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1.
Hum Antibodies ; 32(2): 51-60, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38640148

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The number of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) positive patients and fatalities keeps rising. It is important to recognize risk factors for severe outcomes. Evidence linking vitamin D deficiency and the severity of COVID-19 is tangential but substantial - relating to race, obesity, and institutionalization. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the function of vitamin D and nutritional defense against infections such as COVID-19, which is the goal of this research. METHODS: This study includes observational cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies that estimated variances in serum levels of vitamin D among patients with mild or severe forms of COVID-19, and in patients who died or were discharged from hospitals. Studies that assessed the risk of developing severe disorder or death in patients with vitamin D deficiency, defined as levels of vitamin D< 20 ng/mL, were also encompassed. RESULTS: In a retrospective study on 464,383 individuals, results showed that individuals who had the highest risks for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and for COVID-19 severity when infected, had vitamin D levels < 30 nmol/L; Odds Ratio (OR) were 1.246 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.210-1.304] and 1.513 [95%CI: 1.230-1.861], respectively. Additionally, in a retrospective observational study of 191,779 individuals in the USA. The SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was greater in the 39,190 subjects with vitamin D < 20 ng/mL [12.5%, 95% C.I. 12.2-12.8%] than in the 27,870 subjects with sufficient serum vitamin D levels [8.1%, 95% C.I. 7.8-8.4%] and in the 12,321 subjects with serum vitamin D ⩾ 55 ng/mL [5.9%, 95% C.I. 5.5-6.4%]. CONCLUSION: People hospitalized for COVID-19 should be checked for vitamin D status and supplemented, and high-dose-in testing should be considered in the recovery trial. More importantly, screening for malnutrition and the administration of the best nutritional supplements are essential for the immune system of the human body to function as it should be. Thus, nutritional supplementation is crucial for people with risk factors as well as older adults with compromised immune systems.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Humanos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , COVID-19/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Vitamina D/sangre , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/sangre
2.
Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg ; 42(4): 249-266, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662504

RESUMEN

Background: Vitamin D (VitD) properties can impact cancer cells. Despite the documented link between VitD levels and prevalence of several cancer types, conflicting findings have been reported for cutaneous melanoma (CM). Objective: This overview aims to compile the evidence from existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses, emphasizing the relationships between VitD serum levels, intake, receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms, and CM risk. Methods: A literature search in electronic databases was conducted, based on certain inclusion criteria. Results: Twenty-one studies were included. Conflicting evidence between high VitD serum levels, dietary/supplementary intake, and CM risk is highlighted. VDR polymorphisms may play a role in the intricate CM pathogenesis. Also, high serum levels of VitD are associated with improved CM prognosis. Conclusions: This overview showed that the impact of VitD on CM is not clear, and thus further research is suggested to explore its true effect size on CM risk.


Asunto(s)
Melanoma , Receptores de Calcitriol , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Vitamina D , Humanos , Melanoma/epidemiología , Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Cutáneas/epidemiología , Vitamina D/sangre , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Factores de Riesgo , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Polimorfismo Genético , Melanoma Cutáneo Maligno
3.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 79(6): 1218-1233, 2024 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656584

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To develop consensus data statements and clinical recommendations to provide guidance for improving cardiometabolic health outcomes in people with HIV based on the knowledge and experience of an international panel of experts. METHODS: A targeted literature review including 281 conference presentations, peer-reviewed articles, and background references on cardiometabolic health in adults with HIV published between January 2016 and April 2022 was conducted and used to develop draft consensus data statements. Using a modified Delphi method, an international panel of 16 experts convened in workshops and completed surveys to refine consensus data statements and generate clinical recommendations. RESULTS: Overall, 10 data statements, five data gaps and 14 clinical recommendations achieved consensus. In the data statements, the panel describes increased risk of cardiometabolic health concerns in people with HIV compared with the general population, known risk factors, and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy. The panel also identified data gaps to inform future research in people with HIV. Finally, in the clinical recommendations, the panel emphasizes the need for a holistic approach to comprehensive care that includes regular assessment of cardiometabolic health, access to cardiometabolic health services, counselling on potential changes in weight after initiating or switching antiretroviral therapy and encouraging a healthy lifestyle to lower cardiometabolic health risk. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of available data and expert consensus, an international panel developed clinical recommendations to address the increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders in people with HIV to ensure appropriate cardiometabolic health management for this population.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Consenso , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Técnica Delphi , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo Cardiometabólico
6.
Food Funct ; 15(8): 4436-4445, 2024 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563400

RESUMEN

Background: Garlic has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular improvement and other beneficial effects on human health. However, few studies have evaluated the association of garlic intake with the risk of depressive symptoms. The aim of this prospective cohort was to examine the association between the frequency of raw garlic consumption and depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Methods: A total of 7427 participants (mean ± standard deviation: 39.7 ± 10.5 years) without baseline depressive symptoms were included in the cohort study. Garlic consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and depressive symptoms were assessed by a Chinese version of the Self-rating Depression Scale score (SDS score ≥ 45). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association between garlic consumption and the risk of depressive symptoms. Results: This study identified 1070 cases of depressive symptoms during a median follow-up of 2.0 years, with a depression prevalence of 73.4 cases per 1000 person-years. After multivariate adjustment, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for depressive symptoms in males were 1.00 (reference) for almost never, 1.05 (0.84, 1.32) for ≤1 time per week, 1.16 (0.90, 1.49) for 2-3 times per week, and 1.31 (0.97, 1.78) for ≥4 times per week, and in females, they were 1.00 (reference) for almost never, 0.85 (0.69, 1.06) for ≤1 time per week, 0.72 (0.54, 0.97) for 2-3 times per week, and 0.78 (0.53, 1.13) for ≥4 times per week. Conclusion: In a large general population, we demonstrate for the first time that moderate raw garlic consumption is associated with a reduced risk of depressive symptoms in females, but not in males. Additional prospective studies with long-term follow-up and randomized controlled trials are necessary to confirm the preliminary results of the current study.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Ajo , Humanos , Ajo/química , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Depresión/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Factores de Riesgo , China/epidemiología
7.
Food Funct ; 15(8): 4527-4537, 2024 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576413

RESUMEN

Artificial sweeteners (ASs) have been widely added to food and beverages because of their properties of low calories and sweet taste. However, whether the consumption of ASs is causally associated with cancer risk is not clear. Here, we utilized the two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) method to study the potential causal association. Genetic variants like single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with exposure (AS consumption) were extracted from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) database including 64 949 Europeans and the influence of confounding was removed. The outcome was from 98 GWAS data and included several types of cancers like lung cancer, colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, breast cancer, and so on. The exposure-outcome SNPs were harmonized and then MR analysis was performed. The inverse-variance weighted (IVW) with random effects was used as the main analytical method accompanied by four complementary methods: MR Egger, weighted median, simple mode, and weighted mode. Sensitivity analyses consisted of heterogeneity, pleiotropy, and leave-one-out analysis. Our results demonstrated that ASs added to coffee had a positive association with high-grade and low-grade serous ovarian cancer; ASs added to tea had a positive association with oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers, but a negative association with malignant neoplasm of the bronchus and lungs. No other cancers had a genetic causal association with AS consumption. Our MR study revealed that AS consumption had no genetic causal association with major cancers. Larger MR studies or RCTs are needed to investigate small effects and support this conclusion.


Asunto(s)
Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Análisis de la Aleatorización Mendeliana , Neoplasias , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Edulcorantes , Humanos , Femenino , Neoplasias/genética , Edulcorantes/efectos adversos , , Café , Neoplasias Ováricas/genética , Factores de Riesgo
8.
Clin Chim Acta ; 558: 119670, 2024 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614420

RESUMEN

In recent years, there has been a global increase in cases of male infertility. There are about 30 million cases of male infertility worldwide and male reproductive health is showing rapid decline in last few decades. It is now recognized as a potential risk factor for developing certain types of cancer, particularly genitourinary malignancies like testicular and prostate cancer. Male infertility is considered a potential indicator of overall health and an early biomarker for cancer. Cases of unexplained male factor infertility have high levels of oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage and this induces both denovo germ line mutations and epimutations due to build up of 8-hydroxy 2 deoxygunaosine abase which is highly mutagenic and also induces hypomethylation and genomic instability. Consequently, there is growing evidence to explore the various factors contributing to an increased cancer risk. Currently, the available prognostic and predictive biomarkers associated with semen characteristics and cancer risk are limited but gaining significant attention in clinical research for the diagnosis and treatment of elevated cancer risk in the individual and in offspring. The male germ cell being transcriptionally and translationally inert has a highly truncated repair mechanism and has minimal antioxidants and thus most vulnerable to oxidative injury due to environmental factors and unhealthy lifestyle and social habits. Therefore, advancing our understanding requires a thorough evaluation of the pathophysiologic mechanisms at the DNA, RNA, protein, and metabolite levels to identify key biomarkers that may underlie the pathogenesis of male infertility and associated cancer. Advanced methodologies such as genomics, epigenetics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics stand at the forefront of cutting-edge approaches for discovering novel biomarkers, spanning from infertility to associated cancer types. Henceforth, in this review, we aim to assess the role and potential of recently identified predictive and prognostic biomarkers, offering insights into the success of assisted reproductive technologies, causes of azoospermia and idiopathic infertility, the impact of integrated holistic approach and lifestyle modifications, and the monitoring of cancer susceptibility, initiation and progression. Comprehending these biomarkers is crucial for providing comprehensive counselling to infertile men and cancer patients, along with their families.


Asunto(s)
Infertilidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Infertilidad Masculina/genética , Infertilidad Masculina/diagnóstico , Pronóstico , Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Factores de Riesgo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo
9.
Dermatologie (Heidelb) ; 75(5): 386-391, 2024 May.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38639767

RESUMEN

Skin diseases are complex and cannot be explained solely by genetic or environmental factors but are also significantly shaped by social influences. This review illuminates the bidirectional relationship between social factors and skin diseases, demonstrating how social determinants such as socioeconomic status, living environment, and psychosocial stress can influence the onset and progression of skin conditions. Simultaneously, it explores how skin diseases can affect individuals' social lives and work capability, leading to a cycle of social withdrawal and further deterioration of the condition. The paper describes the need for a holistic approach in dermatology that goes beyond the biomedical perspective and incorporates social factors to develop effective prevention and treatment strategies. The increasing prevalence of skin diseases in Europe and the expected rise in allergies due to climate change make the consideration of social determinants even more urgent. The findings of this review aim to raise awareness of the complex interconnections between social factors and skin health and contribute to reducing social disparities in skin health.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de la Piel , Factores Socioeconómicos , Humanos , Enfermedades de la Piel/epidemiología , Enfermedades de la Piel/psicología , Enfermedades de la Piel/terapia , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Factores Sociales , Factores de Riesgo , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Clase Social , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología
10.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 57(3): 490-497, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594108

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To revisit the association between vitamin D deficiency (VDD, defined as serum 25(OH)D < 20 ng/ml) and incident active tuberculosis (TB), after two potentially underpowered randomized trials showed statistically non-significant 13%-22% decrease in TB incidence in vitamin D supplementation groups. METHODS: We prospectively conducted an age/sex-matched case-control study that accounting for body-mass index (BMI), smoking, and other confounding factors to examine the association between VDD and active TB among non-HIV people in Taiwan (latitude 24°N), a high-income society which continues to have moderate TB burden. RESULTS: We enrolled 62 people with incident active TB and 248 people in control group. The TB case patients had a significantly higher proportion of VDD compared to the control group (51.6% vs 29.8%, p = 0.001). The 25(OH)D level was also significantly lower in TB patients compared to control group (21.25 ± 8.93 ng/ml vs 24.45 ± 8.36 ng/ml, p = 0.008). In multivariable analysis, VDD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.03, p = 0.002), lower BMI (aOR: 0.81, p < 0.001), liver cirrhosis (aOR: 8.99, p = 0.042), and smoking (aOR: 4.52, p = 0.001) were independent risk factors for incident active TB. CONCLUSIONS: VDD is an independent risk factor for incident active TB. Future randomized trials examining the effect of vitamin D supplementation on TB incidence should focus on people with a low BMI or other risk factors to maximize the statistical power.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis , Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Humanos , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/epidemiología , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/complicaciones , Taiwán/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Prospectivos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vitamina D/sangre , Adulto , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Masa Corporal , Incidencia , Anciano , Oportunidad Relativa
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 317, 2024 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664625

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The immediate postpartum period is a very crucial phase for both the life of the mother and her newborn baby. Anemia is the most indirect leading cause of maternal mortality. However, anemia in the immediate postpartum period is a neglected public health problem in Ethiopia. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled magnitude of immediate postpartum anemia and the pooled effect size of associated factors in Ethiopia. METHODS: Searching of published studies done through PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, African index Medicus, List of Reference Index, Hinari, and Google Scholar. This systematic review and meta-analysis follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) godliness. The quality of studies was assessed by using a Newcastle- Ottawa Scale (NOS) assessment tool. Analysis was performed using a random effect model by using STATA 17 version software. Egger's weighted regression and I2 test were used to evaluate publication bias and heterogeneity respectively. RESULTS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, a total of 6 studies were included. The pooled magnitude of immediate postpartum anemia in Ethiopia was 27% (95%CI: 22, 32). Instrumental mode of delivery (OR = 3.14, 95%CI: 2.03, 4.24), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measurement < 23 cm (OR = 3.19, 95%CI: 1.35, 5.03), Antepartum Hemorrhage (OR = 4.75, 95%CI: 2.46, 7.03), postpartum hemorrhage (OR = 4.67, 95%CI: 2.80, 6.55), and no iron/foliate supplementation (OR = 2.72, 95%CI: 1.85, 3.60) were the identified factors associated with developing anemia in the immediate postpartum period. CONCLUSION: The overall pooled magnitude of anemia in the immediate postpartum period among Ethiopian women was still a moderate public health problem. Instrumental mode of delivery, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) measurement < 23 cm, antepartum hemorrhage, postpartum hemorrhage, and no iron/foliate supplementation were the identified factors associated with higher odds of developing anemia among immediate postpartum women in Ethiopia. Therefore, midwives, and doctors, shall focus on prevention of maternal hemorrhage, nutritional advice and counseling including iron /foliate supplementation, and avoid unnecessary instrumental delivery to prevent and reduce anemia related maternal mortality and morbidity in Ethiopia. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: CRD42023437414 with registration date on 02/08/2023.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , Humanos , Femenino , Etiopía/epidemiología , Embarazo , Anemia/epidemiología , Periodo Posparto , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico , Hemorragia Posparto/epidemiología , Hemorragia Posparto/etiología
12.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 105: 106-124, 2024 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583765

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This review article provides an updated review of a relatively common pathology with various manifestations. Superficial venous diseases (SVDs) are a broad spectrum of venous vascular disease that predominantly affects the body's lower extremities. The most serious manifestation of this disease includes varicose veins, chronic venous insufficiency, stasis dermatitis, venous ulcers, superficial venous thrombosis, reticular veins, and spider telangiectasias. METHODS: The anatomy, pathophysiology, and risk factors of SVD were discussed during this review. The risk factors for developing SVD were related to race, age, sex, lifestyle, and certain genetic conditions as well as comorbid deep vein thrombosis. Various classification systems were listed, focusing on the most common one-the revised Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology classification. The clinical features including history and physical examination findings elicited in SVD were outlined. RESULTS: Imaging modalities utilized in SVD were highlighted. Duplex ultrasound is the first line in evaluating SVD but magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography venography, plethysmography, and conventional venography are feasible options in the event of an ambiguous venous duplex ultrasound study. Treatment options highlighted in this review ranged from conservative treatment with compression stockings, which could be primary or adjunctive to pharmacologic topical and systemic agents such as azelaic acid, diuretics, plant extracts, medical foods, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticoagulants and skin substitutes for different stages of SVD. Interventional treatment modalities include thermal ablative techniques like radiofrequency ablationss, endovenous laser ablation, endovenous steam ablation, and endovenous microwave ablation as well as nonthermal strategies such as the Varithena (polidocanol microfoam) sclerotherapy, VenaSeal (cyanoacrylate) ablation, and Endovenous mechanochemical ablation. Surgical treatments are also available and include debridement, vein ligation, stripping, and skin grafting. CONCLUSIONS: SVDs are prevalent and have varied manifestations predominantly in the lower extremities. Several studies highlight the growing clinical and financial burden of these diseases. This review provides an update on the pathophysiology, classification, clinical features, and imaging findings as well as the conservative, pharmacological, and interventional treatment options indicated for different SVD pathologies. It aims to expedite the timely deployment of therapies geared toward reducing the significant morbidity associated with SVD especially varicose veins, venous ulcers, and venous insufficiency, to improve the quality of life of these patients and prevent complications.


Asunto(s)
Várices , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Várices/terapia , Várices/fisiopatología , Várices/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Venosa/terapia , Insuficiencia Venosa/fisiopatología , Insuficiencia Venosa/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Venosa/diagnóstico por imagen , Venas/fisiopatología , Venas/diagnóstico por imagen , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas
13.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 137(11): 1324-1331, 2024 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613214

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as the leading cause of death from prostate cancer (PCa) in recent decades, bringing a great disease burden worldwide. Men with preexisting CVD have an increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events when treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). The present study aimed to explore the prevalence and risk evaluation of CVD among people with newly diagnosed PCa in China. METHODS: Clinical data of newly diagnosed PCa patients were retrospectively collected from 34 centers in China from 2010 to 2022 through convenience sampling. CVD was defined as myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, heart failure, stroke, ischemic heart disease, and others. CVD risk was estimated by calculating Framingham risk scores (FRS). Patients were accordingly divided into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups. χ2 or Fisher's exact test was used for comparison of categorical variables. RESULTS: A total of 4253 patients were enrolled in the present study. A total of 27.0% (1147/4253) of patients had comorbid PCa and CVD, and 7.2% (307/4253) had two or more CVDs. The enrolled population was distributed in six regions of China, and approximately 71.0% (3019/4253) of patients lived in urban areas. With imaging and pathological evaluation, most PCa patients were diagnosed at an advanced stage, with 20.5% (871/4253) locally progressing and 20.5% (871/4253) showing metastasis. Most of them initiated prostatectomy (46.6%, 1983/4253) or regimens involving ADT therapy (45.7%, 1944/4253) for prostate cancer. In the present PCa cohort, 43.1% (1832/4253) of patients had hypertension, and half of them had poorly controlled blood pressure. With FRS stratification, as expected, a higher risk of CVD was related to aging and metabolic disturbance. However, we also found that patients with treatment involving ADT presented an originally higher risk of CVD than those without ADT. This was in accordance with clinical practice, i.e., aged patients or patients at advanced oncological stages were inclined to accept systematic integrative therapy instead of surgery. Among patients who underwent medical castration, only 4.0% (45/1118) received gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonists, in stark contrast to the grim situation of CVD prevalence and risk. CONCLUSIONS: PCa patients in China are diagnosed at an advanced stage. A heavy CVD burden was present at the initiation of treatment. Patients who accepted ADT-related therapy showed an original higher risk of CVD, but the awareness of cardiovascular protection was far from sufficient.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias de la Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias de la Próstata/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antagonistas de Andrógenos/uso terapéutico
14.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 53(2): 180-188, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604951

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between habitual tea consumption and 10-year cardiovascular disease risk among middle-aged and elderly Chinese. METHODS: China Nutrition and Health Surveillance 2015 applied a stratified, multistage, and random sampling method. The current study selected middle-aged and elderly participants aged 45 and older, and they were investigated by basic information survey, dietary survey based on the food frequency questionnaire, physical measurements including height, weight, and blood pressure, and a laboratory examination with fasting blood samples. Habitual tea consumption was defined by asking about the number of cups of tea usually consumed per day in the past 12 months, and the risk of cardiovascular disease incidence was calculated using the Framingham risk score over a 10-year period. The association between tea consumption and 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease in this population was analyzed using multiple logistic regression, and further analyzed using gender as a stratification factor. RESULTS: A total of 42 704 Chinese middle-aged and elderly were included in this study, with an average age of(59.4±9.4) years, 20 104 males and 22 600 females, 17 194 in urban areas and 25 510 in rural areas. For tea drinking, there were 12 519(29.32%) tea drinkers in the included sample, of which 4153(9.73%) consumed 1-2 cups/d, 3336(7.81%) 3-4 cups/d, and 5030(11.78%) ≥5 cups/d. For 10-year cardiovascular risk, 28 267 participants(66.19%) were estimated to be low risk, while 14 437(33.81%) were in the high risk. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, place of residence, education, income, marital status, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, participation in medical examination within one year, DASH dietary score, energy intake and chronic disease status, the result showed a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease over a 10-year period among those who consumed 3-4 cups/d compared with those who did not consume tea(OR=0.820, 95%CI 0.719-0.934, P_(trend)=0.03). When stratified by gender, both gender showed participants who consumed 3-4 cups/d had a lower risk for cardiovascular disease than those who did not consume tea(males: OR=0.849, 95%CI 0.722-0.997; females: OR=0.697, 95%CI 0.527-0.922). And the result was more pronounced among females. CONCLUSION: Moderate habitual tea consumption could reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged and elderly Chinese people, and its protective effect is more pronounced among females.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Pueblos del Este de Asia , Masculino , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Femenino , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , , Factores de Riesgo de Enfermedad Cardiaca
15.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 40(4): e3801, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616511

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Clinical studies have shown that diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) has been on the rise, with most patients presenting with severe and progressive symptoms. Currently, most of the available prediction models for DPN are derived from general clinical information and laboratory indicators. Several Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) indicators have been utilised to construct prediction models. In this study, we established a novel machine learning-based multi-featured Chinese-Western medicine-integrated prediction model for DPN using clinical features of TCM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical data of 1581 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated at the Department of Endocrinology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui University of Chinese Medicine were collected. The data (including general information, laboratory parameters and TCM features) of 1142 patients with T2DM were selected after data cleaning. After baseline description analysis of the variables, the data were divided into training and validation sets. Four prediction models were established and their performance was evaluated using validation sets. Meanwhile, the accuracy, precision, recall, F1 score and area under the curve (AUC) of ROC were calculated using ten-fold cross-validation to further assess the performance of the models. An explanatory analysis of the results of the DPN prediction model was carried out using the SHAP framework based on machine learning-based prediction models. RESULTS: Of the 1142 patients with T2DM, 681 had a comorbidity of DPN, while 461 did not. There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, cause of disease, systolic pressure, HbA1c, ALT, RBC, Cr, BUN, red blood cells in the urine, glucose in the urine, and protein in the urine (p < 0.05). T2DM patients with a comorbidity of DPN exhibited diverse TCM symptoms, including limb numbness, limb pain, hypodynamia, thirst with desire for drinks, dry mouth and throat, blurred vision, gloomy complexion, and unsmooth pulse, with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Our results showed that the proposed multi-featured Chinese-Western medicine-integrated prediction model was superior to conventional models without characteristic TCM indicators. The model showed the best performance (accuracy = 0.8109, precision = 0.8029, recall = 0.9060, F1 score = 0.8511, and AUC = 0.9002). SHAP analysis revealed that the dominant risk factors that caused DPN were TCM symptoms (limb numbness, thirst with desire for drinks, blurred vision), age, cause of disease, and glycosylated haemoglobin. These risk factors were exerted positive effects on the DPN prediction models. CONCLUSIONS: A multi-feature, Chinese-Western medicine-integrated prediction model for DPN was established and validated. The model improves early-stage identification of high-risk groups for DPN in the diagnosis and treatment of T2DM, while also providing informative support for the intelligent management of chronic conditions such as diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Neuropatías Diabéticas , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Neuropatías Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Neuropatías Diabéticas/epidemiología , Neuropatías Diabéticas/etiología , Hipoestesia , Medicina Tradicional China , Factores de Riesgo
16.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 32(3): 214-221, 2024 Mar 20.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584102

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the drugs and clinical characteristics causing drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in recent years, as well as identify drug-induced liver failure, and chronic DILI risk factors, in order to better manage them timely. Methods: A retrospective investigation and analysis was conducted on 224 cases diagnosed with DILI and followed up for at least six months between January 2018 and December 2020. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors for drug-induced liver failure and chronic DILI. Results: Traditional Chinese medicine (accounting for 62.5%), herbal medicine (accounting for 84.3% of traditional Chinese medicine), and some Chinese patent medicines were the main causes of DILI found in this study. Severe and chronic DILI was associated with cholestatic type. Preexisting gallbladder disease, initial total bilirubin, initial prothrombin time, and initial antinuclear antibody titer were independent risk factors for DILI. Prolonged time interval between alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) falling from the peak to half of the peak (T(0.5ALP) and T(0.5ALT)) was an independent risk factor for chronic DILI [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.787, 95%CI: 0.697~0.878, P < 0.001], with cutoff values of 12.5d and 9.5d, respectively. Conclusion: Traditional Chinese medicine is the main contributing cause of DILI. The occurrence risk of severe DILI is related to preexisting gallbladder disease, initial total bilirubin, prothrombin time, and antinuclear antibodies. T(0.5ALP) and T(0.5ALT) can be used as indicators to predict chronic DILI.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas , Enfermedades de la Vesícula Biliar , Fallo Hepático , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Pronóstico , Bilirrubina
17.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 151, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589864

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Clinical complexity, as the interaction between ageing, frailty, multimorbidity and polypharmacy, is an increasing concern in patients with AF. There remains uncertainty regarding how combinations of comorbidities influence management and prognosis of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to identify phenotypes of AF patients according to comorbidities and to assess associations between comorbidity patterns, drug use and risk of major outcomes. METHODS: From the prospective GLORIA-AF Registry, we performed a latent class analysis based on 18 diseases, encompassing cardiovascular, metabolic, respiratory and other conditions; we then analysed the association between phenotypes of patients and (i) treatments received and (ii) the risk of major outcomes. Primary outcome was the composite of all-cause death and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Secondary exploratory outcomes were also analysed. RESULTS: 32,560 AF patients (mean age 70.0 ± 10.5 years, 45.4% females) were included. We identified 6 phenotypes: (i) low complexity (39.2% of patients); (ii) cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (28.2%); (iii) atherosclerotic (10.2%); (iv) thromboembolic (8.1%); (v) cardiometabolic (7.6%) and (vi) high complexity (6.6%). Higher use of oral anticoagulants was found in more complex groups, with highest magnitude observed for the cardiometabolic and high complexity phenotypes (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval CI): 1.76 [1.49-2.09] and 1.57 [1.35-1.81], respectively); similar results were observed for beta-blockers and verapamil or diltiazem. We found higher risk of the primary outcome in all phenotypes, except the CV risk factor one, with highest risk observed for the cardiometabolic and high complexity groups (hazard ratio and 95%CI: 1.37 [1.13-1.67] and 1.47 [1.24-1.75], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidities influence management and long-term prognosis of patients with AF. Patients with complex phenotypes may require comprehensive and holistic approaches to improve their prognosis.


Asunto(s)
Fibrilación Atrial , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Masculino , Fibrilación Atrial/tratamiento farmacológico , Fibrilación Atrial/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Comorbilidad , Anticoagulantes , Sistema de Registros , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología
18.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1038, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622673

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze the pregnancy period, perinatal period, and infancy period risk factors for IBD in a well-characterized birth cohort from Northern Finland. METHODS: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) population comprises mothers living in the two northernmost provinces of Finland, Oulu, and Lapland, with dates of delivery between Jan 1st and Dec 31st, 1966 (12 055 mothers, 12 058 live-born children, 96.3% of all births during 1966). IBD patients were identified using hospital registries (from 1966 to 2020) and Social Insurance Institution (SII) registry reimbursement data for IBD drugs (from 1978 to 2016). The data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. RESULTS: In total, 6972 individuals provided informed consent for the use of combined SII and hospital registry data. Of those, 154 (2.1%) had IBD (113 [1.6%] had ulcerative colitis (UC), and 41 (0.6%) had Crohn's disease (CD)). According to multivariate analysis, maternal smoking > 10 cigarettes/day during pregnancy was associated with a nearly 6-fold increased risk of CD in the offspring (OR 5.78, 95% CI 1.70-17.3). Breastfeeding (OR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.08-0.44) and iron supplementation during the first year of life (OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.89) were negatively associated with CD. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking during pregnancy was associated with the risk of CD while Breastfeeding and oral iron supplementation at infancy were negatively associated with the risk of CD later in life.


Asunto(s)
Colitis Ulcerosa , Enfermedad de Crohn , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino , Embarazo , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Cohorte de Nacimiento , Finlandia/epidemiología , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/epidemiología , Colitis Ulcerosa/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Crohn/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Hierro
19.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0296247, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625871

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The role of Vitamin D in immune function is well reported with a growing evidence base linking low levels to poorer outcomes from infectious disease. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are prevalent worldwide with healthcare workers identified as a known at-risk group. Here we aim to investigate serum Vitamin D levels in a UK population of front line healthcare workers and to promote the occupational risk. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 639 volunteers was conducted to identify the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency amongst a population of front-line health care workers in the UK. Participant demographics and co-morbid factors were collected at the time of serum sampling for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Only 18.8% of the population had a normal vitamin D level greater than or equal to 75nmol/L. This is compared to Public Health England's (PHE) stipulated normal levels of 60% during winter. 81.2% had a level less than 75nmol/L, with 51.2% less than 50nmol/L and 6.6% less than 25nmol/L. For serum levels less than 25nmol/L, Asian ethnicity was more likely to have a vitamin D deficiency than non-asian (OR (95%CI): 3.81 (1.73-8.39), p = 0.001), whereas white ethnicity was less likely to have a vitamin D deficiency compared to non-white (OR (95%CI: 0.43 (0.20-0.83), p = 0.03). Other factors that contributed to a higher likelihood of lower-than-normal levels within this population included male sex, decreased age and not taking supplementation. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that our population of healthcare workers have higher rates of abnormal vitamin D levels in comparison with the general UK population reported prevalence. Furthermore, Asian ethnicity and age 30 years and below are more at risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency. This highlights an occupational risk factor for the healthcare community to consider.


Asunto(s)
Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Vitaminas , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Prevalencia
20.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300177, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630699

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preconception health provides an opportunity to examine a woman's health status and address modifiable risk factors that can impact both a woman's and her child's health once pregnant. In this review, we aimed to investigate the preconception risk factors and interventions of early pregnancy and its impact on adverse maternal, perinatal and child health outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review following the PRISMA-ScR guidelines to include relevant literature identified from electronic databases. We included reviews that studied preconception risk factors and interventions among adolescents and young adults, and their impact on maternal, perinatal, and child health outcomes. All identified studies were screened for eligibility, followed by data extraction, and descriptive and thematic analysis. FINDINGS: We identified a total of 10 reviews. The findings suggest an increase in odds of maternal anaemia and maternal deaths among young mothers (up to 17 years) and low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, stillbirths, and neonatal and perinatal mortality among babies born to mothers up to 17 years compared to those aged 19-25 years in high-income countries. It also suggested an increase in the odds of congenital anomalies among children born to mothers aged 20-24 years. Furthermore, cancer treatment during childhood or young adulthood was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, LBW, and stillbirths. Interventions such as youth-friendly family planning services showed a significant decrease in abortion rates. Micronutrient supplementation contributed to reducing anaemia among adolescent mothers; however, human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccination had little to no impact on stillbirths, ectopic pregnancies, and congenital anomalies. However, one review reported an increased risk of miscarriages among young adults associated with these vaccinations. CONCLUSION: The scoping review identified a scarcity of evidence on preconception risk factors and interventions among adolescents and young adults. This underscores the crucial need for additional research on the subject.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , Nacimiento Prematuro , Humanos , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Femenino , Niño , Adulto , Mortinato , Atención Preconceptiva , Factores de Riesgo , Madres , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud
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