria (n = 3), skin rash (n = 2), and gastrointestinal upset (n = 2) were observed. When the correlation between MARS-5 and duration of follow-up was examined, a significant negative correlation was found (p = 0.014). According to MPRs, non-adherence rates (missed doses ≥ 20%) were 29.6%, 17.2% and 5.3% for D-penicillamine, zinc and pyridoxine, respectively. PedsQL scores were higher than those of parents, with a positive correlation between them (p < 0.001). Also, there was a significant positive correlation between PedsQL and State Anxiety Inventory (p < 0.001). Comparing the change in urinary copper levels between different levels of treatment knowledge, significant differences were observed between high- and low levels (p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, nonadherence rates were 23.3% based on MARS-5 and 5.3-29.6% based on MPR. It is essential to consider factors such as the duration of follow-up, biochemical parameters, treatment knowledge, quality of life and anxiety as potential influencers of medication adherence.


Asunto(s)
Degeneración Hepatolenticular , Adolescente , Niño , Humanos , Estudios de Cohortes , Degeneración Hepatolenticular/tratamiento farmacológico , Degeneración Hepatolenticular/patología , Penicilamina/uso terapéutico , Estudios Prospectivos , Piridoxina/uso terapéutico , Calidad de Vida , Turquía , Zinc/uso terapéutico , Preescolar
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