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1.
Iran J Kidney Dis ; 18(2): 87-98, 2024 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38660700

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: One of the most significant clinical features of chronic  kidney disease is renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF). This study aimed  to investigate the role and mechanism of Shenqi Pill (SQP) on RIF. METHODS: RIF model was established by conducting unilateral  ureteral obstruction (UUO) surgery on rat or stimulating human  kidney-2 (HK-2) cell with transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1).  After modeling, the rats in the SQP low dose group (SQP-L), SQP  middle dose group (SQP-M) and SQP high dose group (SQP-H)  were treated with SQP at 1.5, 3 or 6 g/kg/d, and the cells in the  TGFß1+SQP-L/M/H were treated with 2.5%, 5%, 10% SQP-containing  serum. In in vivo assays, serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea  nitrogen (BUN) content were measured, kidney histopathology  was evaluated., and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression  was detected by immunohistochemistry. Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß),  interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) content,  inhibitor of kappa B alpha (IKBα) and P65 phosphorylation were  assessed. Meanwhile, cell viability, inflammatory cytokines content,  α-SMA expression, IKBα and P65 phosphorylation were detected  in vitro experiment.  Results. SQP exhibited reno-protective effect by decreasing SCr  and BUN content, improving renal interstitial damage, blunting  fibronectin (FN) and α-SMA expression in RIF rats. Similarly, after  the treatment with SQP-containing serum, viability and α-SMA  expression were remarkably decreased in TGFß1-stimulated HK-2  cell. Furthermore, SQP markedly down-regulated IL-1ß, IL-6, and  TNF-α content, IKBα and RelA (P65) phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro.  Conclusion. SQP has a reno-protective effect against RIF in vivo and in vitro, and the effect is partly linked to nuclear factor-kappa  B (NF-κB) pathway related inflammatory response, which indicates  that SQP may be a candidate drug for RIF. DOI: 10.52547/ijkd.7546.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Fibrosis , Riñón , FN-kappa B , Animales , Humanos , Ratas , Actinas/metabolismo , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Línea Celular , Creatinina/sangre , Citocinas/metabolismo , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Fibrosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Fibrosis/metabolismo , Fibrosis/patología , Riñón/patología , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Riñón/metabolismo , FN-kappa B/efectos de los fármacos , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Inhibidor NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/metabolismo , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/patología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Obstrucción Ureteral/patología , Obstrucción Ureteral/complicaciones , Obstrucción Ureteral/tratamiento farmacológico
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(5): 1164-1171, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621963

RESUMEN

Diabetic nephropathy(DN), a progressive chronic kidney disease(CKD) induced by diabetes mellitus, is the main cause of end-stage renal disease. Renal interstitial fibrosis(RIF) is an irreversible factor in the progression and deterioration of the renal function in DN. Chronic inflammation has become a key link in the pathogenesis of DN-RIF. The NOD-like receptor thermal protein domain associated protein 3(NLRP3) inflammasome is an important inflammatory regulator regulated by a variety of signals. It promotes the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and induces renal inflammatory cell infiltration to participate in the process of renal fibrosis, demonstrating a complex mechanism of action. In view of the important role of NLRP3 inflammasomes in the prevention and treatment of DN-RIF, a large number of experimental studies have demonstrated that traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) can reduce the inflammation by regulating the pathways involving NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby slowing down the progression of DN-RIF and improving the renal function. This paper reviews the relationship between NLRP3 inflammasomes and DN-RIF, and the research progress in the mechanism of TCM intervention in NLRP3 inflammasomes to alleviate DN-RIF, aiming to provide new ideas for the targeted treatment of DN-RIF.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatías Diabéticas , Humanos , Inflamasomas/metabolismo , Nefropatías Diabéticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Proteína con Dominio Pirina 3 de la Familia NLR/genética , Proteína con Dominio Pirina 3 de la Familia NLR/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional China , Inflamación/metabolismo , Fibrosis
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(3): 789-797, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621883

RESUMEN

This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of Fuyu Decoction(FYD) in the treatment of myocardial fibrosis in the rat model of heart failure(HF). Sixty Wistar rats were randomized into a modeling group(n=50) and a sham group(n=10). A post-myocardial infarction HF model was established by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery in rats. The successfully modeled rats were assigned into model, low-dose(2.5 g·kg~(-1)) FYD(FYD-L), high-dose(5.0 g·kg~(-1)) FYD(FYD-H), and FYD+Nrf2 inhibitor(ML385, 30 mg·kg~(-1)) groups(n=10). FYD was administrated by gavage and ML385 by intraperitoneal injection. The rats in the sham and model groups were administrated with equal amounts of normal saline by gavage. After 8 weeks of intervention, the cardiac function indicators were measured, and the myocardial tissue morphology and collagen deposition were observed. The positive expression of collagens Ⅰ and Ⅲ, apoptosis, and oxidative stress were examined, and the levels of Fe~(2+) and reactive oxygen species(ROS) were determined. The protein levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2), solute carrier family 7 member 11(SLC7A11), glutathione peroxidase 4(GPX4), and acyl-coenzyme A synthase long chain family member 4(ACSL4) in the myocardial tissue were determined. Compared with sham group, the model group showed decreased left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) and left ventricular fractional shortening(LVFS), increased left ventricular end internal dimension in systole(LVIDs), left ventricular internal diameter in diastole(LVIDd), and myocardial collagen deposition, positive expression of collagens Ⅰ and Ⅲ, elevated apoptosis rate and malondialdehyde(MDA), Fe~(2+), and ROS levels, lowered superoxide dismutase(SOD) and glutathione peroxidase(GSH) levels, down-regulated protein levels of Nrf2, SLC7A11, and GPX4, and up-regulated protein level of ACSL4. Compared with the model group, the above indicators were restored by FYD. Moreover, ML385 reversed the protective effect of FYD on myocardial fibrosis in HF rats. In conclusion, FYD can inhibit ferroptosis by activating the Nrf2/GPX4 pathway, thereby ameliorating myocardial fibrosis in HF rats.


Asunto(s)
Ferroptosis , Insuficiencia Cardíaca , Ratas , Animales , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/genética , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/metabolismo , Volumen Sistólico , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno , Función Ventricular Izquierda , Ratas Wistar , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/tratamiento farmacológico , Fibrosis , Colágeno/farmacología
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(6): 1602-1610, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621945

RESUMEN

This study explored the mechanism of the ultrafiltration extract of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Hedysari Radix in ameliorating renal fibrosis in the rat model of diabetic kidney disease(DKD) based on the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α)/vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and HIF-1α/platelet-derived growth factor(PDGF)/platelet-derived growth factor receptor(PDGFR) signaling pathways in the DKD rats. After 1 week of adaptive feeding, 50 male SPF-grade Wistar rats were randomized into a blank group(n=7) and a modeling group. After 24 h of fasting, the rats in the modeling group were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin and fed with a high-sugar and high-fat diet to establish a DKD model. After modeling, the rats were randomly assigned into model(n=7), low-dose ultrafiltration extract(n=7), medium-dose ultrafiltration extract(n=7), irbesartan(n=8), and high-dose ultrafiltration extract(n=8) groups. After intervention by corresponding drugs for 12 weeks, the general conditions of the rats were observed. The body weights and blood glucose levels of the rats were measured weekly, and the 24 h urinary protein(24hUP) was measured at the 6th and 12th weeks of drug administration. After the last drug administration, the renal function indicators were determined. Masson staining was employed to observe the pathological changes of the renal tissue. The expression of prolyl hydroxylase domain 2(PHD2) and HIF-1α in the renal tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry(IHC). Real-time qPCR was employed to determine the mRNA levels of PHD2, VEGF, PDGF, and PDGFR in the renal tissue. Western blot was employed to determine the protein levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, PDGF, and PDGFR in the renal tissue. The results showed that compared with the model group, drug administration lowered the levels of glycosylated serum protein(GSP), aerum creatinine(Scr), and blood urea nitrogen(BUN) in a dose-dependent manner(P<0.05 or P<0.01) and mitigated the pathological changes in the renal tissue. Furthermore, drug administration up-regulated mRNA level of PHD2(P<0.05 or P<0.01), down-regulated the mRNA levels of VEGF, PDGF, and PDGFR(P<0.05 or P<0.01) and the protein levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, PDGF, and PDGFR(P<0.01) in the renal tissue, and increased the rate of PHD2-positive cells(P<0.01). In conclusion, the ultrafiltration extract of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Hedysari Radix effectively alleviated the renal fibrosis in DKD rats by inhibiting the expression of key proteins in the HIF-1α signaling pathway mediated by renal hypoxia and reducing extracellular matrix(ECM) deposition.


Asunto(s)
Nefropatías Diabéticas , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular , Ratas , Masculino , Animales , Ratas Wistar , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/genética , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/metabolismo , Ultrafiltración , Subunidad alfa del Factor 1 Inducible por Hipoxia/genética , Subunidad alfa del Factor 1 Inducible por Hipoxia/metabolismo , Isquemia , Nefropatías Diabéticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Nefropatías Diabéticas/genética , Fibrosis , Hipoxia , Transducción de Señal , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo
5.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 29: 2515690X241244845, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613379

RESUMEN

Garcinia dulcis (GD) extract possesses anti-hypertensive property that are poorly characterized. This study aimed to investigate an anti-inflammatory effect of GD flower extract in the 2-kidney-1-clip (2K1C) hypertensive compared to sham operative (SO) rat. Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups; the 2K1C group in which a silver clip was placed around renal artery to induce hypertension, and the SO normotensive group. Four weeks later, each group of rats were further divided into 2 subgroups, each subgroup was orally gavaged of either corn oil (vehicle) or 50 mg/kg BW GD extract daily for 4 weeks. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in serum, liver, and kidney were determined. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was carried out for histological examination, Periodic acid - Schiff staining for glomerular injury, Masson's trichrome staining for renal fibrosis, and immunohistochemistry for either tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) investigation. Taken together, our results demonstrated that GD flower extract decreased the MDA level in both serum and liver and kidney tissue and suppressed the expression of TNF-α in both liver and kidney of 2K1C hypertensive rats. Mesangial cell proliferation, expansion of mesangial matrix, widening Bowman's capsule space, congestion of glomerular capillary and vessel, cloudy swelling of renal tubular epithelial cell, and renal fibrosis were observed in the kidneys of 2K1C rats. Therefore, we concluded that GD flower extract can alleviate liver and kidney inflammation in which partially attenuates the glomerular injury in the 2K1C rat.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa , Masculino , Ratas , Animales , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/genética , Ratas Wistar , Riñón , Hígado , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Instrumentos Quirúrgicos , Fibrosis , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología
6.
Environ Toxicol ; 39(6): 3481-3499, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456329

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Qi-dan-dihuang decoction (QDD) has been used to treat diabetic kidney disease (DKD), but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: This study reveals the mechanism by which QDD ameliorates DKD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The compounds in QDD were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Key targets and signaling pathways were screened through bioinformatics. Nondiabetic Lepr db/m mice were used as control group, while Lepr db/db mice were divided into model group, dapagliflozin group, 1% QDD-low (QDD-L), and 2% QDD-high (QDD-H) group. After 12 weeks of administration, 24 h urinary protein, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels were detected. Kidney tissues damage and fibrosis were evaluated by pathological staining. In addition, 30 mmol/L glucose-treated HK-2 and NRK-52E cells to induce DKD model. Cell activity and migration capacity as well as protein expression levels were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 46 key target genes were identified. Functional enrichment analyses showed that key target genes were significantly enriched in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. In addition, in vivo and in vitro experiments confirmed that QDD ameliorated renal fibrosis in diabetic mice by resolving inflammation and inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via the p38MAPK and AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: QDD inhibits EMT and the inflammatory response through the p38MAPK and AKT/mTOR signaling pathways, thereby playing a protective role in renal fibrosis in DKD.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Nefropatías Diabéticas , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Fibrosis , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt , Transducción de Señal , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR , Proteínas Quinasas p38 Activadas por Mitógenos , Animales , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Nefropatías Diabéticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Nefropatías Diabéticas/patología , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamiento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinasas p38 Activadas por Mitógenos/metabolismo , Ratas , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Riñón/patología , Línea Celular , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Ratones , Humanos
7.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 7(2): 145-155, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38525803

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Arthrofibrosis is a joint disorder characterized by excessive scar formation in the joint tissues. Vitamin E is an antioxidant with potential anti-fibroblastic effect. The aim of this study was to establish an arthrofibrosis rat model after joint replacement and assess the effects of vitamin E supplementation on joint fibrosis. METHODS: We simulated knee replacement in 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats. We immobilized the surgical leg with a suture in full flexion. The control groups were killed at 2 and 12 weeks (n = 5 per group), and the test group was supplemented daily with vitamin E (0.2 mg/mL) in their drinking water for 12 weeks (n = 6). We performed histological staining to investigate the presence and severity of arthrofibrosis. Immunofluorescent staining and α2-macroglobulin (α2M) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to assess local and systemic inflammation. Static weight bearing (total internal reflection) and range of motion (ROM) were collected for functional assessment. RESULTS: The ROM and weight-bearing symmetry decreased after the procedure and recovered slowly with still significant deficit at the end of the study for both groups. Histological analysis confirmed fibrosis in both lateral and posterior periarticular tissue. Vitamin E supplementation showed a moderate anti-inflammatory effect on the local and systemic levels. The vitamin E group exhibited significant improvement in ROM and weight-bearing symmetry at day 84 compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: This model is viable for simulating arthrofibrosis after joint replacement. Vitamin E may benefit postsurgical arthrofibrosis, and further studies are needed for dosing requirements.


Asunto(s)
Fibrosis , Rango del Movimiento Articular , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Vitamina E , Animales , Vitamina E/farmacología , Vitamina E/administración & dosificación , Vitamina E/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Ratas , Rango del Movimiento Articular/efectos de los fármacos , Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Rodilla , Artropatías/prevención & control , Artropatías/etiología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad
8.
Exp Cell Res ; 437(1): 113992, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492634

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatic fibrosis, a common pathological process that occurs in end-stage liver diseases, is a serious public health problem and lacks effective therapy. Notoginsenoside R1 (NR1) is a small molecule derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Sanqi, exhibiting great potential in treating diverse metabolie disorders. Here we aimed to enquired the role of NR1 in liver fibrosis and its underlying mechanism in hepatoprotective effects. METHODS: We investigated the anti-fibrosis effect of NR1 using CCl4-induced mouse mode of liver fibrosis as well as TGF-ß1-activated JS-1, LX-2 cells and primary hepatic stellate cell. Cell samples treated by NR1 were collected for transcriptomic profiling analysis. PPAR-γ mediated TGF-ß1/Smads signaling was examined using PPAR-γ selective inhibitors and agonists intervention, immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis. Additionally, we designed and studied the binding of NR1 to PPAR-γ using molecular docking. RESULTS: NR1 obviously attenuated liver histological damage, reduced serum ALT, AST levels, and decreased liver fibrogenesis markers in mouse mode. Mechanistically, NR1 elevated PPAR-γ and decreased TGF-ß1, p-Smad2/3 expression. The TGF-ß1/Smads signaling pathway and fibrotic phenotype were altered in JS-1 cells after using PPAR-γ selective inhibitors and agonists respectively, confirming PPAR-γ played a pivotal protection role inNR1 treating liver fibrosis. Further molecular docking indicated NR1 had a strong binding tendency to PPAR-γ with minimum free energy. CONCLUSIONS: NR1 attenuates hepatic stellate cell activation and hepatic fibrosis by elevating PPAR-γ to inhibit TGF-ß1/Smads signalling. NR1 may be a potential candidate compound for reliving liver fibrosis.


Asunto(s)
Ginsenósidos , Células Estrelladas Hepáticas , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1 , Animales , Ratones , Fibrosis , Células Estrelladas Hepáticas/metabolismo , Hígado/metabolismo , Cirrosis Hepática/inducido químicamente , Cirrosis Hepática/tratamiento farmacológico , Cirrosis Hepática/genética , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , PPAR gamma/metabolismo , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
9.
Bioorg Chem ; 146: 107286, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537336

RESUMEN

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) poses a significant challenge with limited treatment options and a high mortality rate of approximately 45 %. Qingkailing Granule (QKL), derived from the Angong Niuhuang Pill, shows promise in addressing pulmonary conditions. Using a comprehensive approach, combining network pharmacology analysis with experimental validation, this study explores the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of QKL against PF for the first time. In vivo, QKL reduced collagen deposition and suppressed proinflammatory cytokines in a bleomycin-induced PF mouse model. In vitro studies demonstrated QKL's efficacy in protecting cells from bleomycin-induced injury and reducing collagen accumulation and cell migration in TGF-ß1-induced pulmonary fibrosis cell models. Network pharmacology analysis revealed potential mechanisms, confirmed by western blotting, involving the modulation of PI3K/AKT and SRC/STAT3 signaling pathways. Molecular docking simulations highlighted interactions between QKL's active compounds and key proteins, showing inhibitory effects on epithelial damage and fibrosis. Collectively, these findings underscore the therapeutic potential of QKL in alleviating pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis through the downregulation of PI3K/AKT and SRC/STAT3 signaling pathways, with a pivotal role attributed to its active compounds.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Fibrosis Pulmonar , Ratones , Animales , Fibrosis Pulmonar/inducido químicamente , Fibrosis Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Fibrosis Pulmonar/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas/metabolismo , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Transducción de Señal , Colágeno/metabolismo , Colágeno/farmacología , Colágeno/uso terapéutico , Fibrosis , Bleomicina/efectos adversos
10.
Cells ; 13(5)2024 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474385

RESUMEN

Increased production of extracellular matrix is a necessary response to tissue damage and stress. In a normal healing process, the increase in extracellular matrix is transient. In some instances; however, the increase in extracellular matrix can persist as fibrosis, leading to deleterious alterations in organ structure, biomechanical properties, and function. Indeed, fibrosis is now appreciated to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity. Extensive research has illustrated that fibrosis can be slowed, arrested or even reversed; however, few drugs have been approved specifically for anti-fibrotic treatment. This is in part due to the complex pathways responsible for fibrogenesis and the undesirable side effects of drugs targeting these pathways. Natural products have been utilized for thousands of years as a major component of traditional medicine and currently account for almost one-third of drugs used clinically worldwide. A variety of plant-derived compounds have been demonstrated to have preventative or even reversal effects on fibrosis. This review will discuss the effects and the underlying mechanisms of some of the major plant-derived compounds that have been identified to impact fibrosis.


Asunto(s)
Matriz Extracelular , Fitoquímicos , Humanos , Fibrosis , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fitoquímicos/farmacología
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474309

RESUMEN

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by systemic skin hardening, which combines Raynaud's phenomenon and other vascular disorders, skin and internal organ fibrosis, immune disorders, and a variety of other abnormalities. Symptoms vary widely among individuals, and personalized treatment is sought for each patient. Since there is no fundamental cure for SSc, it is designated as an intractable disease with patients receiving government subsidies for medical expenses in Japan. Oxidative stress (OS) has been reported to play an important role in the cause and symptoms of SSc. HOCl-induced SSc mouse models are known to exhibit skin and visceral fibrosis, vascular damage, and autoimmune-like symptoms observed in human SSc. The antioxidant combination Twendee X® (TwX) is a dietary supplement consisting of vitamins, amino acids, and CoQ10. TwX has been proven to prevent dementia in humans with mild cognitive impairment and significantly improve cognitive impairment in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model by regulating OS through a strong antioxidant capacity that cannot be achieved with a single antioxidant ingredient. We evaluated the effectiveness of TwX on various symptoms of HOCl-induced SSc mice. TwX-treated HOCl-induced SSc mice showed significantly reduced lung and skin fibrosis compared to untreated HOCl-induced SSc mice. TwX also significantly reduced highly oxidized protein products (AOPP) in serum and suppressed Col-1 gene expression and activation of B cells involved in autoimmunity. These findings suggest that TwX has the potential to be a new antioxidant treatment for SSc without side effects.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Cistina , Glutamina , Esclerodermia Sistémica , Humanos , Ratones , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Esclerodermia Sistémica/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Fibrosis , Piel/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad
12.
Molecules ; 29(5)2024 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474541

RESUMEN

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common public health concern. The global burden of CKD is increasing due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with it, indicating the shortcomings of therapeutic drugs at present. Renal fibrosis is the common pathology of CKD, which is characterized by glomerulosclerosis, renal tubular atrophy, and renal interstitial fibrosis. Natural hirudin is an active ingredient extracted from Hirudo medicinalis, which has been found to be the strongest natural specific inhibitor of thrombin. Evidence based on pharmacological data has shown that hirudin has important protective effects in CKD against diabetic nephrology, nephrotic syndrome, and renal interstitial fibrosis. The mechanisms of hirudin in treating CKD are mainly related to inhibiting the inflammatory response, preventing apoptosis of intrinsic renal cells, and inhibiting the interactions between thrombin and protease-activated receptors. In this review, we summarize the function and beneficial properties of hirudin for the treatment of CKD, and its underlying mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Hirudinas , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Humanos , Trombina , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Riñón , Fibrosis
13.
Eur J Med Res ; 29(1): 183, 2024 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500195

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Renal fibrosis (RF) produced adverse effect on kidney function. Recently, intestinal dysbiosis is a key regulator that promotes the formation of renal fibrosis. This study will focus on exploring the protective mechanism of Kangxianling Formula (KXL) on renal fibrosis from the perspective of intestinal flora. METHODS: Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction (UUO) was used to construct rats' model with RF, and receive KXL formula intervention for 1 week. The renal function indicators were measured. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE), Masson and Sirus red staining were employed to detect the pathological changes of renal tissue in each group. The expression of α-SMA, Col-III, TGF-ß, FN, ZO-1, and Occuludin was detected by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Rat feces samples were collected and analyzed for species' diversity using high-throughput sequencing 16S rRNA. RESULTS: Rats in UUO groups displayed poor renal function as well as severe RF. The pro-fibrotic protein expression in renal tissues including α-SMA, Col-III, TGF-ß and FN was increased in UUO rats, while ZO-1 and Occuludin -1 expression was downregulated in colon tissues. The above changes were attenuated by KXL treatment. 16S rRNA sequencing results revealed that compared with the sham group, the increased abundance of pathogenic bacteria including Acinetobacter, Enterobacter and Proteobacteria and the decreased abundance of beneficial bacteria including Actinobacteriota, Bifidobacteriales, Prevotellaceae, and Lactobacillus were found in UUO group. After the administration of KXL, the growth of potential pathogenic bacteria was reduced and the abundance of beneficial bacteria was enhanced. CONCLUSION: KXL displays a therapeutical potential in protecting renal function and inhibiting RF, and its mechanism of action may be associated with regulating intestinal microbiota.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Enfermedades Renales , Obstrucción Ureteral , Ratas , Animales , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/metabolismo , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Enfermedades Renales/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Renales/metabolismo , Riñón/patología , Obstrucción Ureteral/complicaciones , Obstrucción Ureteral/metabolismo , Obstrucción Ureteral/patología , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta/genética , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta/farmacología , Fibrosis , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1
14.
Clin Exp Hypertens ; 46(1): 2326022, 2024 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507311

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Emodin is a traditional medicine that has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Previous research has indicated that emodin can alleviate myocardial remodeling and inhibit myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis. However, the mechanism by which emodin affects myocardial fibrosis (MF) has not yet been elucidated. METHODS: Fibroblasts were treated with ANGII, and a mouse model of MF was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Cell proliferation was examined by a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assay. Dihydroethidium (DHE) was used to measure reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and Masson and Sirius red staining were used to examine changes in collagen fiber levels. PI3K was over-expressed by lentiviral transfection to verify the effect of emodin on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling axis. Changes in cardiac function in each group were examined by echocardiography. RESULTS: Emodin significantly inhibited fibroblast proliferation, decreased intracellular ROS levels, significantly upregulated collagen II expression, downregulated α-SMA expression, and inhibited PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activation in vitro. Moreover, the in vivo results were consistent with the in vitro. Emodin significantly decreased ROS levels in heart tissue and reduced collagen fibrillogenesis. Emodin could regulate the activity of PI3K to increase the expression of collagen II and downregulate α-SMA expression in part through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, and emodin significantly improved cardiac structure and function in mice. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that emodin targeted the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway to inhibit the development of myocardial fibrosis and may be an antifibrotic agent for the treatment of cardiac fibrosis.


Asunto(s)
Emodina , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt , Ratones , Animales , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Emodina/farmacología , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/metabolismo , Fibrosis , Colágeno
15.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 44(2): 362-372, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504542

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism by which Sini decoction (, SND) improves renal fibrosis (Rf) in rats based on transforming growth factor ß1/Smad (TGF-ß1/Smad) signaling pathway. METHODS: Network pharmacology was applied to obtain potentially involved signaling pathways in SND's improving effects on Rf. The targets of SND drug components and the targets of Rf were obtained by searching databases, such as the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCSMP) and GeenCard. The intersection targets of two searches were obtained and underwent signaling pathway analysis using a Venn diagram. Then experimental pharmacology was utilized to prove and investigate the effects of SND on target proteins in the TGF-ß1/Smad signaling pathway. The Rf rat model was established by unilateral ureteral occlusion (UUO). The expression levels of transforming growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), matrix metal protease-2 (MMP-2), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were determined by Masson staining of rat renal tissue, and immunohistochemical methods. The expression levels of Smad3, Smad2, and Smad7 in renal tissue were determined by Western blotting (WB). The mechanism of the improving effects of SND on Rf was investigated based on TGF-ß1/Smad signaling pathway. RESULTS: A total of 12 drug components of Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata), 5 drug components of Ganjiang (Rhizoma Zingiber), and 9 drug components of Gancao (Radix Glycy et Rhizoma) were obtained from the database search, and 207 shared targets were found. A total of 1063 Rf targets were found in the database search. According to the Venn diagram, in total, 96 intersection targets were found in two database searches. The metabolic pathways involved included TGF-ß signaling pathway, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/serine-threonine protein kinase signaling (PI3K/Akt) pathway, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway. Masson staining analysis showed that compared with the model group, the renal interstitial collagen deposition levels in the SSN and SND groups were significantly lower (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis, compared with the control group, the positive cell area expression levels of MMP-9/TIMP-1 and MMP-2/TIMP-1 in the kidney tissue of the model group were significantly decreased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and the positive cell area expression levels of CTGF and TGF-ß1 were significantly increased (P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, the positive cell area expression levels of MMP-9/TIMP-1 and MMP-2/TIMP-1 in the kidney tissue of the SSN and SND groups were significantly increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and the positive cell area expression levels of CTGF and TGF-ß1 in the kidney tissue were significantly decreased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). WB results showed that the SSN group and the SND group could reduce the expression of Smad2 and Smad3 (P < 0.05) and increase the expression of Smad7 (P < 0.05).


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Enfermedades Renales , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1 , Ratas , Animales , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1/genética , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Metaloproteinasa 2 de la Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinasa 9 de la Matriz/genética , Inhibidor Tisular de Metaloproteinasa-1/genética , Farmacología en Red , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Enfermedades Renales/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Renales/genética , Enfermedades Renales/metabolismo , Fibrosis
16.
Phytomedicine ; 127: 155467, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447360

RESUMEN

The death and disability caused by myocardial infarction is a health problem that needs to be addressed worldwide, and poor cardiac repair and fibrosis after myocardial infarction seriously affect patient recovery. Postmyocardial infarction repair by M2 macrophages is of great significance for ventricular remodeling. Quercitrin (Que) is a common flavonoid in fruits and vegetables that has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and other effects, but whether it has a role in the treatment of myocardial infarction is unclear. In this study, we constructed a mouse myocardial infarction model and administered Que. We found through cardiac ultrasound that Que administration improved cardiac ejection fraction and reduced ventricular remodeling. Staining of heart sections and detection of fibrosis marker protein levels revealed that Que administration slowed fibrosis after myocardial infarction. Flow cytometry showed that the proportion of M2 macrophages in the mouse heart was increased and that the expression levels of M2 macrophage markers were increased in the Que-treated group. Finally, we identified by metabolomics that Que reduces glycolysis, increases aerobic phosphorylation, and alters arginine metabolic pathways, polarizing macrophages toward the M2 phenotype. Our research lays the foundation for the future application of Que in myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases.


Asunto(s)
Infarto del Miocardio , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Remodelación Ventricular , Ratones , Animales , Humanos , Reprogramación Metabólica , Infarto del Miocardio/tratamiento farmacológico , Infarto del Miocardio/patología , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fibrosis , Miocardio/metabolismo
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 327: 117986, 2024 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437887

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) is a main pathological process in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Demethylzeylasteral (DML), a major component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., has anti-renal fibrosis effects. However, its mechanism of action remains incompletely understood. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was designed to comprehensively examine the effects of DML on RIF and the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pathological experiments were performed to determine the therapeutic effect of DML on a mouse model of UUO-induced RIF. To determine the novel mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of DML against RIF, a comprehensive transcriptomics analysis was performed on renal tissues, which was further verified by a series of experiments. RESULTS: Pathological and immunohistochemical staining showed that DML inhibited UUO-induced renal damage and reduced the expression of fibrosis-related proteins in mice. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the partial subunits of mitochondrial complex (MC) I and II may be targets by which DML protects against RIF. Furthermore, DML treatment reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, consequently promoting ATP production and mitigating oxidative stress-induced injury in mice and cells. Notably, this protective effect was attributed to the inhibition of MC I activity, suggesting a crucial role for this specific complex in mediating the therapeutic effects of DML against RIF. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides compelling evidence that DML may be used to treat RIF by effectively suppressing mitochondrial oxidative stress injury mediated by MC I. These findings offer valuable insights into the pharmacological mechanisms of DML and its potential clinical application for patients with CKD.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Renales , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Triterpenos , Obstrucción Ureteral , Humanos , Ratones , Animales , Enfermedades Renales/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Renales/prevención & control , Enfermedades Renales/metabolismo , Riñón , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Fibrosis , Obstrucción Ureteral/metabolismo
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 327: 118008, 2024 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458343

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Compendium of Materia Medica and the Classic of Materia Medica, the two most prominent records of traditional Chinese medicine, documented the therapeutic benefits of Ganoderma sinense particularly in addressing pulmonary-related ailments. Ganoderma formosanum, an indigenous subspecies of G. sinense from Taiwan, has demonstrated the same therapeutic properties. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study is to identify bioactive compounds and evaluate the potential of G. formosanum extracts as a novel treatment to alleviate pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Using an in-house drug screening platform, two-stage screening was performed to determine their anti-fibrotic efficacy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: G. formosanum was fractionated into four partitions by solvents of different polarities. To determine their antifibrotic and pro-apoptotic properties, the fractions were analyzed using two TGF-ß1-induced pulmonary fibrosis cell models (NIH-3T3) and human pulmonary fibroblast cell lines, immunoblot, qRT-PCR, and annexin V assays. Subsequently, transcriptomic analysis was conducted to validate the findings and explore possible molecular pathways. The identification of potential bioactive compounds was achieved through UHPLC-MS/MS analysis, while molecular interaction study was investigated by multiple ligands docking and molecular dynamic simulations. RESULTS: The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) extracted from G. formosanum demonstrated substantial anti-fibrotic and pro-apoptotic effects on TGF-ß1-induced fibrotic models. Moreover, the EAF exhibited no discernible cytotoxicity. Untargeted UHPLC-MS/MS analysis identified potential bioactive compounds in EAF, including stearic acid, palmitic acid, and pentadecanoic acid. Multiple ligands docking and molecular dynamic simulations further confirmed that those bioactive compounds possess the ability to inhibit TGF-ß receptor 1. CONCLUSION: Potential bioactive compounds in G. formosanum were successfully extracted and identified in the EAF, whose anti-fibrotic and pro-apoptotic properties could potentially modulate pulmonary fibrosis. This finding not only highlights the EAF's potential as a promising therapeutic candidate to treat pulmonary fibrosis, but it also elucidates how Ganoderma confers pulmonary health benefits as described in the ancient texts.


Asunto(s)
Ganoderma , Materia Medica , Fibrosis Pulmonar , Humanos , Fibrosis Pulmonar/inducido químicamente , Fibrosis Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Fibrosis Pulmonar/metabolismo , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Materia Medica/farmacología , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Fibrosis , Pulmón
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 327: 118014, 2024 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460576

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Chronic kidney disease can be caused by numerous diseases including obesity and hyperuricemia (HUA). Obesity may exacerbate the renal injury caused by HUA. Red ginseng, a steamed products of Panax ginseng Meyer root, is known for its remarkable efficacy in improving metabolic syndrome, such as maintaining lipid metabolic balance. However, the role of red ginseng on hyperuricemia-induced renal injury in obese cases remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the action of red ginseng extract (RGE) on lipotoxicity-induced renal injury in HUA mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity model was employed to initially investigate the effects of RGE on body weight, TC, OGTT, renal lipid droplets, and renal function indices such as uric acid, creatinine, and urea nitrogen. Renal structural improvement was demonstrated by H&E staining. Subsequently, an animal model combining obesity and HUA was established to further study the impact of RGE on OAT1 and ACC1 expression levels. The mechanisms underlying renal injury regulation by RGE were postulated on the basis of RNA sequencing, which was verified by immunohistochemical (including F4/80, Ki67, TGF-ß1, α-SMA, and E-cadherin), Masson, and Sirius red staining. RESULTS: RGE modulated HFD-induced weight gain, glucose metabolism, and abnormalities of uric acid, urea nitrogen, and creatinine. RGE alleviated the more severe renal histopathological changes induced by obesity combined with HUA, with down-regulated the protein levels of ACC1, F4/80, Ki67, TGF-ß1, and α-SMA, and up-regulated OAT1 and E-cadherin. CONCLUSIONS: RGE has ameliorative effects on chronic kidney disease caused by obesity combined with HUA by maintaining lipid balance and reducing renal inflammation and fibrosis.


Asunto(s)
Hiperuricemia , Panax , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Ratones , Animales , Hiperuricemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Hiperuricemia/patología , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1 , Ácido Úrico , Creatinina , Antígeno Ki-67 , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Fibrosis , Panax/química , Cadherinas , Nitrógeno , Lípidos , Urea
20.
Transl Res ; 269: 31-46, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401836

RESUMEN

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) induces cardiac inflammation and fibrosis and reduces survival. We previously demonstrated that G protein-coupled receptor 68 (GPR68) promotes cardiac inflammation and fibrosis in mice with 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx) and patients with CKD. However, no method of GPR68 inhibition has been found that has potential for therapeutic application. Here, we report that Cephalotaxus harringtonia var. nana extract and homoharringtonine ameliorate cardiac inflammation and fibrosis under CKD by suppressing GPR68 function. Reagents that inhibit the function of GPR68 were explored by high-throughput screening using a medicinal plant extract library (8,008 species), and we identified an extract from Cephalotaxus harringtonia var. nana as a GPR68 inhibitor that suppresses inflammatory cytokine production in a GPR68 expression-dependent manner. Consumption of the extract inhibited inflammatory cytokine expression and cardiac fibrosis and improved the decreased survival attributable to 5/6Nx. Additionally, homoharringtonine, a cephalotaxane compound characteristic of C. harringtonia, inhibited inflammatory cytokine production. Homoharringtonine administration in drinking water alleviated cardiac fibrosis and improved heart failure and survival in 5/6Nx mice. A previously unknown effect of C. harringtonia extract and homoharringtonine was revealed in which GPR68-dependent inflammation and cardiac dysfunction were suppressed. Utilizing these compounds could represent a new strategy for treating GPR68-associated diseases, including CKD.


Asunto(s)
Homoharringtonina , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Extractos Vegetales , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Animales , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/metabolismo , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/patología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/complicaciones , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Homoharringtonina/farmacología , Homoharringtonina/uso terapéutico , Ratones , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fibrosis , Humanos , Cardiopatías/tratamiento farmacológico , Cardiopatías/etiología
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