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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 16(7): 5916-5928, 2024 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536006

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Fluorouracil (5-FU) might produce serious cardiac toxic reactions. miRNA-199a-5p is a miRNA primarily expressed in myocardial cells and has a protective effect on vascular endothelium. Under hypoxia stress, the expression level of miRNA-199a-5p was significantly downregulated and is closely related to cardiovascular events such as coronary heart disease, heart failure, and hypertension. We explored whether 5-FU activates the endoplasmic reticulum stress ATF6 pathway by regulating the expression of miRNA-199a-5p in cardiac toxicity. METHODS: This project established a model of primary cardiomyocytes derived from neonatal rats and treated them with 5-FU in vitro. The expression of miRNA-199a-5p and its regulation were explored in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: 5-FU decreases the expression of miRNA-199a-5p in cardiomyocytes, activates the endoplasmic reticulum stress ATF6 pathway, and increases the expression of GRP78 and ATF6, affecting the function of cardiomyocytes, and induces cardiac toxicity. The rescue assay further confirmed that miRNA-199a-5p supplementation can reduce the cardiotoxicity caused by 5-FU, and its protective effect on cardiomyocytes depends on the downregulation of the endoplasmic reticulum ATF6 signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: 5-FU can down-regulate expression of miRNA-199a-5p, then activate the endoplasmic reticulum stress ATF6 pathway, increase the expression of GRP78 and ATF6, affect the function of cardiomyocytes, and induce cardiac toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Factor de Transcripción Activador 6 , Cardiotoxicidad , Regulación hacia Abajo , Chaperón BiP del Retículo Endoplásmico , Estrés del Retículo Endoplásmico , Fluorouracilo , MicroARNs , Miocitos Cardíacos , Transducción de Señal , Animales , Factor de Transcripción Activador 6/metabolismo , Factor de Transcripción Activador 6/genética , MicroARNs/metabolismo , MicroARNs/genética , Ratas , Miocitos Cardíacos/efectos de los fármacos , Miocitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Regulación hacia Abajo/efectos de los fármacos , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Fluorouracilo/efectos adversos , Cardiotoxicidad/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidad/genética , Cardiotoxicidad/etiología , Estrés del Retículo Endoplásmico/efectos de los fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Masculino
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 326: 117988, 2024 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428657

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Perioperative or postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy based on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a common first-line adjuvant therapy for gastric cancer (GC). However, drug resistance and the side effects of 5-FU have reduced its efficacy. Among these side effects, gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is one of the most common. Xianglian Pill (XLP) is a Chinese patent medicine that is commonly used for the treatment of diarrhoea. It can reduce inflammation and has a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa. Recent studies have shown that many components of XLP can inhibite tumor cell growth. However, the therapeutic effect of XLP in combination with 5-FU on GC is unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate whether the combination of XLP and 5-FU can enhance anti-GC activity while reducing GI toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: XLP was administered orally during intraperitoneal injection of 5-FU in GC mice model. Mice were continuously monitored for diarrhea and xenograft tumor growth. After 2 weeks, the mice were sacrificed and serum was collected to determine interleukin-6 levels. Pathological changes, the expression of pro-inflammatory factors and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in GI tissue were determined by Western blot analysis. Pathological changes, apoptosis levels and p38 MAPK expression levels in xenograft tissues were also determined. RESULTS: The results showed that XLP could alleviate GI mucosal injury caused by 5-FU, alleviated diarrhea, and inhibited the expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and myeloid differentiation primary response-88. Besides, XLP could promote the 5-FU-induced apoptosis of GC cells and enhance the inhibitory effect of 5-FU on tumor xenografts. Further study showed that XLP administration could regulate the expression of p38 MAPK. CONCLUSIONS: XLP in combination with 5-FU could alleviate its GI side effects and enhance its inhibitory effect on xenograft tumor. Moreover, these effects were found to be related to the regulation of the p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Fluorouracilo , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Ratones , Animales , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamiento farmacológico , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas , Diarrea/inducido químicamente , Diarrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinasas p38 Activadas por Mitógenos/metabolismo
3.
Drug Dev Res ; 85(2): e22171, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459752

RESUMEN

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), which is one of the most widely used chemotherapy drugs, has various side effects on the heart. Thymoquinone (TMQ), the main bioactive component of Nigella sativa, has antioxidant and protective effects against toxicity. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of thymoquinone against cardiotoxicity caused by 5-FU in vitro and in vivo models. H9C2 cells were exposed to 5-FU and TMQ, and cell viability was evaluated in their presence. Also, 25 male Wistar rats were divided into five control groups, 5-FU, 2.5, and 5 mg TMQ in nanoemulsion form (NTMQ) + 5-FU and 5 mg NTMQ. Cardiotoxicity was assessed through electrocardiography, cardiac enzymes, oxidative stress markers, and histopathology. 5-FU induced cytotoxicity in H9c2 cells, which improved dose-dependently with NTMQ cotreatment. 5-FU caused body weight loss, ECG changes (increased ST segment, prolonged QRS, and QTc), increased cardiac enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], creatine kinase-myocardial band [CK-MB], and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]), oxidative stress (increased malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, nitric acid; decreased glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity), and histological damage such as necrosis, hyperemia, and tissue hyalinization in rats. NTMQ ameliorated these 5-FU-induced effects. Higher NTMQ dose showed greater protective effects. Thus, the results of our study indicate that NTMQ protects against 5-FU cardiotoxicity likely through antioxidant mechanisms. TMQ warrants further research as an adjuvant to alleviate 5-FU chemotherapy side effects.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Benzoquinonas , Cardiotoxicidad , Ratas , Masculino , Animales , Cardiotoxicidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Cardiotoxicidad/etiología , Cardiotoxicidad/prevención & control , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ratas Wistar , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Estrés Oxidativo
4.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 36(5): 1443-1449, 2023 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37869920

RESUMEN

Current study aimed to research the effect of Hippophae rhamnoides (HRE) on potantial oral oxidative and inflammatory damage of 5-FU in rats. The rats were assigned to three groups; healthy (HG), 5-FU 100mg/kg (FUG) and HRE 50mg/kg +5-FU 100mg/kg (HRFU). The 5-FU was injected in the FUG group intraperitoneally. The HRFU was injected 5-FU at 100mg/kg IP one hour after the 50mg/kg HRE was given orally. Olive oil was used as a solvent for the HG. HRE was given to the rats three times a day for ten days. 5-FU was given one dose on the 1st, 3rd and 5th days. On the 10th day, the tissues removed from the animals were euthanized with high-dose anaesthesia and were macroscopically examined. The levels of the oxidant, antioxidant and proinflammatory cytokines were investigated.It was seen that HRE alleviated the symptoms of severe mucositis by antagonizing the effects of 5-FU on oxidant, antioxidant and proinflammatory cytokines such as malondialdehyde, total glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, nuclear factor kappa-B and interleukin-6 in inner cheek and tongue tissue. These results recommend that HRE may be benefical in the cure of 5-FU-associated oral mucositis.


Asunto(s)
Hippophae , Estomatitis , Ratas , Animales , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Estomatitis/inducido químicamente , Estomatitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Interleucina-6 , Oxidantes/farmacología , Mucosa Intestinal
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 167: 115546, 2023 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37741250

RESUMEN

Surgically unresectable colorectal and pancreatic carcinomas have a high rate of mortality as current therapeutic options are limited. One common chemotherapeutic used to broadly treat both cancers is 5-flurouracil (5-Fu); however, treatment serves only to slow progression of the disease and comes with many side effects due to 5-Fu's intrinsic toxicity. Thus, strategies to decrease the dose of 5-Fu utilized therapeutically as well as reduce 5-Fu's off-target toxicity are paramount. Using cell models of colorectal and pancreatic cancers, we show that cotreatment with Achyrocline B (3,5 dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxyflavone, AcB), a natural flavone from Achyrocline bogotensis, allows for four-fold reduction in 5-Fu dosage without loss of efficacy. We further show that the action of AcB is due to continued cell cycle progression despite 5-Fu pressure to synchronize at the G1/S threshold. In addition to AcB's effect on cancer cells, we found that AcB can directly reduce toxicity of 5-Fu in cells mimicking non-cancerous tissues. These in vitro results are then supported by xenograft modeling. AcB was shown to increase apoptosis in tumors leading to degeneration of the outer tumoral boundary. Furthermore, in 5-Fu treated animals it was found that AcB provided protection to the intestinal tract as indicated by preserved histological and immunohistochemical features. These results show promise for a new adjuvant therapy for colorectal and pancreatic carcinomas that not only reduces tumor progression, but more importantly has the potential to improve patient quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Achyrocline , Carcinoma , Neoplasias del Colon , Neoplasias Colorrectales , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Animales , Humanos , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Reducción Gradual de Medicamentos , Calidad de Vida , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorrectales/tratamiento farmacológico , Carcinoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias del Colon/patología , Neoplasias Pancreáticas
6.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 23(1): 225, 2023 Jul 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37420236

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oral mucositis (OM), an acute inflammation of the oral cavity, is a common complication in patients undergoing invasive myeloblastic chemotherapy or radiation therapy. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most effective therapeutic drugs, but one of the common side effects of 5-FU administration is OM. Unfortunately, no suitable treatment has been found, so far to control its side effects. Studies showed that herbal medicine like Punica granatum var pleniflora (PGP) has medicinal properties such as anti-inflammatory and antibacterial and can be an alternative for the treatment of fungal infection. Accordingly, we decided to investigate the therapeutic effect of PGP in the treatment of OM caused by 5-FU in golden hamsters. METHODS: Sixty male golden hamsters were divided into six main group. Chemotherapy with 5-FU at dose of 60 mg/kg was performed at a ten-day duration. Then, cheek pouches of the hamsters were scratched with an 18-gauge sterile needle to induce oral mucositis in animals. On the twelfth day, as a day of intensification of OM, treatment with PGP including topical gel with concentrations of 5% and 10% and oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract with doses of 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg for three- and five-day therapeutic duration were separately started. Finally, samples of cheek pouches in hamsters were collected on 14th and 17th days and histopathologic score (HPS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels were assayed. RESULTS: A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in histopathologic score was observed in G10%-, P125-treated groups in comparison to the Ctrl group. Our data showed that treatment with G10% is more potent than P125-treated group. In contrast, histopathologic score in G10%, P125, and P250 treated groups demonstrated almost similar values On the 17th day. However, the levels of MDA and MPO in the treatment groups were enhanced compared with control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It is possible that PGP can play protective role in the healing of tissue damage caused by chemotherapy with 5-FU due to the presence of its natural compounds and antioxidant properties.


Asunto(s)
Granada (Fruta) , Estomatitis , Cricetinae , Masculino , Animales , Mesocricetus , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Estomatitis/inducido químicamente , Estomatitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Administración Oral
7.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 37(9): e23408, 2023 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37335224

RESUMEN

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a fluoropyrimidine group antineoplastic drug with antimetabolite properties and ovotoxicity is one of the most important side effects. Silibinin (SLB) is a natural compound that is used worldwide and stands out with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of SLB in 5-FU-induced ovototoxicity using biochemical and histological analysis. This study was carried out in five main groups containing six rats in each group: control, SLB (5 mg/kg), 5-FU (100 mg/kg), 5-FU + SLB (2.5 mg/kg), and 5-FU + SLB (5 mg/kg). The levels of ovarian malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and caspase-3 were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Hematoxylin and eosin staining method was employed for histopathological examination. MDA, TOS, 8-OHdG, TNF-α, MPO, and caspase-3 levels in 5-FU group were significantly increased compared with the control group, while the levels of TAS, SOD, and CAT were decreased (p < 0.05). SLB treatments statistically significantly restored this damage in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Although vascular congestion, edema, hemorrhage, follicular degeneration, and leukocyte infiltration were significantly higher in the 5-FU group compared with the control group, SLB treatments also statistically significantly restored these damages (p < 0.05). In conclusion, SLB has a therapeutic effect on the ovarian damage induced by 5-FU via decreasing the levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. It may be helpful to consider the usefulness of SLB as an adjuvant therapy to counteract the side effects of chemotherapy.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa , Ratas , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Silibina/farmacología , Caspasa 3 , Estrés Oxidativo , Oxidantes/farmacología , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
8.
Nutr Cancer ; 75(5): 1382-1398, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36974004

RESUMEN

Gastrointestinal toxicity, including diarrhea and inflammation, is commonly observed with the use of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Several studies have shown that polysaccharides are interesting bioactive macromolecules for the treatment or prevention of gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore, in this study, the effect of a polysaccharide fraction from a mixture of two Guavira species (Campomanesia adamantium and Campomanesia pubescens), referred to here as CPW, on the development of intestinal mucositis was investigated. Intestinal mucositis was induced by a single injection of 5-FU (450 mg/kg), and various doses of CPW (3-100 mg/kg) were tested. CPW attenuated disease development and prevented small bowel dysmotility and colon shortening. CPW prevented the increase in villi width, crypt depth, and mucosal thickness in the duodenum, but not in the colon. Preservation of mucus, reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation, and prevention of the 5-FU-induced enlargement and swelling of the spleen were observed. In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that CPW alleviates the intestinal damage induced by 5-FU and could be used as an adjuvant strategy during chemotherapy.


Asunto(s)
Fluorouracilo , Mucositis , Ratones , Animales , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Mucositis/inducido químicamente , Mucositis/tratamiento farmacológico , Mucositis/prevención & control , Antimetabolitos Antineoplásicos/toxicidad , Mucosa Intestinal , Inflamación/inducido químicamente , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Polisacáridos/farmacología
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36834959

RESUMEN

Cancer treatment evokes impediments to liver metabolism that culminate in fatty liver. This study determined hepatic fatty acid composition and expression of genes and mediators involved in lipid metabolism following chemotherapy treatment. Female rats bearing the Ward colon tumor were administered Irinotecan (CPT-11) +5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and maintained on a control diet or a diet containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (2.3 g/100 g fish oil). Healthy animals provided with a control diet served as a reference group. Livers were collected one week after chemotherapy. Triacylglycerol (TG), phospholipid (PL), ten lipid metabolism genes, leptin, and IL-4 were measured. Chemotherapy increased TG content and reduced EPA content in the liver. Expression of SCD1 was upregulated by chemotherapy, while dietary fish oil downregulated its expression. Dietary fish oil down-regulated expression of the fatty acid synthesis gene FASN, while restoring the long chain fatty acid converting genes FADS2 and ELOVL2, and genes involved in mitochondrial ß-oxidation (CPT1α) and lipid transport (MTTP1), to values similar to reference animals. Neither leptin nor IL-4 were affected by chemotherapy or diet. Depletion of EPA is associated with pathways evoking enhanced TG accumulation in the liver. Restoring EPA through diet may pose a dietary strategy to attenuate chemotherapy-associated impediments in liver fatty acid metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico , Aceites de Pescado , Neoplasias , Estearoil-CoA Desaturasa , Animales , Femenino , Ratas , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Aceites de Pescado/farmacología , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Hígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Estearoil-CoA Desaturasa/metabolismo , Triglicéridos/metabolismo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administración & dosificación , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacología , Hígado Graso/inducido químicamente , Hígado Graso/metabolismo , Irinotecán/efectos adversos , Irinotecán/toxicidad , Fluorouracilo/efectos adversos , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad
10.
Oncotarget ; 14: 23-39, 2023 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634224

RESUMEN

The oral mucositis is a mucosal alteration that usually arises from oncological treatments, such as chemotherapy, and it is characterized as an inflammatory process. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the chromatographic constitution of Andiroba oil, comparing and evaluating Andiroba oil and laser scarring efficiency in treatments of oral mucositis in hamsters. These animals were submitted to 5-Fluorouracil. A total of 122 animals were used, randomized and divided into the following groups: (a) positive control; (b) laser associated to andiroba oil; (c) laser; (d) andiroba oil; (e) negative control; (f) cyclophosphamide (genotoxicity control). The induction of oral mucositis occurred by the administration of intraperitoneal Fluorouracila (60 mg/kg) and trauma to the mucosa. The laser protocol was performed once a day and the andiroba oil applied 3 times a day (1,5 ml/day). The mucosae were photographed and removed for clinical and histopathological analysis on day 4, 8, 12 and 15. The analysis was based in OM severity, in specific scoring for the clinical and histopathological aspect. Toxicity was evaluated on day 15 using comet assay and it was performed by variant DNA damage parameters. The data were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) Tukey post-test and Kruskal-Wallis Dunn post-test. The "andiroba oil" and "laser" groups presented better results when compared to the control groups and the treatment associations. The andiroba oil presented the best scarring results, even considering its efficiency proximity to the laser treatment. Andiroba and laser, separately, did not present genotoxicity, however their association evidences damage to DNA.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Luz de Baja Intensidad , Estomatitis , Animales , Cricetinae , Cicatriz , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Terapia por Luz de Baja Intensidad/métodos , Mesocricetus , Estomatitis/inducido químicamente
11.
J Nat Med ; 77(1): 53-63, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002763

RESUMEN

Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (COM) is a common adverse effect of cancer chemotherapy. Several clinical studies reported that repetitive use of mouthwashes containing 2.5-6.25% Hangeshashinto (HST), a Kampo formula, relieves COM, but the effect is insufficient. To solve this problem, we produced an oral ointment of 12% HST extract (considered quantitatively equivalent to 20% commercially available HST), which will increase the local concentrations of its active ingredients and prolong the contact time with COM. In this study, we evaluated the pharmaceutical properties (spreadability and stability) of HST oral ointment. In addition, its safety (oral mucosal irritation) and therapeutic effects on 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis were evaluated in male Syrian hamsters. The HST ointment showed good spreadability and stability for more than 8 weeks at 4 °C. In the oral mucosal irritation test, topical application of HST ointment (0.2 g) three times per day for 14 days had no adverse effect on the oral mucosa of hamsters. In hamsters treated with 5-fluorouracil (60 mg/kg) twice, COM was induced by a submucosal injection of 5% acetic acid into the cheek pouch. When HST ointment (50 µg) was topically applied to the mucositis area once per day for 12 days, the area and macroscopic score of mucositis were significantly decreased, and the depth of the wound tended to be reduced compared with the lactose ointment-treated control animals. These findings suggest that HST oral ointment shows good properties in spreadability, stability, and safety, and elicits a therapeutic effect in an animal model of COM.


Asunto(s)
Mucositis , Estomatitis , Cricetinae , Animales , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Mucositis/inducido químicamente , Pomadas/efectos adversos , Estomatitis/inducido químicamente , Estomatitis/tratamiento farmacológico
12.
Arch Toxicol ; 97(1): 235-254, 2023 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36203040

RESUMEN

Cross-species comparison of drug responses at the organoid level could help to determine the human relevance of findings from animal studies. To this end, we first need to evaluate the in vitro to in vivo translatability of preclinical organoids. Here, we used 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as an exemplar drug to test whether the in vivo gut response to this cytotoxicant was preserved in murine intestinal organoids. Mice treated with 5-FU at 20 or 50 mg/kg IV (low and high dose, respectively) displayed diarrhea at clinically relevant exposures. 5-FU also induced intestinal lesions, increased epithelial apoptosis, and decreased proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. To enable comparison between the in vitro and in vivo response, top nominal in vitro drug concentrations that caused significant cytotoxicity were chosen (dose range 1-1000 µM). The inferred intracellular concentration in organoids at 1000 µM was within the tissue exposure range related to intestinal toxicity in vivo. 5-FU at ≥ 100 µM decreased ATP levels and increased Caspase-3 activity in intestinal organoids. In keeping with the in vivo findings, 5-FU increased the percentage of Caspase-3-positive cells and reduced Ki67 staining. At the transcriptome level, there was an overlap in the activity of pathways related to 5-FU's mode of action, lipid and cholesterol metabolism and integrin signaling across in vivo gut and organoids. The predicted activity state of upstream regulators was generally well preserved between setups. Collectively, our results suggest that despite their inherent limitations, organoids represent an adequate tool to explore the intestinal response to cytotoxicants.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis , Fluorouracilo , Humanos , Animales , Ratones , Caspasa 3/metabolismo , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Diarrea/inducido químicamente , Organoides , Mucosa Intestinal
13.
Nutr Cancer ; 74(10): 3735-3746, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758096

RESUMEN

This study aimed to formulate Kappaphycus alvarezii compound powder containing Kappaphycus alvarezii powder (KP), cooked sorghum powder (SP), and longan powder (LP); which was evaluated for its therapeutic effects against chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucosal injury (CIMI). Based on rheological properties, sensory evaluation, and antioxidant activity and using single factor and response surface methodology, the optimal formula to develop the compound powder was determined to be 35% KP, 30% SP, 5% LP, and 30% xylitol. Thereafter, the efficacy of the compound powder was tested by feeding BALB/c mice with diets supplemented with the Kappaphycus alvarezii compound powder (3% and 5%) for 14 consecutive days. The chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil was intraperitoneally injected (50 mg/kg) in the mice to induce CIMI for the last three consecutive days. Compared to the CIMI mice, those fed 5% Kappaphycus alvarezii compound powder (HC) showed significantly improved the intestinal injury, increased mucin-2 secretion, and reduced TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, LT, and COX-2 levels. Furthermore, HC intake significantly reduced the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio, promoted the growth of beneficial bacteria, such as Alloprevotella, and inhibited the growth of harmful bacteria, such as Clostridium. In conclusion, HC has a protective effect against CIMI and provides a novel dietary strategy for patients undergoing chemotherapy.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos , Mucositis , Rhodophyta , Animales , Antineoplásicos/toxicidad , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Mucosa Intestinal , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Mucositis/inducido químicamente , Mucositis/tratamiento farmacológico , Mucositis/prevención & control , Polvos/efectos adversos
14.
Nanotoxicology ; 15(7): 973-994, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213984

RESUMEN

Colorectal cancer (CRC), is the second cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide is one of the most prevalent types of cancers. Conventional treatment continues to rely on surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, but for advanced cases, adjuvant chemotherapy remains the main approach for improving surgical outcomes and lower the disease recurrence probability. Chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is the main dose-limiting factor for many chemotherapeutic regimens, including 5-FU, and one of the biggest oncological challenges. Up to 40% of the patients receiving 5-FU get mucositis, 10-15% of which develop severe symptoms. In this context, our study aimed to develop a bioinspired nanosized drug delivery system as a strategy to reduce 5-FU associated side effects, such as GI mucositis. To this end, SF-based nanoparticles were prepared and characterized in terms of size and morphology, as well as in terms of in vitro antitumoral activity on a biomimetic colorectal cancer model by investigation of apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, and release of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the capacity of the SF-based nanocarriers to offer intestinal protection against 5-FU-induced GI mucositis was evaluated in vivo using a mouse model that mimics the chemotherapy-associated gut mucositis occurring in colorectal cancer. Our studies show that silk fibroin nanoparticles efficiently deliver 5-FU to tumor cells in vitro while protecting against drug-induced GI mucositis in a mouse model.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Fibroínas , Mucositis , Neoplasias Colorrectales/tratamiento farmacológico , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Células HT29 , Humanos
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14866, 2021 07 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290264

RESUMEN

Application of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is limited by adverse side effects and chemoresistance. Therefore, the combination therapy of 5-FU with other substances, especially natural products may provide a new strategy for CCA treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combination effects of 5-FU and two ethanolic extracts of Thai noni juice (TNJ) products on CCA cell lines and nude mice xenografts. The results of antiproliferative assay showed the combination treatment of 5-FU and each TNJ ethanolic extract exerted more cytotoxicity on CCA cells than either single agent treatment. Synergistic effects of drug combinations can enable the dose reduction of 5-FU. The mechanism underlying a combination treatment was apoptosis induction through an activation of p53 and Bax proteins. In the nude mouse xenograft model, combination treatments of 5-FU with each TNJ ethanolic extract suppressed the growth of CCA cells implanted mice more than single agent treatments with no effects on mouse body weight, kidney, and spleen. Moreover, low doses of TNJ ethanolic extracts reduced the hepatotoxicity of 5-FU in nude mice. Taken together, these data suggested that the ethanolic extracts of TNJ products can enhance the anti-CCA effect and reduce toxicity of 5-FU.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos , Neoplasias de los Conductos Biliares/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de los Conductos Biliares/patología , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/patología , Etanol , Fluorouracilo/administración & dosificación , Fluorouracilo/farmacología , Morinda/química , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Animales , Línea Celular Tumoral , Interacciones Farmacológicas , Reducción Gradual de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fluorouracilo/uso terapéutico , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Xenoinjertos , Ratones , Ratones Desnudos , Trasplante de Neoplasias , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 280: 114397, 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245831

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Spleen-invigorating pills (SIP) are composed of Codonopsis, fried Atractylodes, tangerine peel, Fructus aurantii immaturus (fried), fried hawthorn, and colored malt. SIP strengthens the spleen and increases appetite and is often used as a chemotherapy adjuvant. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to explore the protective effects and mechanism of action for SIP on mouse bone marrow stromal cells (OP9) injured by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of SIP on OP9 cells injured by 5-FU were evaluated, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a quality control method. The experiments were divided into a control group, a model group, an epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment group, and an SIP treatment group. The cell survival rate, apoptotic cell morphology, cell apoptosis rate, and the contents of caspase 3 were evaluated to determine the protective effects of SIP in OP9 cells injured by 5-FU. Network pharmacology was used to predict the mechanism through which SIP mediates anti-chemotherapy damage. The nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels and the expression of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and p62 protein were detected to explore the mechanism through which SIP mediates anti-chemotherapy damage through the regulation of oxidative stress. RESULTS: Cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) detection showed that 5-FU reduced OP9 cell survival, and SIP blocked the inhibition of OP9 cell growth induced by 5-FU. When OP9 cells were treated with both SIP (10 g L-1) and 5-FU (2.5 × 10-2 g L-1) for 24 h, compared with the model group, the early apoptosis rates significantly decreased, and the activity of caspase 3 was significantly reduced. The results of network pharmacology and Western blot showed that compared with the model group, in the SIP group, the NO levels decreased, iNOS release decreased, and the expression of Nrf2 and p62 proteins increased. CONCLUSION: The protective effects of SIP on OP9 cells injured by 5-FU were significant. SIP may play a cytoprotective role by mediating changes in oxidative stress-related proteins. The specific mechanism of action through which SIP mediates these effects remains to be further studied.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/efectos de los fármacos , Bazo/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Antimetabolitos Antineoplásicos/toxicidad , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/patología , Ratones , Farmacología en Red , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Bazo/citología , Bazo/patología
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(3): 670-677, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645034

RESUMEN

This study aims to investigate the potential mechanism of curcumin in mediating interleukin-6(IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3(STAT3) signaling pathway to repair intestinal mucosal injury induced by 5-fluorouracil(5-FU) chemotherapy for colon cancer. SD rats were intraperitoneally injected with 60 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) 5-FU for 4 days to establish a model of intestinal mucosal injury. Then the rats were randomly divided into model group(equal volume of normal saline), curcumin low, medium and high dose groups(50, 100, 200 mg·kg~(-1)), and normal SD rats were used as control group(equal volume of normal saline). Each group received gavage administration for 4 consecutive days, and the changes of body weight and feces were recorded every day. After administration, blood was collected from the heart, and jejunum tissues were collected. The levels of serum interleukin-1ß(IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) were detected by ELISA, and at the same time, the concentration of Evans blue(EB) in jejunum was measured. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to observe the pathological state of jejunum, and the length of jejunum villi and the depth of crypt were measured. The positive expression levels of claudin, occludin and ZO-1 were detected by immunohistochemistry. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of IL-6, p-STAT3, E-cadherin, vimentin and N-cadherin in jejunum tissues. The results showed that, curcumin significantly increased body weight and fecal weight(P<0.05 or P<0.01), decreased fecal score, EB concentration, IL-1ß and TNF-α levels(P<0.05 or P<0.01) in rats. In addition, curcumin maintained the integrity of mucosal surface and villi structure of jejunum to a large extent, and reduced pathological changes in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, curcumin could increase the positive expression of occludin, claudin and ZO-1(P<0.05 or P<0.01), repair intestinal barrier function, downregulate the protein expression of IL-6, p-STAT3, vimentin and N-cadherin in jejunum tissues(P<0.05 or P<0.01), and upregulate the protein expression of E-cadherin(P<0.05). Therefore, curcumin could repair the intestinal mucosal injury induced by 5-FU chemotherapy for colon cancer, and the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of IL-6/STAT3 signal and the inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT) process.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Colon , Curcumina , Animales , Neoplasias del Colon/tratamiento farmacológico , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Interleucina-6/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Factor de Transcripción STAT3/genética , Factor de Transcripción STAT3/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal
18.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 25(2): 151-156, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739338

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many hazardous drugs (HDs) are excreted in urine and feces, and evidence has shown that bathrooms of patients receiving chemotherapy at home are contaminated with HDs. However, little information exists on bathroom contamination in ambulatory clinics where HDs are administered. OBJECTIVES: This project aimed to determine the presence of HD residue in the patient and staff bathrooms of an ambulatory cancer center. METHODS: A quality improvement project was initiated to examine potential contamination by the HDs 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin in a patient bathroom and a secured badge-access staff bathroom in the infusion department of an ambulatory comprehensive cancer center. Twice-daily wipe testing was conducted on the floor in front of the toilet and the flush handle for five consecutive days. FINDINGS: Sixty-five percent of the samples from the floor of the patient bathroom were positive for at least one of the HDs. In the staff bathroom, 35% of the floor samples were positive for at least one HD. None of the flush handle samples were above the level of detection.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Antineoplásicos/toxicidad , Contaminación de Medicamentos , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Oxaliplatino/toxicidad , Cuartos de Baño
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 271: 113912, 2021 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567307

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a chemotherapy agent that is widely used in clinical oncologic practice. However, intestinal mucositis is the most frequently occurring side effect of cancer therapy with 5-FU. Based on a literature survey, Radix Aucklandiae herbal preparation potentially ameliorates intestinal mucositis in 5-FU-treated mice. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammation and gastrointestinal regulation of intestinal mucositis induced by 5-FU, including the intestinal morphology, as well as the reduction in food intake, body weight loss, and diarrhea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intestinal mucositis was induced in mice by 5-FU (30 mg/kg, i.p., for 5 consecutive days). The dose-dependent Radix Aucklandiae herbal preparation (0.3, 1, and 3 g/kg/day, p.o.), loperamide (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or celecoxib (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was concurrently administered until the 7th day. Physical status observation, diarrhea assessment, serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, intestinal villus height and crypt depth, and total goblet cells from tissues were assessed. RESULTS: The dosage regimen of 5-FU administration caused severe intestinal mucositis in mice, including damage to the intestinal morphology, accompanied by a reduction in food intake, body weight loss, and diarrhea. The high-dose Radix Aucklandiae herbal preparation significantly relieves 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis by enhancing proliferative activity in epithelial crypts; improving anepithymia, body weight loss, and diarrhea; and displaying protective effects on goblet cells in intestinal mucosal epithelia. Activation of NF-κB in the intestinal mucositis model was also suppressed by the Radix Aucklandiae herbal preparation, suggesting that it is a potent inhibitor of NF-κB and proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and COX-2. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the conclusion that the Radix Aucklandiae herbal preparation could effectively ameliorate 5-FU-induced gastrointestinal toxicity and be applied clinically for the prevention of intestinal mucositis during chemotherapy.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Asteraceae/química , Mucositis/prevención & control , Preparaciones de Plantas/farmacología , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Citocinas/sangre , Diarrea/inducido químicamente , Diarrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/metabolismo , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Células Caliciformes/efectos de los fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Intestinos/efectos de los fármacos , Yeyuno/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Mucositis/inducido químicamente , Mucositis/patología , Preparaciones de Plantas/uso terapéutico , Factor de Transcripción ReIA/metabolismo
20.
Nutr Cancer ; 73(11-12): 2272-2277, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959704

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of L-arginine supplementation on the formation of jejunal lesions and micronuclei in Wistar rats following 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment. Fifty rats were separated into five groups: CG served as the control group, GArg was supplemented L-arginine, G5-FU was administered 5-FU, GArg+5-FU was supplemented L-arginine/day and administered 5-FU, and Gciclo served as a positive control group for micronuclei formation. Jejunal lesions were assessed by histopathological analysis using a scoring system with a maximum of 39 points, based on the following lesions: lymph vessel dilatation, cubic enterocytes, villous flattening, villus fusion, interstitial edema, and apical necrosis of the villi. Micronuclei were counted in polychromatic erythrocytes from the femur bone marrow. The control and GArg rats had the lowest number of jejunal lesions (6.4 ± 2.8 and 5.3 ± 2.4, respectively) and micronuclei (1.9 ± 0.6 and 1.1 ± 0.3, respectively) while the G5-FU rats had the highest number of jejunal lesions (24.2 ± 4.9) and micronuclei (36.0 ± 8.5). The GArg+5-FU rats showed significantly reduced (P < 0.05) jejunal lesions (10.2 ± 4.9) and micronuclei (15.4 ± 5.9). In conclusion L-arginine supplementation potentially reduces the jejunal lesions and DNA damage caused by 5-FU.


Asunto(s)
Fluorouracilo , Yeyuno , Animales , Arginina/farmacología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Fluorouracilo/toxicidad , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
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