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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257792, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559852

RESUMEN

Spray-dried animal plasma (SDP) in feed for several animal species provides health benefits, but research about use of SDP in shrimp feed is very limited. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of dietary SDP on growth performance, feed utilization, immune responses, and prevention of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). In Experiment 1, the post-larvae were divided into five groups (four tank/group and 80 shrimp/tank) and fed four times daily diets with porcine SDP at 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, and 6% of the diet for 45 days. In Experiment 2, the surviving shrimp from Experiment 1 were redistributed into six groups: four SDP groups as in Experiment 1 plus the positive and negative controls (four tank/group and 30 shrimp/tank). They were then challenged with V. parahaemolyticus by immersion at 105 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL and were fed with the same diets for another 4 days. In Experiment 1, shrimp fed 4.5% or 6% SDP diets had significantly higher body weight, survival rate, and improved feed conversion ratio. The immune parameters (total hemocyte count and phagocytic, phenoloxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities) of the shrimp fed 3-6% SDP diets also showed significant enhancement compared to the control. In Experiment 2, the survival rates of the 3-6% SDP groups were significantly higher than the positive control at day 4 after the immersion challenge. Likewise, the histopathological study revealed milder signs of bacterial infection in the hepatopancreas of the 3-6% SDP groups compared to the challenged positive control and 1.5% SDP groups. In conclusion, shrimp fed diets with SDP, especially at 4.5-6% of the diet, showed significant improvement in overall health conditions and better resistance to V. parahaemolyticus infection.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Resistencia a la Enfermedad , Penaeidae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Plasma/química , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/inmunología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Peso Corporal , Hemocitos/metabolismo , Inmunidad Innata , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Larva/inmunología , Larva/virología , Penaeidae/inmunología , Penaeidae/virología , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Secado por Pulverización , Porcinos
2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 269: 118334, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294344

RESUMEN

To explore the disease resistance mechanism of chitosan conjugates, chitosan-gentamicin conjugate (CS-GT) was synthesized and systematically characterized, the immune mechanism of CS-GT on Litopenaeus vannamei infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus was further explored. The results showed that imine groups in CS-GT were effectively reduced. Dietary supplementation of CS-GT can significantly increase the survival rate, total hemocyte counts, the antioxidant and immune related enzyme activity levels of shrimps (P < 0.05), which are all dose-dependent under the experimental conditions. In addition, CS-GT can protect the hepatopancreas from invading bacteria and alleviate inflammation. Particularly, CS-GT promotes the expressions of legumain (LGMN), lysosomal acid lipase (LIPA) and Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) up-regulated. It is speculated that CS-GT may stimulate the lysosome to phagocytose pathogens more effectively. In conclusions, shrimps fed with CS-GT can produce immune response via lysosome and greatly improve the disease resistance to Vibrio parahaemolyticus.


Asunto(s)
Quitosano/análogos & derivados , Quitosano/uso terapéutico , Gentamicinas/uso terapéutico , Inmunidad Innata/efectos de los fármacos , Factores Inmunológicos/uso terapéutico , Penaeidae/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Quitosano/síntesis química , Cisteína Endopeptidasas/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Gentamicinas/síntesis química , Hemocitos/metabolismo , Hepatopáncreas/efectos de los fármacos , Hepatopáncreas/microbiología , Hepatopáncreas/patología , Factores Inmunológicos/síntesis química , Penaeidae/inmunología , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Penaeidae/microbiología , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Esterol Esterasa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/patogenicidad
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681635

RESUMEN

Candida albicans is a ubiquitous fungal symbiont that resides on diverse human barrier surfaces. Both mammalian and fungal cells can convert arachidonic acid into the lipid mediator, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), but the physiological significance of fungus-derived PGE2 remains elusive. Here we report that a C. albicans mutant deficient in PGE2 production suffered a loss of competitive fitness in the murine gastrointestinal (GI) tract and that PGE2 supplementation mitigated this fitness defect. Impaired fungal PGE2 production affected neither the in vitro fitness of C. albicans nor hyphal morphogenesis and virulence in either systemic or mucosal infection models. Instead, fungal production of PGE2 was associated with enhanced fungal survival within phagocytes. Consequently, ablation of colonic phagocytes abrogated the intra-GI fitness boost conferred by fungal PGE2. These observations suggest that C. albicans has evolved the capacity to produce PGE2 from arachidonic acid, a host-derived precursor, to promote its own colonization of the host gut. Analogous mechanisms might undergird host-microbe interactions of other symbiont fungi.


Asunto(s)
Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Hongos/fisiología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiología , Simbiosis , Animales , Candida albicans/fisiología , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Ratones , Ratones Noqueados , Mutación , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Virulencia/genética
4.
Am J Pathol ; 188(4): 950-966, 2018 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571326

RESUMEN

Resolvin conjugates in tissue regeneration (RCTRs) are new chemical signals that accelerate resolution of inflammation, infection, and tissue regeneration. Herein, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabololipidomics, we identified RCTRs in human spleen, lymph node, bone marrow, and brain. In human spleen incubated with Staphylococcus aureus, endogenous RCTRs were increased along with conversion of deuterium-labeled docosahexaenoic acid, conferring pathway activation. Physical and biological properties of endogenous RCTRs were matched with those prepared by total organic synthesis. The complete stereochemical assignment of bioactive RCTR1 is 8R-glutathionyl-7S,17S-dihydroxy-4Z,9E,11E,13Z,15E,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid, RCTR2 is 8R-cysteinylglycinyl-7S,17S-dihydroxy-4Z,9E,11E,13Z,15E,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid, and RCTR3 is 8R-cysteinyl-7S,17S-dihydroxy-4Z,9E,11E,13Z,15E,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid. These stereochemically defined RCTRs stimulated human macrophage phagocytosis, efferocytosis, and planaria tissue generation. Proteome profiling demonstrated that RCTRs regulated both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines with human macrophages. In microfluidic chambers, the three RCTRs limited human polymorphonuclear cell migration. In hind-limb ischemia-reperfusion-initiated organ injury, both RCTR2 and RCTR3 reduced polymorphonuclear cell infiltration into lungs. In infectious peritonitis, RCTR1 shortened the resolution intervals. Each RCTR (1 nmol/L) accelerated planaria tissue regeneration by approximately 0.5 days, with direct comparison to both maresin and protectin CTRs. Together, these results identify a new bioactive RCTR (ie, RCTR3) in human tissues and establish the complete stereochemistry and rank-order potencies of three RCTRs in vivo. Moreover, RCTR1, RCTR2, and RCTR3 each exert potent anti-inflammatory and proresolving actions with human leukocytes.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/química , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Regeneración/fisiología , Animales , Quimiotaxis , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/patología , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/biosíntesis , Humanos , Inflamación/patología , Lesión Pulmonar/microbiología , Lesión Pulmonar/patología , Macrófagos/citología , Masculino , Metaboloma , Ratones , Fagocitos/citología , Fagocitosis , Planarias/fisiología , Proteoma/metabolismo , Daño por Reperfusión/microbiología , Daño por Reperfusión/patología , Bazo/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo
5.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0180870, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28719615

RESUMEN

While the immune system is essential for the maintenance of the homeostasis, health and survival of humans, aberrant immune responses can lead to chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Pharmacological modulation of drug targets in the immune system to ameliorate disease also carry a risk of immunosuppression that could lead to adverse outcomes. Therefore, it is important to understand the 'immune fingerprint' of novel therapeutics as they relate to current and, clinically used immunological therapies to better understand their potential therapeutic benefit as well as immunosuppressive ability that might lead to adverse events such as infection risks and cancer. Since the mechanistic investigation of pharmacological modulators in a drug discovery setting is largely compound- and mechanism-centric but not comprehensive in terms of immune system impact, we developed a human tissue based functional assay platform to evaluate the impact of pharmacological modulators on a range of innate and adaptive immune functions. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to generate a qualitative and quantitative immune system impact of pharmacological modulators, which might help better understand and predict the benefit-risk profiles of these compounds in the treatment of immune disorders.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Sistema Inmunológico/efectos de los fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequeñas/farmacología , Quimiocinas/biosíntesis , Humanos , Sistema Inmunológico/citología , Sistema Inmunológico/inmunología , Células Asesinas Naturales/efectos de los fármacos , Células Asesinas Naturales/inmunología , Leucocitos Mononucleares/efectos de los fármacos , Leucocitos Mononucleares/inmunología , Fagocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Fagocitos/inmunología , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Linfocitos T/efectos de los fármacos , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efectos de los fármacos
6.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 230, 2017 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28446195

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The leaf concentrate of Carica papaya is a traditionally acclaimed immunomodulatory remedy against numerous diseases; nonetheless comprehensive scientific validation of this claim is limited. The present study thus investigated the immunomodulatory potential of Carica papaya mature leaf concentrate (MLCC) of the Sri Lankan wild type cultivar using nonfunctional and functional immunological assays. METHODS: Wistar rats (N = 6/ group) were orally gavaged with 3 doses (0.18, 0.36 and 0.72 ml/100g body weight) of the MLCC once daily for 3 consecutive days. Selected nonfunctional (enumeration of immune cells and cytokine levels) and functional (cell proliferation and phagocytic activity) immunological parameters, and acute toxic effects were determined using standard methods. Effect of the MLCC (31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 µg/ml) on ex vivo proliferation of bone marrow cells (BMC) and splenocytes (SC), and in vitro phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages (PMs), and their corresponding cytokine responses were evaluated. The phytochemical profile of the MLCC was established using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LS-MS) and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS: Counts of rat platelets, total leukocytes, lymphocyte and monocyte sub populations, and BMCs were significantly augmented by oral gavage of the MLCC (p < 0.05). The highest MLCC dose tested herein significantly reduced pro inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF α) levels of rats (p < 0.05). The in vivo phagocytic index of rat PMs significantly increased by oral gavage of all three doses of the MLCC (p < 0.05). In vitro phagocytic activity of rat PMs were enhanced by the MLCC and triggered a Th1 biased cytokine response. The MLCC at low concentrations elicited ex vivo proliferation of BMC (31.25 µg/ml) and SC (31.25 and 62.5 µg/ml) respectively. Conversely, high concentrations (500 and 1000 µg/ml) exhibited cytotoxicity of both BMC and SC with significant modulation of cytokines. Chemical profile of the MLCC revealed the presence of several immunomodulatory compounds. The oral gavage of the MLCC was found to be safe in terms of both hepatic and renal toxicities. CONCLUSION: The present study established that the mature leaf concentrate (MLCC) of Carica papaya Sri Lankan wild type cultivar is orally active, safe and effectively modulates nonfunctional and functional immunological parameters of rats that unequivocally corroborate the traditional medical claims.


Asunto(s)
Carica , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sistema Inmunológico/efectos de los fármacos , Inmunidad/efectos de los fármacos , Factores Inmunológicos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Animales , Recuento de Células Sanguíneas , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Células de la Médula Ósea , Femenino , Sistema Inmunológico/citología , Sistema Inmunológico/metabolismo , Inflamación/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Leucocitos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta , Ratas Wistar , Bazo/citología , Sri Lanka , Células TH1/metabolismo , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 211, 2017 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399868

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Gynura segetum is used traditionally to treat various ailments related to the immune system, which include cancer, inflammation, rheumatism, diabetes, hypertension, and viral infections but little studies have been carried out to validate their ethnopharmacological aspects. In this study the immunosuppressive effects of G. segetum and its constituents were investigated. METHODS: Isolation of compounds from G. segetum leaves was conducted using vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) and column chromatography (CC). Two new compounds, namely 4,5,4'-trihydroxychalcone and 8,8'-(ethene-1,2-diyl)-dinaphtalene-1,4,5-triol, together with stigmasterol and ß-sitosterol were isolated from G. segetum methanol extract and their structures were determined spectroscopically. The presence of gallic acid and rutin in the extract was determined quantitatively by a validated HPLC method. G. segetum methanol extract and its constituents were investigated for their effects on chemotaxis, phagocytosis, ß2 integrin (CD18) expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), lymphocytes proliferation, cytokine release and nitric oxide (NO) production of phagocytes. RESULTS: All the samples significantly inhibited all the innate immune responses tested except CD 18 expression on surface of leukocytes. Among the samples, 8,8'-(ethene-1,2-diyl)-dinaphtalene-1,4,5-triol exhibited the strongest inhibitory on chemotaxis, phagocytosis, ROS and NO production. The compound exhibited exceptionally strong inhibitions on ROS and chemotaxis activities with IC50 values lower than the positive controls, aspirin and ibuprofen, respectively. 4,5,4'-Trihydroxychalcone revealed the strongest immunosuppressive activity on proliferation of lymphocytes (IC50 value of 1.52 µM) and on release of IL-1ß (IC50 value of 6.69 µM). Meanwhile rutin was the most potent sample against release of TNF-α from monocytes (IC50, 16.96 µM). CONCLUSION: The extract showed strong immunosuppressive effects on various components of the immune system and these activities were possibly contributed mainly by 4,5,4'-trihydroxychalcone, 8,8'-(ethene-1,2-diyl)-dinaphtalene-1,4,5-triol and rutin.


Asunto(s)
Asteraceae/química , Chalcona/farmacología , Citocinas/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fagocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Rutina/farmacología , Animales , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Ratones , Fagocitos/citología , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Fagocitosis/efectos de los fármacos , Células RAW 264.7
8.
J Leukoc Biol ; 101(6): 1361-1371, 2017 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28258152

RESUMEN

Essential oil extracts from Ferula iliensis have been used traditionally in Kazakhstan for treatment of inflammation and other illnesses. Because little is known about the biologic activity of these essential oils that contributes to their therapeutic properties, we analyzed their chemical composition and evaluated their phagocyte immunomodulatory activity. The main components of the extracted essential oils were (E)-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (15.7-39.4%) and (Z)-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (23.4-45.0%). Ferula essential oils stimulated [Ca2+]i mobilization in human neutrophils and activated ROS production in human neutrophils and murine bone marrow phagocytes. Activation of human neutrophil [Ca2+]i flux by Ferula essential oils was dose-dependently inhibited by capsazepine, a TRPV1 channel antagonist, indicating that TRPV1 channels mediate this response. Furthermore, Ferula essential oils stimulated Ca2+ influx in TRPV1 channel-transfected HEK293 cells and desensitized the capsaicin-induced response in these cells. Additional molecular modeling with known TRPV1 channel agonists suggested that the active component is likely to be (Z)-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide. Our results provide a cellular and molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic properties of FEOs.


Asunto(s)
Ferula/química , Neutrófilos/inmunología , Aceites Volátiles/química , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Fagocitos/inmunología , Animales , Calcio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ratones , Neutrófilos/efectos de los fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Fagocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Canales Catiónicos TRPV/metabolismo
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 86: 307-315, 2017 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28011378

RESUMEN

The antidiabetic effects of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of Clerodendrum volubile leaves was investigated in this study. EtOAc extract was also fractionated to isolate the active compounds. The structure of the isolated compound (Protocatechuic acid) was established using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies and mass spectrometry. Protocatechuic acid was investigated for its anti-oxidative burst in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and macrophages. It was also docked with α-glucosidase and TNF-α. Acute treatment with EtOAc fraction of Clerodendrum volubile leaves significantly (p<0.05) decreased blood glucose level and hepatic biomarkers, and significantly (p<0.05) increased serum insulin level and ß-cell function. It had little or no effect on serum lipid profile and atherogenic indices. Protocatechuic acid significantly (p<0.05) suppressed phagocytic oxidative burst and docked well with α-glucosidase and TNF-α. These results indicate the therapeutic effect of EtOAc fraction of C. volubile on type 2 diabetes and its complications, which can be attributed to the main bioactive compound, protocatechuic acid.


Asunto(s)
Acetatos/uso terapéutico , Clerodendrum , Citocinas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Hidroxibenzoatos/uso terapéutico , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Fagocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Estallido Respiratorio/efectos de los fármacos , Acetatos/aislamiento & purificación , Acetatos/farmacología , Animales , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/aislamiento & purificación , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacología , Hipoglucemiantes/aislamiento & purificación , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Mediadores de Inflamación/antagonistas & inhibidores , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Masculino , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Estallido Respiratorio/fisiología
10.
PLoS One ; 9(9): e106870, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25216247

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) pose a possible human health risk for lung disease as a result of inhalation exposure. Mice exposed to MWCNTs develop pulmonary fibrosis. Lung macrophages engulf MWCNTs and produce pro-fibrogenic cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and osteopontin (OPN). Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a novel process used to enhance functional properties of MWCNTs, yet the consequence of ALD-modified MWCNTs on macrophage biology and fibrosis is unknown. METHODS: The purpose of this study was to determine whether ALD coating with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) would alter the fibrogenic response to MWCNTs and whether cytokine expression in human macrophage/monocytes exposed to MWCNTs in vitro would predict the severity of lung fibrosis in mice. Uncoated (U)-MWCNTs or ALD-coated (A)-MWCNTs were incubated with THP-1 macrophages or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and cell supernatants assayed for cytokines by ELISA. C57BL6 mice were exposed to a single dose of A- or U-MWCNTs by oropharyngeal aspiration (4 mg/kg) followed by evaluation of histopathology, lung inflammatory cell counts, and cytokine levels at day 1 and 28 post-exposure. RESULTS: ALD coating of MWCNTs with Al2O3 enhanced IL-1ß secretion by THP-1 and PBMC in vitro, yet reduced protein levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and OPN production by THP-1 cells. Moreover, Al2O3 nanoparticles, but not carbon black NPs, increased IL-1ß but decreased OPN and IL-6 in THP-1 and PBMC. Mice exposed to U-MWCNT had increased levels of all four cytokines assayed and developed pulmonary fibrosis by 28 days, whereas ALD-coating significantly reduced fibrosis and cytokine levels at the mRNA or protein level. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that ALD thin film coating of MWCNTs with Al2O3 reduces fibrosis in mice and that in vitro phagocyte expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and OPN, but not IL-1ß, predict MWCNT-induced fibrosis in the lungs of mice in vivo.


Asunto(s)
Óxido de Aluminio/farmacología , Citocinas/metabolismo , Leucocitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Nanotecnología/métodos , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Animales , Muerte Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular , Humanos , Inflamación/patología , Interleucina-1beta/biosíntesis , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Leucocitos Mononucleares/efectos de los fármacos , Pulmón/efectos de los fármacos , Pulmón/metabolismo , Pulmón/patología , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/ultraestructura , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Nanotubos de Carbono/ultraestructura , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Fagocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Fibrosis Pulmonar , Hollín/farmacología , Propiedades de Superficie , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
11.
Nat Commun ; 5: 4593, 2014 Aug 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25098555

RESUMEN

Inflammation has a key role in the pathogenesis of various human diseases. The early detection, localization and monitoring of inflammation are crucial for tailoring individual therapies. However, reliable biomarkers to detect local inflammatory activities and to predict disease outcome are still missing. Alarmins, which are locally released during cellular stress, are early amplifiers of inflammation. Here, using optical molecular imaging, we demonstrate that the alarmin S100A8/S100A9 serves as a sensitive local and systemic marker for the detection of even sub-clinical disease activity in inflammatory and immunological processes like irritative and allergic contact dermatitis. In a model of collagen-induced arthritis, we use S100A8/S100A9 imaging to predict the development of disease activity. Furthermore, S100A8/S100A9 can act as a very early and sensitive biomarker in experimental leishmaniasis for phagocyte activation linked to an effective Th1-response. In conclusion, the alarmin S100A8/S100A9 is a valuable and sensitive molecular target for novel imaging approaches to monitor clinically relevant inflammatory disorders on a molecular level.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Calgranulina A/metabolismo , Calgranulina B/metabolismo , Inflamación/metabolismo , Animales , Artritis/metabolismo , Carbocianinas/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Dermatitis por Contacto/metabolismo , Femenino , Radioisótopos de Flúor/química , Hipersensibilidad/metabolismo , Inflamación/diagnóstico , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Imagen Molecular , Fagocitos/citología , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Células TH1/metabolismo , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
12.
Eur J Immunol ; 44(3): 728-41, 2014 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24272050

RESUMEN

Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2 , is converted by riboflavin kinase (RFK) into flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which are essential cofactors of dehydrogenases, reductases, and oxidases including the phagocytic NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2). Riboflavin deficiency is common in young adults and elderly individuals, who are at the coincidental risk for listeriosis. To address the impact of acute riboflavin deficiency on host defense against Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), we generated conditional RFK knockout (KO) strains of mice. Phagocyte-specific RFK KO impaired the capability of phagocytes to control intracellular L.m., which corresponded to a greater susceptibility of mice to in vivo challenge with L.m. The oxidative burst of RFK-deficient phagocytes in response to L.m. infection was significantly reduced. Mechanistically, TNF-induced priming of Nox2, which is needed for oxidative burst, was defective in RFK-deficient phagocytes. Lack of riboflavin in wild-type macrophages for only 6 h shut down TNF-induced, RFK-mediated de novo FMN/FAD generation, which was accompanied by diminished ROS production and impaired anti-listerial activity. Vice versa, ROS production by riboflavin-deprived macrophages was rapidly restored by riboflavin supplementation. Our results suggest that acute riboflavin deficiency immediately impairs priming of Nox2, which is of crucial relevance for an effective phagocytic immune response in vivo.


Asunto(s)
Listeria monocytogenes/inmunología , Listeriosis/inmunología , Listeriosis/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidasas/metabolismo , Deficiencia de Riboflavina/inmunología , Deficiencia de Riboflavina/metabolismo , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Resistencia a la Enfermedad/inmunología , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleótido/biosíntesis , Inmunidad Innata , Macrófagos/inmunología , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Ratones , Ratones Transgénicos , NADPH Oxidasa 2 , Fagocitos/inmunología , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 8(2): e56915, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23437270

RESUMEN

Melatonin is involved in a number of physiological and oxidative processes, including functional regulation in human milk. The present study investigated the mechanisms of action of melatonin and its effects on the functional activity of colostral phagocytes in diabetic women. Colostrum samples were collected from normoglycemic (N = 38) and diabetic (N = 38) women. We determined melatonin concentration, superoxide release, bactericidal activity and intracellular Ca(2+) release by colostral phagocytes treated or not with 8-(Diethylamino) octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate hydrochloride (TMB-8) and incubated with melatonin and its precursor (N-acetyl-serotonin-NAS), antagonist (luzindole) and agonist (chloromelatonin-CMLT). Melatonin concentration was higher in colostrum samples from hyperglycemic than normoglycemic mothers. Melatonin stimulated superoxide release by colostral phagocytes from normoglycemic but not hyperglycemic women. NAS increased superoxide, irrespective of glycemic status, whereas CMTL increased superoxide only in cells from the normoglycemic group. Phagocytic activity in colostrum increased significantly in the presence of melatonin, NAS and CMLT, irrespective of glycemic status. The bactericidal activity of colostral phagocytes against enterophatogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) increased in the presence of melatonin or NAS in the normoglycemic group, but not in the hyperglycemic group. Luzindole blocked melatonin action on colostrum phagocytes. Phagocytes from the normoglycemic group treated with melatonin exhibited an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) release. Phagocytes treated with TMB-8 (intracellular Ca(2+) inhibitor) decreased superoxide, bactericidal activity and intracellular Ca(2+) release in both groups. The results obtained suggest an interactive effect of glucose metabolism and melatonin on colostral phagocytes. In colostral phagocytes from normoglycemic mothers, melatonin likely increases the ability of colostrum to protect against EPEC and other infections. In diabetic mothers, because maternal hyperglycemia modifies the functional activity of colostrum phagocytes, melatonin effects are likely limited to anti-inflammatory processes, with low superoxide release and bactericidal activity.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Calostro/citología , Calostro/inmunología , Melatonina/farmacología , Fagocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Fagocitos/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Calcio/metabolismo , Estudios Transversales , Escherichia coli/inmunología , Femenino , Humanos , Hiperglucemia/inmunología , Hiperglucemia/metabolismo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Fagocitosis/efectos de los fármacos , Fagocitosis/inmunología , Embarazo , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
14.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 28(1): 105-12, 2013 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22145639

RESUMEN

A series of S- and N-alkylated indolyloxadiazoles 2-7 were prepared. All compounds were tested for their immunomodulatory activity against T-cell proliferation, oxidative burst and cytokine analysis. Compounds 1, 2a, 2b, 2c and 2k demonstrated highly significant (P ≤ 0.005) inhibition on PHA activated T-cell proliferation with IC(50) less than 3 µg/mL concentration, while 3b exert a moderate inhibitory effect with IC(50) 8.6 µg/mL. Among all compounds of the series, only 2h was found to suppress phagocytes ROS production (IC(50) 2.4 µg/mL) in luminol-based chemiluminescence (CL) assay. Compounds 2a-k have stimulatory effect on proinflammatory cytokine predominantly IL-1ß but no effect on IL-4 and NO production indicating that these compounds might have selective inhibitory effect on T-cell proliferation. Cytotoxic effect on T-cell proliferation was tested on NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast normal cell line. All compounds were found to be free from toxic effects up to 100 µM concentration.


Asunto(s)
Factores Inmunológicos/química , Factores Inmunológicos/farmacología , Indoles/química , Linfocitos T/efectos de los fármacos , Alquilación , Animales , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Indoles/síntesis química , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Mediciones Luminiscentes , Ratones , Células 3T3 NIH/efectos de los fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fagocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Estallido Respiratorio/efectos de los fármacos , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Linfocitos T/inmunología
15.
Clin Dev Immunol ; 2013: 590190, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24489577

RESUMEN

Immune response changes induced by diabetes are a risk factor for infections during pregnancy and may modify the development of the newborn's immune system. The present study analyzed colostrum and maternal and cord blood of diabetic women to determine (1) the levels of the cytokines IFN- γ and TGF- ß and (2) phagocytic activity after incubation with cytokines. Methods. Colostrum and maternal and cord blood samples were classified into normoglycemic (N = 20) and diabetic (N = 19) groups. Cytokine levels, superoxide release, rate of phagocytosis, bactericidal activity, and intracellular Ca(2+) release by phagocytes were analyzed in the samples. Irrespective of glycemic status, IFN- γ and TGF- ß levels were not changed in colostrum and maternal and cord blood. In maternal blood and colostrum, superoxide release by cytokine-stimulated phagocytes was similar between the groups. Compared to spontaneous release, superoxide release was stimulated by IFN- γ and TGF- ß in normoglycemic and diabetic groups. In the diabetic group, cord blood phagocytes incubated with IFN- γ exhibited higher phagocytic activity in response to EPEC, and maternal blood exhibited lower microbicidal activity. These data suggest that diabetes interferes in maternal immunological parameters and that IFN- γ and TGF- ß modulate the functional activity of phagocytes in the colostrum, maternal blood, and cord blood of pregnant diabetic women.


Asunto(s)
Calostro/inmunología , Calostro/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/inmunología , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Fagocitos/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Calcio/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangre , Femenino , Glucosa/metabolismo , Humanos , Recuento de Leucocitos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Fagocitosis/inmunología , Embarazo , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 54 Suppl 1: S16-22, 2012 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22247441

RESUMEN

Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection that occurs in patients who are immunocompromised because of diabetic ketoacidosis, neutropenia, organ transplantation, and/or increased serum levels of available iron. Because of the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, cancer, and organ transplantation, the number of patients at risk for this deadly infection is increasing. Despite aggressive therapy, which includes disfiguring surgical debridement and frequently adjunctive toxic antifungal therapy, the overall mortality rate is high. New strategies to prevent and treat mucormycosis are urgently needed. Understanding the pathogenesis of mucormycosis and the host response to invading hyphae ultimately will provide targets for novel therapeutic interventions. In this supplement, we review the current knowledge about the virulence traits used by the most common etiologic agent of mucormycosis, Rhizopus oryzae. Because patients with elevated serum levels of available iron are uniquely susceptible to mucormycosis and these infections are highly angioinvasive, emphasis is placed on the ability of the organism to acquire iron from the host and on its interactions with endothelial cells lining blood vessels. Several promising therapeutic strategies in preclinical stages are identified.


Asunto(s)
Hierro/metabolismo , Mucormicosis/patología , Rhizopus/patogenicidad , Cetoacidosis Diabética/metabolismo , Cetoacidosis Diabética/microbiología , Células Endoteliales/metabolismo , Células Endoteliales/microbiología , Genes Fúngicos , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Mucormicosis/metabolismo , Mucormicosis/microbiología , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Fagocitos/patología , Rhizopus/genética , Rhizopus/metabolismo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Virulencia/metabolismo
17.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 62(4): 599-613, 2012 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22138826

RESUMEN

Accumulation of lipofuscin-like pigments (LLPs) has been shown to be an appropriate index of both age and stress in some aquatic invertebrates. In the present study, LLP was quantified by measuring its autofluorescence intensity (ex 450 nm/em 512 nm) in nutritive phagocytes (NPs) of sea urchins Strongylocentrotus intermedius inhabiting polluted and relatively clean areas of Japan Sea. To avoid variations in LLP content related to sea urchin reproductive condition, only developing gonads with acini occupied mostly by NPs were used for LLP quantification as well as semiquantitative histopathological analysis. LLP concentrations ranged from 0.0 to 4.57 ± 0.53% area fraction in female gonads and from 0.0 to 4.61 ± 0.35% in male gonads. The presence of specimens with extremely high LLP concentrations (>1.5%) in all examined samples, including specimens from the reference station, as well as the absence of strong correlations between LLP concentrations and several parameters related to pollution (heavy-metal concentrations in sea urchin gonads and concentrations of heavy metals, DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, and total petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments), allow us to conclude that LLP content in sea urchin NPs can not be used as a biomarker in marine pollution monitoring.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Ovario/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/análisis , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Strongylocentrotus/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Contaminación del Agua , Animales , Bahías , Biomarcadores/análisis , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , DDT/análisis , Femenino , Fluorescencia , Sedimentos Geológicos/análisis , Hexaclorociclohexano/análisis , Hidrocarburos/análisis , Lipofuscina/metabolismo , Masculino , Metales Pesados/análisis , Océanos y Mares , Ovario/citología , Ovario/crecimiento & desarrollo , Petróleo/análisis , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Strongylocentrotus/efectos de los fármacos , Testículo/citología , Testículo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
18.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 14(1): 1-7, 2012. ilus, tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-644606

RESUMEN

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade funcional de macrófagos de ratos diabéticos, através da liberação do ânion superóxido, na presença do composto "mais vida". Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos, controle (N=20) e diabético (N=20). Avaliou-se a glicemia, massa corpórea e a liberação de superóxido pelos macrófagos de baço de ratos. O composto "mais vida" foi obtido através da mistura de extratos de sete plantas, sendo Orbignia martiana Rodr., Tabebuia avellanedae L.G., Arctium lappa L., Rosa centifolia L., Maytenus ilicifolia Mart., Vernonia condensata Baker e Thuja occidentalis L. Observou-se que glicemia foi maior no grupo diabético. A liberação espontânea do ânion superóxido pelos macrófagos foi menor no grupo diabético. O composto "mais vida", independente dos níveis glicêmicos, aumentou a liberação de superóxido dos macrófagos. Quando as células foram estimuladas pelos extratos vegetais isolados, também houve aumento na liberação do ânion superóxido pelos macrófagos em ambos os grupos. As maiores liberações de superóxido ocorreram quando os macrófagos foram estimulados pela Thuja occidentalis L., Rosa centifolia L., Tabebuia avellanedae L.G. e Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. Estes dados sugerem que a ativação de macrófagos pelo composto "mais vida" pode representar um mecanismo alternativo de defesa para infecções em indivíduos diabéticos.


This study investigated the effects of "mais vida", a commercial natural mix, on macrophages functional activity as evaluated by the superoxide release in diabetic rats. The animals were divided into two groups, control (N = 20) and diabetic (N = 20). This was achieved by determining blood glucose weight and the superoxide released by spleen macrophages. The "mais vida" mix was obtained by the combination of extracts from seven medicinal species, which were: Orbignia martiana Rodr., Tabebuia avellanedae L.G., Arctium lappa L., Rosa centifolia L., Maytenus ilicifolia Mart., Vernonia condensata Baker and Thuja occidentalis L. Blood glucose levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the diabetic group, as compared to blood glucose levels in the control group. Superoxide levels in macrophages isolated from normoglycemic rats were higher than those obtained from diabetic animals. The "mais vida" mix, independently of glycemic status, increased significantly the superoxide release in the macrophages. Each extract by itself also increased the superoxide release by phagocytes in the macrophages in both groups. The largest superoxide release occurred when the phagocytes were stimulated by Thuja occidentalis L., Rosa centifolia L., Tabebuia avellanedae L.G. and Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. In addition, the activation of macrophages by the "mais vida" mix may represent an additional protection mechanism for diabetic individuals against infections.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Ratas , Diabetes Mellitus/inducido químicamente , Aloxano/análisis , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Medicamento Fitoterápico
19.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett ; 32 Suppl 1: 84-8, 2011.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22167212

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if cyanoneurotoxin - anatoxin-a (ANTX-a) alters the essential functions of innate immune cells such as free radicals generation in phagocytic cells and phagocytosis. DESIGN: In the experiments pure ANTX-a was used at concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 1 µg/ml RPMI-1640 medium. Phagocytes were isolated from carp blood and pronephros. Relative changes in intracellular total free radical presence in fish phagocytes were monitored using a fluorescent probe, dichlorodihydrofluorescin DiOxyQ (DCFH-DiOxyQ) which detects hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO), peroxyl radical and peroxynitrite anion. Phagocytic activity of fish leukocytes was analyzed with a Vybrant phagocytosis assay kit. RESULTS: The H2O2 level generated in response to ANTX-a at the highest used concentration was significantly suppressed in pronephros but not in blood phagocytes. Moreover, it was observed that generation of superoxide radicals and nitrite formation was significantly increased in blood and pronephros phagocytes after incubation with lower concentrations of the neurotoxin. The phagocytosis of fish leukocytes was significantly reduced at the two highest used toxin concentrations (0.1 and 1 µg/ml medium). CONCLUSION: This findings suggests that ANTX-a could change innate immunity and reduced adaptive immunity after stress induced by cyanobacterial blooms.


Asunto(s)
Carpas/inmunología , Inmunidad Innata/efectos de los fármacos , Tropanos/toxicidad , Animales , Células Sanguíneas/efectos de los fármacos , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Carpas/sangre , Carpas/metabolismo , Carpas/fisiología , Células Cultivadas , Toxinas de Cianobacterias , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Inmunidad Innata/fisiología , Neurotoxinas/farmacología , Neurotoxinas/toxicidad , Fagocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Fagocitos/fisiología , Pronefro/citología , Pronefro/efectos de los fármacos , Pronefro/metabolismo , Pronefro/fisiología , Especies de Nitrógeno Reactivo/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Tropanos/farmacología
20.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 19(11): 1373-9, 2011 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21884808

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Rodent models of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are useful tools to study these disease processes. Adjuvant arthritis (AAR) is a model of polyarthritis widely used for preclinical testing of antiarthritis substances. We report the effect of two different doses of highly purified chondroitin sulfate (CS) pharmaceutical grade in the AAR animal model after oral administration. DESIGN: AAR was induced by a single intradermal injection of heat-inactivated Mycobacterium butyricum in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. The experiments included healthy animals, untreated arthritic animals, arthritic animals having been administered 300 or 900 mg/kg of CS daily, 14 days before AAR induction until the end of the experiment (day 28), arthritic animals having been administered 300 or 900 mg/kg of CS daily, from day 1 until the end of the experiment. RESULTS: CS was capable of significantly reducing the severity of arthritis along with oxidative stress, a consequence of chronic inflammatory processes occurring in AAR. The CS pre-treatment regimen was effective throughout the whole subacute phase, while treatment from day 1 proved effective only in the chronic period. The effects were confirmed by improved total antioxidant status and γ-glutamyltransferase activity. CS administered under a pre-treatment regimen was also able to reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein in plasma, phagocytic activity and the intracellular oxidative burst of neutrophils. CONCLUSIONS: CS proved to be effective in slowing down AAR development and in reducing disease markers, thus supporting its beneficial activity as a drug in humans.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Experimental/tratamiento farmacológico , Sulfatos de Condroitina/farmacología , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Sulfatos de Condroitina/administración & dosificación , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Miembro Posterior , Masculino , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Endogámicas Lew , gamma-Glutamiltransferasa/metabolismo
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