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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232775

RESUMEN

Quickly developing precision medicine and patient-oriented treatment strategies urgently require novel technological solutions. The randomly cell-populated scaffolds usually used for tissue engineering often fail to mimic the highly anisotropic characteristics of native tissue. In this work, an ultrasound standing-wave-based tissue engineering acoustophoretic (TEA) set-up was developed to organize murine mesenchymal stromal cells (mMSCs) in an in situ polymerizing 3-D fibrin hydrogel. The resultant constructs, consisting of 17 cell layers spaced at 300 µm, were obtained by continuous wave ultrasound applied at a 2.5 MHz frequency. The patterned mMSCs preserved the structured behavior within 10 days of culturing in osteogenic conditions. Cell viability was moderately increased 1 day after the patterning; it subdued and evened out, with the cells randomly encapsulated in hydrogels, within 21 days of culturing. Cells in the structured hydrogels exhibited enhanced expression of certain osteogenic markers, i.e., Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osterix (Osx) transcription factor, collagen-1 alpha1 (COL1A1), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), and osteonectin (ON), as well as of certain cell-cycle-progression-associated genes, i.e., Cyclin D1, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61), and anillin (ANLN), when cultured with osteogenic supplements and, for ANLN, also in the expansion media. Additionally, OPN expression was also augmented on day 5 in the patterned gels cultured without the osteoinductive media, suggesting the pro-osteogenic influence of the patterned cell organization. The TEA set-up proposes a novel method for non-invasively organizing cells in a 3-D environment, potentially enhancing the regenerative properties of the designed anisotropic constructs for bone healing.


Asunto(s)
Células Madre Mesenquimatosas , Osteogénesis , Animales , Diferenciación Celular , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Subunidad alfa 1 del Factor de Unión al Sitio Principal/metabolismo , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Fibrina/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrogeles/metabolismo , Hidrogeles/farmacología , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/metabolismo , Ratones , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Osteonectina/metabolismo , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Ingeniería de Tejidos/métodos , Andamios del Tejido
2.
EBioMedicine ; 81: 104081, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660787

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cartilage damage in inflammatory arthritis is attributed to inflammatory cytokines and pannus infiltration. Activation of the coagulation system is a well known feature of arthritis, especially in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we describe mechanisms by which fibrin directly mediates cartilage degeneration. METHODS: Fibrin deposits were stained on cartilage and synovial tissue of RA and osteoarthritis (OA) patients and in murine adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in wild-type or fibrinogen deficient mice. Fibrinogen expression and procoagulant activity in chondrocytes were evaluated using qRT-PCR analysis and turbidimetry. Chondro-synovial adhesion was studied in co-cultures of human RA cartilage and synoviocytes, and in the AIA model. Calcific deposits were stained in human RA and OA cartilage and in vitro in fibrinogen-stimulated chondrocytes. FINDINGS: Fibrin deposits on cartilage correlated with the severity of cartilage damage in human RA explants and in AIA in wild-type mice, whilst fibrinogen deficient mice were protected. Fibrin upregulated Adamts5 and Mmp13 in chondrocytes. Chondro-synovial adhesion only occurred in fibrin-rich cartilage areas and correlated with cartilage damage. In vitro, autologous human synoviocytes, cultured on RA cartilage explants, adhered exclusively to fibrin-rich areas. Fibrin co-localized with calcification in human RA cartilage and triggered chondrocyte mineralization by inducing pro-calcification genes (Anx5, Pit1, Pc1) and the IL-6 cytokine. Similar fibrin-mediated mechanisms were observed in OA models, but to a lesser extent and without pseudo-membranes formation. INTERPRETATION: In arthritis, fibrin plaques directly impair cartilage integrity via a triad of catabolism, adhesion, and calcification. FUNDING: None.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Reumatoide , Osteoartritis , Animales , Artritis Reumatoide/metabolismo , Cartílago/metabolismo , Condrocitos/metabolismo , Fibrina/metabolismo , Fibrinógeno/genética , Fibrinógeno/metabolismo , Humanos , Ratones , Osteoartritis/genética , Osteoartritis/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial
3.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 81(3): 221-232, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35253736

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Increased risk of thromboembolic events is associated with prostate cancer, specifically linked to activation of tissue factor. Vitamin D has potential anticoagulant effects by the downregulation of tissue factor expression. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects on clot formation, the morphological and viscoelastic profiles of prostate cancer patients, before and after ex vivo supplementation of Vitamin D was studied. METHODS: Participants were recruited into a metastatic, non-metastatic and reference group. Whole blood samples were treated ex vivo with a dose of 0.5µg/kg Calcitriol. Clot kinetics were assessed using Thromboelastography®. Morphology of the blood components were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: Results from the Thromboelastography® and SEM indicated no major differences between the non-metastatic group before and after treatment compared to the reference group. The Thromboelastography® showed that the metastatic group had an increased viscoelastic profile relating to a hypercoagulable state. Visible changes with regards to platelet activation and fibrin morphology were demonstrated with SEM analysis of the metastatic group. The viscoelastic and morphological properties for the non-metastatic group after treatment improved to be comparable to the reference group. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D supplementation may lead to a more favorable viscoelastic profile, with less dangerous clots forming.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Próstata , Trombosis , Suplementos Dietéticos , Fibrina/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias de la Próstata/tratamiento farmacológico , Tromboelastografía , Tromboplastina , Trombosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Vitamina D/uso terapéutico
4.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 71(4)2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214340

RESUMEN

Fibrin cross-linking by coagulation factor (F)XIII leads to clot stabilization. Reduced plasma FXIII levels have been reported in acute pulmonary embolism (PE) patients. We investigated the impact of anticoagulant therapy on clot-bound amounts of FXIII and α2-antiplasmin and their associations with fibrin clot properties in patients with PE. Clots generated from plasma of 18 acute symptomatic patients on admission and after a 3-month treatment with rivaroxaban were assessed off anticoagulation using mass spectrometry. Plasma FXIII and α2-antiplasmin activity were determined at the 2 time points along with thrombin generation markers, plasma fibrin clot permeability (Ks), and clot lysis time (CLT). Following anticoagulant therapy, clot-bound FXIII increased from 2.97 (interquartile range, 1.98 - 4.08) to 4.66 (3.5 - 6.9) mg/g protein and α2-antiplasmin from 9.4 (7.2 - 10.6) to 11 (9.5 - 14) mg/g protein (both p < 0.0001). The two parameters showed positive correlation at baseline only (r = 0.63, p = 0.0056). Similarly to clot-bound amounts, plasma FXIII (+25.8%) and α2-antiplasmin activity (+12%) increased at 3 months. Plasma FXIII activity on admission, but not after 3 months since the index PE, was associated with amounts of clot-bound FXIII (r = 0.35, p = 0.043) and α2-antiplasmin (r = 0.47, p = 0.048). At baseline, clot-bound FXIII correlated with plasma F1+2 prothrombin fragments levels (r = 0.51, p = 0.03), while clot-bound α2-antiplasmin correlated with CLT (r = 0.43, p = 0.036). At 3 months associations of clot-bound FXIII and α2-antiplasmin were abolished. This study assessed for the first time changes in the fibrin clot composition following acute PE, suggesting an increase of clot-bound and plasma FXIII and α2-antiplasmin levels after 3 months.


Asunto(s)
Coagulación Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Factor XIII/metabolismo , Inhibidores del Factor Xa/uso terapéutico , Fibrina/metabolismo , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Rivaroxabán/uso terapéutico , alfa 2-Antiplasmina/metabolismo , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embolia Pulmonar/sangre , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Protein Pept Lett ; 27(11): 1159-1170, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484078

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antiplatelet, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic activities of stem bromelain (EC 3.4.22.4) are well described, but more studies are still required to clearly define its usefulness as an antithrombotic agent. Besides, although some effects of bromelain are linked to its proteolytic activity, few studies were performed taking into account this relationship. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at comparing the effects of stem bromelain total extract (ET) and of its major proteolytic compounds on fibrinogen, fibrin, and blood coagulation considering the proteolytic activity. METHODS: Proteolytic fractions chromatographically separated from ET (acidic bromelains, basic bromelains, and ananains) and their irreversibly inhibited counterparts were assayed. Effects on fibrinogen were electrophoretically and spectrophotometrically evaluated. Fibrinolytic activity was measured by the fibrin plate assay. The effect on blood coagulation was evaluated by the prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) tests. Effects were compared with those of thrombin and plasmin. RESULTS: Acidic bromelains and ananains showed thrombin-type activity and low fibrinolytic activity, with acidic bromelains being the least effective as anticoagulants and fibrinolytics; while basic bromelains, without thrombin-like activity, were the best anticoagulant and fibrinolytic proteases present in ET. Procoagulant action was detected for ET and its proteolytic compounds by the APTT test at low concentrations. The measured effects were dependent on proteolytic activity. CONCLUSION: Two sub-populations of cysteine proteases exhibiting different effects on fibrin (ogen) and blood coagulation are present in ET. Using well characterized stem bromelain regarding its proteolytic system is a prerequisite for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the bromelain action.


Asunto(s)
Coagulación Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Bromelaínas , Fibrina , Fibrinógeno , Proteolisis/efectos de los fármacos , Bromelaínas/química , Bromelaínas/farmacología , Fibrina/química , Fibrina/metabolismo , Fibrinógeno/química , Fibrinógeno/metabolismo , Humanos
6.
EBioMedicine ; 53: 102671, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114386

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in procoagulant activity (PCA) in stroke patients caused by thromboembolic occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) remains unclear. Our objectives were to evaluate the critical role of NETs in the induction of hypercoagulability in stroke and to identify the functional significance of NETs during atherothrombosis. METHODS: The levels of NETs, activated platelets (PLTs), and PLT-derived microparticles (PMPs) were detected in the plasma of 55 stroke patients and 35 healthy controls. NET formation and thrombi were analysed using immunofluorescence. Exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) was evaluated with flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. PCA was analysed using purified coagulation complex, thrombin, and fibrin formation assays. FINDINGS: The plasma levels of NETs, activated PLTs, and PMP markers in the carotid lesion site (CLS) were significantly higher than those in the aortic blood. NETs were decorated with PS in thrombi and the CLS plasma of ICA occlusion patients. Notably, the complementary roles of CLS plasma and thrombin-activated PLTs were required for NET formation and subsequent PS exposure. PS-bearing NETs provided functional platforms for PMPs and coagulation factor deposition and thus increased thrombin and fibrin formation. DNase I and lactadherin markedly inhibited these effects. In addition, NETs were cytotoxic to endothelial cells, converting these cells to a procoagulant phenotype. Sivelestat, anti-MMP9 antibody, and activated protein C (APC) blocked this cytotoxicity by 25%, 39%, or 52%, respectively. INTERPRETATION: NETs played a pivotal role in the hypercoagulability of stroke patients. Strategies that prevent NET formation may offer a potential therapeutic strategy for thromboembolism interventions. FUNDING: This study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61575058, 81873433 and 81670128) and Graduate Innovation Fund of Harbin Medical University (YJSKYCX2018-58HYD).


Asunto(s)
Coagulación Sanguínea , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Trombosis de las Arterias Carótidas/metabolismo , Trampas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Accidente Cerebrovascular/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Trombosis de las Arterias Carótidas/sangre , Arteria Carótida Interna/patología , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Femenino , Fibrina/metabolismo , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/farmacología , Células Endoteliales de la Vena Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neutrófilos/efectos de los fármacos , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Activación Plaquetaria , Accidente Cerebrovascular/sangre , Sulfonamidas/farmacología , Trombina/metabolismo
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 147: 319-325, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931063

RESUMEN

A reduced form of the alpha-lipoic acid, dihydro-alpha-lipoic acid (DHLA) is a potent, naturally occurring antioxidant which can be consumed as food constituent or as supplement at doses up to 600 mg/day. DHLA has inhibitory effect on coagulation as it can reduce concentrations of some coagulation factors. In this study, a direct interaction between DHLA and fibrinogen, the main protein in coagulation, is described. Binding constant for DHLA/fibrinogen complex is of moderate strength (104) and interaction probably occurs in D regions of fibrinogen, as shown by docking simulations. Fibrinogen stability remains the same with only marginal structural changes in its secondary structure favouring more ordered molecular organisation upon DHLA binding. Fibrinogen with bound DHLA forms fibrin with thicker fibers, as measured by coagulation assay and is protected from oxidation to certain extent. Obtained results support beneficial effects of DHLA on fibrinogen and consequently on coagulation process, suggesting that DHLA supplementation may be indicated for persons with an increased risk of developing thrombotic complications, particularly those whose fibrin is characterised by increased oxidative modification and formation of thinner and less porous fibers. Also, DHLA in complex with fibrinogen can be located at site of injury where it may exert antioxidant effects.


Asunto(s)
Fibrina/metabolismo , Fibrinógeno/metabolismo , Ácido Tióctico/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Fibrinógeno/química , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Oxidación-Reducción , Estructura Secundaria de Proteína , Espectrometría de Fluorescencia , Espectrofotometría Ultravioleta , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 243: 112099, 2019 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326559

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of mortality and morbidity, causing over 17.9 million deaths a year worldwide. Currently used therapy is often having side effects and expensive, dietary interventions and alternative medicines are required. Clerodendrum colebrookianum has been used to treat cardiac hypertension but anticoagulant potency was not evaluated. AIM OF THE STUDY: To characterize an active anticoagulant fraction (AAFCC) and a 30 kDa fibrin(ogen)olytic serine protease (clerofibrase) isolated from aqueous leave extract of C. colebrookianum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AAFCC/clerofibrase was subjected to extensive biochemical and pharmacological characterization including LC-MS/MS, amino acid compositional and GC-MS analyses. Interaction between clerofibrase with fibrinogen was studied by spectrofluorometric analysis. In vitro thrombolytic, antiplatelet and cytotoxicity assay were performed. In vivo toxicity, anticoagulant, defibrinogen and antithrombotic activities were determined on Swiss albino mice. RESULTS: The in vitro anticoagulant activity of AAFCC was found to be superior to heparin and clerofibrase and comparable to Nattokinase and warfarin. The proteomics and amino acid composition analyses suggest that clerofibrase is a previously uncharacterized novel plant protease capable of degrading the -αß chains of fibrinogen/fibrin. AAFCC/clerofibrase exerts their anticoagulant action via fibrinogenolytic activity and partially by antiplatelet activity albeit they have no effect on thrombin and FXa inhibition. The spectrofluorometric analysis revealed the binding of clerofibrase to fibrinogen but not to thrombin and FXa. The phytochemical constituents and bioactive components of AAFCC were characterized by biochemical, and GC-MS analyses. The AAFCC and clerofibrase inhibited collagen/ADP-induced mammalian platelet aggregation, showed in vitro thrombolytic activity, and non-cytotoxic to mammalian cells. The AAFCC showed and dose-dependent in vivo plasma defibrinogenating and anticoagulant activities and inhibited k-carrageen-induced thrombus formation in the tails of mice. CONCLUSION: The potent in vivo anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects of AAFCC suggests its pharmacological significance as herbal anticoagulant drug for the prevention and/or treatment of hyperfibrinogenemia- and thrombosis associated cardiovascular disorders.


Asunto(s)
Anticoagulantes/uso terapéutico , Clerodendrum , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Animales , Anticoagulantes/farmacología , Anticoagulantes/toxicidad , Sistema Enzimático del Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Factor Xa/metabolismo , Femenino , Fibrina/metabolismo , Fibrinógeno/metabolismo , Fibrinolíticos/farmacología , Fibrinolíticos/toxicidad , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Ratones , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/toxicidad , Hojas de la Planta , Plantas Medicinales , Serina Endopeptidasas , Trombina/metabolismo , Trombosis/tratamiento farmacológico
9.
Acta Biomater ; 96: 468-479, 2019 09 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260820

RESUMEN

Fibrinolytic treatments for venous or arterial thrombotic syndromes using systemic administration of thrombolytics, such as streptokinase, can induce life-threatening bleeding complications. In this study, we offer the first proof of concept for a targeted photothermal fibrin clot prevention and reduction technology using macrophages loaded with polypyrrole-polyethylenimine nanocomplexes (Ppy-PEI NCs) and subjected to near-infrared radiation (NIR). We first show that the developed Ppy-PEI NCs could be taken up by defensive macrophages in vitro through endocytosis. The Ppy-PEI NCs generated local hyperthermia upon NIR treatment, which appeared to produce reactive oxygen species in Ppy-PEI NC-loaded macrophages. Preliminary evidence of efficacy as an antithrombotic tool is provided, in vitro, using fibrinogen-converted fibrin clots, and in vivo, in a rat femoral vascular thrombosis model generated by exposure to ferric chloride substance. The in vivo biocompatibility, photothermal behavior, biodistribution, and histological observation of cellular interactions with the Ppy-PEI NCs in the rat model provide rationale in support of further preclinical studies. This Ppy-PEI NC/NIR-based method, which uses a unique macrophage-guided targeting approach to prevent and lyse fibrin clots, may potentially overcome some of the disadvantages of current thrombolytic treatments. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Fibrinolytic treatments for venous or arterial thrombotic syndromes using systemic administration of thrombolytics, such as streptokinase, can induce life-threatening bleeding complications. In this study, we offer the first proof of concept for a targeted photothermal fibrin clot reduction technology using macrophages loaded with polypyrrole-polyethylenimine nanocomplexes (Ppy-PEI NCs) and subjected to near-infrared radiation (NIR). We first show that the developed Ppy-PEI NCs can be taken up by defensive macrophages in vitro through endocytosis. The Ppy-PEI NCs generated local hyperthermia upon NIR treatment, which appeared to produce reactive oxygen species in Ppy-PEI NC-loaded macrophages. Preliminary evidence of efficacy as an antithrombotic tool is provided, in vitro, using fibrinogen-converted fibrin clots, and in vivo, in a rat femoral vascular thrombosis model generated by exposure to ferric chloride substance. The in vivo biocompatibility, photothermal behavior, biodistribution, and histological observation of cellular interactions with the Ppy-PEI NCs in the rat model provide rationale in support of further preclinical studies. This Ppy-PEI NC/NIR-based method, which uses a unique macrophage-guided targeting approach to disintegrate fibrin clots, may potentially overcome some of the disadvantages of current thrombolytic treatments.


Asunto(s)
Materiales Biomiméticos/química , Fibrina/metabolismo , Hipertermia Inducida , Macrófagos/citología , Nanopartículas/química , Polietileneimina/farmacología , Polímeros/farmacología , Pirroles/farmacología , Trombosis/prevención & control , Animales , Endocitosis , Humanos , Rayos Infrarrojos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Nanopartículas/ultraestructura , Células RAW 264.7 , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Temperatura , Distribución Tisular
10.
Thromb Haemost ; 117(9): 1739-1749, 2017 08 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28771277

RESUMEN

We sought to investigate whether the G20210A prothrombin mutation modifies plasma fibrin clot properties in patients after venous thromboembolism (VTE) and how rivaroxaban treatment affects these alterations. We studied 34 prothrombin mutation heterozygous carriers and sex- and age-matched 34 non-carriers, all at least three months since the first VTE episode, before and during treatment with rivaroxaban. Clot permeability (Ks) and clot lysis time (CLT) with or without elimination of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) were assessed at baseline, 2-6 hours (h) after and 20-25 h after intake of rivaroxaban (20 mg/day). At baseline, the prothrombin mutation group formed denser clots (Ks -12 %, p=0.0006) and had impaired fibrinolysis (CLT +14 %, p=0.004, and CLT-TAFI +13 %, p=0.03) compared with the no mutation group and were similar to those observed in 15 healthy unrelated prothrombin mutation carriers. The G20210A prothrombin mutation was the independent predictor for Ks and CLT before rivaroxaban intake. At 2-6 h after rivaroxaban intake, clot properties improved in both G20210A carriers and non-carriers (Ks +38 %, and +37 %, CLT -25 % and -25 %, CLT-TAFI -20 % and -24 %, respectively, all p<0.001), but those parameters were worse in the prothrombin mutation group (Ks -12.8 %, CLT +17 %, CLT-TAFI +13 %, all p<0.001). Rivaroxaban concentration correlated with fibrin clot properties. After 20-25 h since rivaroxaban intake most clot properties returned to baseline. Rivaroxaban-related differences in clot structure were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images. In conclusion, rivaroxaban treatment, though improves fibrin clot properties, cannot abolish more prothrombotic fibrin clot phenotype observed in prothrombin mutation carriers following VTE.


Asunto(s)
Coagulación Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Coagulación Sanguínea/genética , Inhibidores del Factor Xa/uso terapéutico , Fibrina/metabolismo , Mutación , Protrombina/genética , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/genética , Rivaroxabán/uso terapéutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Trombosis de la Vena/tratamiento farmacológico , Trombosis de la Vena/genética , Adulto , Pruebas de Coagulación Sanguínea , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Inhibidores del Factor Xa/sangre , Inhibidores del Factor Xa/farmacocinética , Femenino , Fibrina/ultraestructura , Fibrinólisis/efectos de los fármacos , Fibrinólisis/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fenotipo , Embolia Pulmonar/sangre , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Rivaroxabán/sangre , Rivaroxabán/farmacocinética , Resultado del Tratamiento , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangre , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombosis de la Vena/sangre , Trombosis de la Vena/diagnóstico
11.
Exp Neurol ; 294: 32-44, 2017 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28457906

RESUMEN

Cortical demyelination is a common finding in patients with chronic multiple sclerosis (MS) and contributes to disease progression and overall disability. The exact pathomechanism that leads to cortical lesions is not clear. Research is limited by the fact that standard animal models of multiple sclerosis do not commonly affect the cortex, or if they do in some variants, the cortical demyelination is rather sparse and already remyelinated within a few days. In an attempt to overcome these limitations we implanted a tissue-compatible catheter into the cortex of Dark Agouti rats. After 14days the rats were immunized with 5µg myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in incomplete Freund's Adjuvant, which did not cause any clinical signs but animals developed a stable anti-MOG antibody titer. Then the animals received an injection of proinflammatory cytokines through the catheter. This led to a demyelination of cortical and subcortical areas starting from day 1 in a cone-like pattern spreading from the catheter area towards the subarachnoid space. On day 3 cortical demyelination already expanded to the contralateral hemisphere and reached its peak between days 9-15 after cytokine injection with a widespread demyelination of cortical and subcortical areas of both hemispheres. Clinically the animals showed only discrete signs of fatigue and recovered completely after day 15. Even on day 30 we still were able to detect demyelination in subpial and intracortical areas along with areas of partial and complete remyelination. Loss of cortical myelin was accompanied with marked microglia activation. A second injection of cytokines through the catheter on day 30 led to a second demyelination phase with the same symptoms, but again no detectable motor dysfunction. Suffering of the animals appeared minor compared to standard Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and therefore, even long-term observation and repeated demyelination phases seem ethically acceptable.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Cerebral/patología , Citocinas/toxicidad , Enfermedades Desmielinizantes/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades Desmielinizantes/patología , Encefalomielitis Autoinmune Experimental/patología , Lateralidad Funcional/fisiología , Animales , Proteínas de Unión al Calcio/metabolismo , Caspasa 3/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Encefalomielitis Autoinmune Experimental/inducido químicamente , Encefalomielitis Autoinmune Experimental/diagnóstico por imagen , Encefalomielitis Autoinmune Experimental/inmunología , Fibrina/metabolismo , Adyuvante de Freund/efectos adversos , Lateralidad Funcional/efectos de los fármacos , Inmunización/efectos adversos , Lípidos/efectos adversos , Masculino , Proteínas de Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Microscopía Confocal , Actividad Motora , Proteína Proteolipídica de la Mielina/metabolismo , Glicoproteína Asociada a Mielina/efectos adversos , Glicoproteína Asociada a Mielina/sangre , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/metabolismo , Ratas , Estadísticas no Paramétricas
12.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 182(4): 1415-1432, 2017 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28155167

RESUMEN

Bioactive peptide research has experienced considerable therapeutic interest owing to varied physiological functions, efficacy in excretion, and tolerability of peptides. Colostrum is a rich natural source of bioactive peptides with many properties elucidated such as anti-thrombotic, anti-hypertensive, opioid, immunomodulatory, etc. In this study, a variant peptide derived from ß-lactoglobulin from buffalo colostrum was evaluated for the anti-ophidian property by targeting snake venom metalloproteinases. These are responsible for rapid local tissue damages that develop after snakebite such as edema, hemorrhage, myonecrosis, and extracellular matrix degradation. The peptide identified by LC-MS/MS effectively neutralized hemorrhagic activity of the Echis carinatus venom in a dose-dependent manner. Histological examinations revealed that the peptide mitigated basement membrane degradation and accumulation of inflammatory leucocytes at the venom-injected site. Inhibition of proteolytic activity was evidenced in both casein and gelatin zymograms. Also, inhibition of fibrinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities was seen. The UV-visible spectral study implicated Zn2+ chelation, which was further confirmed by molecular docking and dynamic studies by assessing molecular interactions, thus implicating the probable mechanism for inhibition of venom-induced proteolytic and hemorrhagic activities. The present investigation establishes newer vista for the BLG-col peptide with anti-ophidian efficacy as a promising candidate for therapeutic interventions.


Asunto(s)
Búfalos , Calostro/química , Lactoglobulinas/química , Metaloproteasas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Fragmentos de Péptidos/farmacología , Venenos de Víboras/enzimología , Viperidae , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Caseínas/metabolismo , Simulación por Computador , Edema/tratamiento farmacológico , Fibrina/metabolismo , Fibrinógeno/metabolismo , Hemorragia/inducido químicamente , Hemorragia/tratamiento farmacológico , Hidrólisis , Metaloproteasas/química , Metaloproteasas/metabolismo , Ratones , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Oligopéptidos/química , Oligopéptidos/metabolismo , Oligopéptidos/farmacología , Oligopéptidos/uso terapéutico , Fragmentos de Péptidos/química , Fragmentos de Péptidos/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Péptidos/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de Proteasas/química , Inhibidores de Proteasas/metabolismo , Inhibidores de Proteasas/farmacología , Inhibidores de Proteasas/uso terapéutico , Conformación Proteica , Proteolisis/efectos de los fármacos , Piel/efectos de los fármacos
13.
Thromb Haemost ; 117(4): 682-690, 2017 04 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28150854

RESUMEN

Using intravital confocal microscopy, we observed previously that the process of platelet phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, fibrin formation and lysine binding site-dependent plasminogen (plg) accumulation took place only in the centre of thrombi, not at their periphery. These findings prompted us to analyse the spatiotemporal regulatory mechanisms underlying coagulation and fibrinolysis. We analysed the fibrin network formation and the subsequent lysis in an in vitro experiment using diluted platelet-rich plasma supplemented with fluorescently labelled coagulation and fibrinolytic factors, using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The structure of the fibrin network formed by supplemented tissue factor was uneven and denser at the sites of coagulation initiation regions (CIRs) on PS-exposed platelets. When tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA; 7.5 nM) was supplemented, labelled plg (50 nM) as well as tPA accumulated at CIRs, from where fibrinolysis started and gradually expanded to the peripheries. The lysis time at CIRs and their peripheries (50 µm from the CIR) were 27.9 ± 6.6 and 44.4 ± 9.7 minutes (mean ± SD, n=50 from five independent experiments) after the addition of tissue factor, respectively. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (TMα; 2.0 nM) attenuated the CIR-dependent plg accumulation and strongly delayed fibrinolysis at CIRs. A carboxypeptidase inhibitor dose-dependently enhanced the CIR-dependent fibrinolysis initiation, and at 20 µM it completely abrogated the TMα-induced delay of fibrinolysis. Our findings are the first to directly present crosstalk between coagulation and fibrinolysis, which takes place on activated platelets' surface and is further controlled by thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI).


Asunto(s)
Coagulación Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Plaquetas/efectos de los fármacos , Carboxipeptidasa B2/farmacología , Fibrinólisis/efectos de los fármacos , Microscopía Intravital/métodos , Microscopía Confocal/métodos , Activación Plaquetaria/efectos de los fármacos , Plasma Rico en Plaquetas/diagnóstico por imagen , Plaquetas/enzimología , Carboxipeptidasa B2/antagonistas & inhibidores , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Fibrina/metabolismo , Humanos , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Plasma Rico en Plaquetas/citología , Plasma Rico en Plaquetas/enzimología , Inhibidores de Proteasas/farmacología , Trombomodulina/metabolismo , Factores de Tiempo
14.
Wounds ; 29(4): 115-121, 2017 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28135202

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Fibrin clot formation, which acts to stabilize a wound following injury, is among the key early aspects of dermal wound healing. This preliminary matrix is eventually degraded via a process known as fibrinolysis and replaced with a collagen-rich matrix that continues to be remodeled to minimize scarring. Disruptions in these carefully coordinated events lead to certain undesirable conditions such as fibrosis and the formation of abnormal scars that are associated with excess amounts of collagen. The hypothesis proposed herein is that the presence of collagen (and potentially other molecules) in an early-phase model of healing alters fibrinolysis and that this effect can be attenuated with mediators of the process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Laboratory in vitro experiments were conducted using agarose-fibrin gel systems with and without collagen to study fibrinolysis caused by plasmin (a serine protease that degrades fibrin) and the effects of aprotinin (a serine protease inhibitor) and bromelain (an extract from pineapple) on fibrin clot breakdown. The extent of fibrinolysis was monitored at various times (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours) by measuring the size of rings of fibrinolysis following the diffusion of plasmin. The data obtained at 0.5, 12, and 24-hour time points were considered (because there was no difference found in the data collected for closer intermediates nor for the longer times beyond 24 hours) and were compared using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U statistical significance test. RESULTS: The results obtained showed aprotinin significantly inhibited fibrinolysis in systems containing collagen, while bromelain improved fibrinolysis. In general, the presence of increasing amounts of collagen in the system decreased the extent of fibrinolysis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the notion that early-phase deposition of collagen contributes to disrupted fibrinolysis, which could lead to impaired healing as well as potentially facilitate control of fibrinolysis.


Asunto(s)
Difusión , Fibrina/metabolismo , Fibrinolisina/metabolismo , Fibrinólisis/fisiología , Cicatrización de Heridas/fisiología , Heridas y Lesiones/metabolismo , Aprotinina/farmacología , Colágeno/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular , Fibrinólisis/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Inhibidores de Serina Proteinasa/farmacología , Cicatrización de Heridas/efectos de los fármacos , Heridas y Lesiones/patología
15.
Bioelectromagnetics ; 38(2): 109-120, 2017 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27862067

RESUMEN

The influence of a static magnetic field (SMF) on crude enzyme extracts with proteolytic activity is described and discussed. Proteolytic enzymes, which hydrolyze peptide bonds, and fibrinolytic enzymes, which dissolve fibrin clots, have industrial relevance, and applicability dependent on improvements of productivity and activity. We investigated whether a moderate SMF affects proteolysis in different in vitro tests: general proteolysis of azocasein substrate, and static and dynamic fibrinolytic processes (to compare fibrin gel configuration under exposure). Crude enzyme extracts, obtained from solid state fermentation of Mucor subtilissimus UCP (Universidade Católica de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil) 1262, were used to carry out assays under slightly heterogeneous fields: a varied vertical SMF (for tests in Eppendorf tubes, from 0.100 to 0.170 T) and a varied horizontal SMF (for tests in Petri dishes, from 0.01 to 0.122 T), generated by two permanent magnets (NdFeB alloy). Results showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in static fibrinolysis assays after 24 h of exposure. The mean diameter of halos of fibrin degradation in the treated group increased by 21% compared to the control group; and the pixel number count of fibrin consumption (in a computational analysis of the area of each halo) enhanced by 30% with exposure. However, in dynamic fibrinolysis assays, no effects of SMF were observed. These results suggest a response of fibrin monomers to the SMF as a possible cause of the observed effects. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:109-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Asunto(s)
Fibrinólisis , Campos Magnéticos , Mucor/metabolismo , Péptido Hidrolasas/metabolismo , Biocatálisis , Caseínas/metabolismo , Fibrina/química , Fibrina/metabolismo , Cinética , Multimerización de Proteína , Estructura Cuaternaria de Proteína
16.
J Med Food ; 19(11): 1065-1073, 2016 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27845864

RESUMEN

The effect and mechanisms of Myristica fragrans on blood clotting were evaluated by evaluating blood coagulation time and the fibrinolytic system. The compounds 2 and 5 were isolated from the herbal extract and their activities were assessed for the first time. None of the tested compounds had fibrinolytic activity, but could inhibit the fibrinolytic activity of urokinase. Compound 2 showed the highest inhibitory activity (IC50 = 1.747 mg·mL-1) followed by compounds 4 (IC50 = 1.818 mg·mL-1) and 1 (IC50 = 2.407 mg·mL-1), which were higher than that of the compound in Danshen drug tablets (IC50 = 6.577 mg·mL-1) used in China. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 showed strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values 21.76 ± 0.59 and 21.31 ± 0.00 µg·mL-1, respectively. These results demonstrated that the compounds are promising candidates as procoagulant and antidiabetic agents.


Asunto(s)
Coagulación Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Fibrinolíticos/farmacología , Myristica/química , Animales , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/aislamiento & purificación , Fibrina/metabolismo , Fibrinolíticos/química , Fibrinolíticos/aislamiento & purificación , Inhibidores de Glicósido Hidrolasas/farmacología , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Lignanos/farmacología , Masculino , Modelos Animales , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Conejos , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Semillas/química , Activador de Plasminógeno de Tipo Uroquinasa/metabolismo
17.
Phytomedicine ; 23(13): 1691-1698, 2016 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27823634

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The proteases from turmeric species have procoagulant and fibrinogenolytic activity. This provides a scientific basis for traditional use of turmeric to stop bleeding and promote wound healing processes. PURPOSE: Our previous studies revealed that fibrinogenolytic action of crude enzyme fraction of Curcuma aromatica Salisb., was found to be more influential than those of Curcuma longa L., Curcuma caesia Roxb., Curcuma amada Roxb. and Curcuma zedoria (Christm.) Roscoe. Hence, the purpose of this study is to purify and characterize protease from C. aromatica and to explore its role in wound healing process. METHODS: The protease was purified by Sephadex G-50 gel permeation chromatography. Peak with potent proteolytic activity was subjected to rechromatography and then checked for homogeneity by SDS-PAGE and native PAGE. Furthermore purity of the peak was assessed by RP-HPLC and MALDI-TOF. The biochemical properties, type of protease, kinetic studies, fibrinogenolytic, coagulant and fibrinolytic activities were carried out. RESULTS: The two proteolytic peaks were fractionated in gel permeation chromatography. Among these, the peak-II showed potent proteolytic activity with specific activity of 10units/mg/min and named as C. aromatica protease-II (CAP-II). This protein resolved into a single sharp band both in SDS-PAGE (reducing and non-reducing) as well as in native (acidic) PAGE. It is a monomeric protein, showing sharp peak in RP-HPLC and its relative molecular mass was found to be 12.378kDa. The caseinolytic and fibrinolytic activity of CAP-II was completely inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF). The CAP-II exhibited optimum temperature of 45°C and optimum pH of 7.5. The Km and Vmax of CAP-II was found to be 1.616µg and 1.62units/mg/min respectively. The CAP-II showed hydrolysis of all three subunits of fibrinogen in the order Aα>Bß>γ. The CAP-II exhibited strong procoagulant activity by reducing the human plasma clotting time. It also showed fibrinolytic activity by complete hydrolysis of α-polymer and γ-γ dimer present in fibrin. CONCLUSION: The CAP-II is a novel serine protease from C. aromatica, which has been demonstrated to stop bleeding and initiate wound healing through its procoagulant and fibrin(ogen)olytic activities. Our study demonstrates the possible role of CAP-II, as therapeutic enzyme to stop bleeding at the time of wounding.


Asunto(s)
Curcuma/química , Hemostasis/efectos de los fármacos , Serina Proteasas/aislamiento & purificación , Serina Proteasas/farmacología , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Coagulantes/farmacología , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Electroforesis en Gel de Poliacrilamida , Fibrina/metabolismo , Fibrinógeno/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Peso Molecular , Serina Proteasas/metabolismo , Cicatrización de Heridas/efectos de los fármacos
18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 154: 139-50, 2016 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27577905

RESUMEN

The water-soluble sulfated xylogalactoarabinans from green seaweed Cladophora falklandica are constituted by a backbone of 4-linked ß-l-arabinopyranose units partially sulfated mainly on C3 and also on C2. Besides, partial glycosylation mostly on C2 with single stubs of ß-d-xylopyranose, or single stubs of ß-d-galactofuranose or short chains comprising (1→5)- and/or (1→6)-linkages, was also found. These compounds showed anticoagulant activity, although much lower than that of heparin. The effect of a purified fraction (F1) on the fibrin network was studied in detail. It modifies the kinetics of fibrin formation, suggesting an impaired polymerization process. Scanning electron microscopy showed a laxer conformation, with larger interstitial pores than the control. Accordingly, this network was lysed more easily. These fibrin properties would reduce the time of permanence of the clot in the blood vessel, inducing a lesser thrombogenic state. One of the possible mechanisms of its anticoagulant effect is direct thrombin inhibition.


Asunto(s)
Anticoagulantes/farmacología , Chlorophyta/química , Fibrina/metabolismo , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Animales , Anticoagulantes/química , Conformación de Carbohidratos , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Fibrinólisis/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Conejos , Algas Marinas/química , Sulfatos/química , Xilosa/análogos & derivados , Xilosa/química
19.
Bull Tokyo Dent Coll ; 57(2): 91-6, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27320298

RESUMEN

Here we report a case of Kussmaul's disease, or sialodochitis fibrinosa. This rare disease is characterized by recurrent swelling of the salivary glands, which then discharge clots of fibrin into the oral cavity. An 80-year-old man with a history of allergic rhinitis visited our department with the chief complaint of pain in the bilateral parotid gland area on eating. An initial examination revealed mild swelling and tenderness in this region, and indurations could be felt around the bilateral parotid papillae. Pressure on the parotid glands induced discharge of gelatinous plugs from the parotid papillae. No pus was discharged, and there were no palpable hard objects. Panoramic X-ray showed no obvious focus of dental infection, and there was no calcification in the parotid gland region. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed segmental dilatation of the main ducts of both parotid ducts, with no signs of displacement due to sialoliths or tumors, or of abnormal saliva leakage. Two courses of antibiotic therapy resulted in no improvement. During treatment, gelatinous plugs (fibrin clots) obstructing the left parotid duct were dislodged by massage, which prevented further blockage by encouraging salivary outflow. The obstruction persisted in the right parotid duct, however. Therefore, the distal portion of the right parotid duct was partially resected and the opening into the mouth enlarged, which, in combination with massage, prevented further obstruction. The pain and swelling of the parotid gland and discharge of gelatinous plugs improved, with no further recurrence at 12 months postoperatively. This case is presented along with a review of the relevant literature.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Parótidas/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de las Parótidas/patología , Enfermedades de las Parótidas/terapia , Glándula Parótida/patología , Conductos Salivales/patología , Conductos Salivales/cirugía , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dilatación Patológica/patología , Fibrina/metabolismo , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Masaje , Enfermedades de las Parótidas/fisiopatología , Radiografía Panorámica , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 21956, 2016 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26905699

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to discover small-molecule anticoagulants from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (SSM). A new acylated polyamine (1) and a new sulfated quinoline alkaloid (2) were isolated from SSM. Treatment with the new alkaloids 1, 2, and indole acetic acid 4 prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and inhibited the activity and production of thrombin and activated factor X. Furthermore, compounds 1, 2, and 4 inhibited thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization and platelet aggregation. In accordance with these potential in vitro antiplatelet activities, compounds 1, 2, and 4 showed enhanced antithrombotic effects in an in vivo pulmonary embolism and arterial thrombosis model. Compounds 1, 2, and 4 also elicited anticoagulant effects in mice. Collectively, this study may serve as the groundwork for commercializing SSM or compounds 1, 2, and 4 as functional food components for the prevention and treatment of pathogenic conditions and serve as new scaffolds for the development of anticoagulants.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides/farmacología , Anticoagulantes/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química , Fibrinolíticos/farmacología , Poliaminas/farmacología , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Trombosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Acilación , Alcaloides/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Anticoagulantes/aislamiento & purificación , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Alcaloides Diterpénicos , Descubrimiento de Drogas , Factor Xa/biosíntesis , Fibrina/antagonistas & inhibidores , Fibrina/metabolismo , Fibrinolíticos/aislamiento & purificación , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacología , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Tiempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Agregación Plaquetaria/efectos de los fármacos , Poliaminas/aislamiento & purificación , Polimerizacion , Tiempo de Protrombina , Embolia Pulmonar/sangre , Embolia Pulmonar/patología , Quinolinas/aislamiento & purificación , Quinolinas/farmacología , Trombina/antagonistas & inhibidores , Trombina/biosíntesis , Trombosis/sangre , Trombosis/patología
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