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1.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e077986, 2024 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38653514

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between serum vitamin D level and the risk of developing benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) incidence and recurrence in countries in the Northern Hemisphere. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched for studies published between January 2000 and February 2023. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Participants located in the Northern Hemisphere aged 18 or over with at least one episode of BPPV, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels measured and reported, no comorbidities or history of vitamin D supplementation. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data extraction and synthesis were performed by a single reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. Inclusion and exclusion criteria and risk of bias were assessed by two independent reviewers using the Newcastle Ottawa Tool for Cohort studies and Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomised Studies checklist for case-control studies. Meta-analysis was conducted using random effects models. Standard mean difference with a 95% CI was used to measure the relationship between vitamin D level and BPPV. RESULTS: The 35 articles identified by the literature search reported data of 9843 individuals. 19 studies (7387 individuals) were included in the BPPV incidence meta-analysis while 7 studies (622 individuals) were included in the BPPV recurrence meta-analysis. Lower serum vitamin D levels were found in BPPV incidence compared with controls, but the relationship between vitamin D levels in recurrent BPPV compared with non-recurrent disease remained uncertain. CONCLUSION: Results of this systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between serum vitamin D and BPPV incidence, while any relationship between serum vitamin D and BPPV recurrence remained uncertain. Risk of bias analysis revealed evidence of variable quality. There were insufficient data available to evaluate seasonal relationships between serum vitamin D and BPPV. Given the potential for this as a confounding factor, future research should aim to investigate this further. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021271840.


Asunto(s)
Vértigo Posicional Paroxístico Benigno , Recurrencia , Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Vértigo Posicional Paroxístico Benigno/epidemiología , Vértigo Posicional Paroxístico Benigno/sangre , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/epidemiología , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/sangre , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/complicaciones , Incidencia , Vitamina D/sangre
2.
Adv Ther ; 41(4): 1711-1727, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443649

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Systemic therapies have been associated with clinically significant events (CSEs) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (uHCC). We evaluated the incidence of CSEs (bleeding, clotting, encephalopathy, and portal hypertension), and their impact on healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and costs, in patients with uHCC treated with first-line (1L) atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (A + B), lenvatinib (LEN), or sorafenib (SOR) in the USA. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using medical/pharmacy claims from Optum® Clinformatics® Data Mart. Patients diagnosed with HCC who initiated 1L A + B between June 01, 2020 and December 31, 2020 or LEN/SOR between January 01, 2016 and May 31, 2020 were included. Outcomes included incidence rates of CSEs, HCRU, and costs. Subgroup analysis was performed in patients with no CSEs or ≥ 1 CSE. RESULTS: In total, 1379 patients were selected (A + B, n = 271; LEN, n = 217; SOR, n = 891). Clotting (incidence rate per 100 patient-years [PY] 94.9) and bleeding (88.1 per 100 PY) were the most common CSEs in the A + B cohort. The most common CSEs in the LEN cohort were clotting (78.6 per 100 PY) and encephalopathy (66.3 per 100 PY). Encephalopathy (73.0 per 100 PY) and portal hypertension (72.3 per 100 PY) were the most common CSEs in the SOR cohort. Mean total all-cause healthcare costs per patient per month (PPPM) were $32,742, $35,623, and $29,173 in the A + B, LEN, and SOR cohorts, respectively. Mean total all-cause healthcare costs PPPM were higher in patients who had ≥ 1 CSE versus those who did not (A + B $34,304 versus $30,889; LEN $39,591 versus $30,621; SOR $31,022 versus $27,003). CONCLUSION: Despite improved efficacy of 1L systemic therapies, CSEs remain a concern for patients with uHCC, as well as an economic burden to the healthcare system. Newer treatments that reduce the risk of CSEs, while improving long-term survival in patients with uHCC, are warranted.


Certain treatments for liver cancer can cause serious side effects, including bleeding, blood clots, brain injury (encephalopathy), or increased blood flow to the liver (portal hypertension). We used an insurance database to find out how often these events, known as clinically significant events, occurred in people with liver cancer who were given treatments that target the immune system (immunotherapy) or specific proteins involved in cancer growth and survival (targeted therapy). The study included 1379 patients treated with atezolizumab (immunotherapy) plus bevacizumab (targeted therapy), or lenvatinib or sorafenib alone (both targeted therapies), as their first treatment. Clotting and bleeding were the most common clinically significant events in patients treated with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab, whereas clotting and encephalopathy were the most common clinically significant events with lenvatinib, and encephalopathy and portal hypertension were the most common clinically significant events with sorafenib. On average, for every 100 patients treated for 1 year, there were more than 50 of each of these events. Average healthcare costs per patient per month ranged from around $29,000 to around $36,000 in the three different treatment groups, and were higher in people who had at least one clinically significant event. These results suggest that clinically significant events are common in people with liver cancer who are given various types of treatment. As well as raising concerns for patient safety, these events result in higher costs to healthcare systems. Therefore, newer treatments that are less likely to cause clinically significant events, while improving survival in patients with liver cancer, are needed.


Asunto(s)
Encefalopatías , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hipertensión Portal , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Compuestos de Fenilurea , Quinolinas , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamiento farmacológico , Incidencia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sorafenib , Hemorragia
3.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0301060, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536792

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to pose a significant public health challenge in India, which is home to one of the highest TB burdens worldwide. This systematic review and meta-analysis will aim to synthesize the anticipated progress and potential challenges in achieving TB elimination in India by 2025. METHODS: A comprehensive search will be conducted across multiple databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, to identify relevant studies. The eligibility criteria will encompass individuals diagnosed with TB in India, interventions targeting TB treatment, prevention, or control, and various comparator groups. Outcomes of interest will include incidence reduction, mortality rate, treatment success rate, barriers to TB care, and more. Both quantitative and qualitative data will be synthesized, and the risk of bias will be assessed using established tools. OUTCOMES: The review is expected to provide a holistic understanding of the TB landscape in India, highlighting the effective interventions and potential challenges in the journey towards TB elimination. CONCLUSIONS: While it is anticipated that significant progress will be made in the fight against TB in India, challenges are likely to persist. This review will offer a comprehensive roadmap for researchers, policymakers, and healthcare professionals, emphasizing the importance of continued efforts, innovative strategies, and a multi-pronged approach in achieving the goal of TB elimination in India by 2025.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis , Humanos , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/prevención & control , Incidencia , India/epidemiología
4.
Cancer Res Treat ; 56(2): 357-371, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38487832

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The current study provides national cancer statistics and their secular trends in Korea, including incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence in 2021. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Incidence, survival, and prevalence rates of cancer were calculated using the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, from 1999 to 2021, with survival follow-up until December 31, 2022. Deaths from cancer were assessed using causes-of-death data obtained from Statistics Korea. RESULTS: The number of new cancer diagnoses in 2021 increased by 27,002 cases (10.8%) compared to 2020. In 2021, newly diagnosed cancer cases and deaths from cancer were reported as 277,523 (age-standardized rate [ASR], 289.3 per 100,000) and 82,688 (ASR, 67.6 per 100,000), respectively. The overall cancer incidence rates increased by 3.3% annually from 1999 to 2012, and decreased by 5.3% from 2012 to 2015, thereafter, followed by non-significant changes. Cancer mortality rates have been decreasing since 2002, with more rapid decline in recent years (annual decrease of 2.8% from 2002 to 2013; 3.2% from 2013 to 2021). The 5-year relative survival between 2017 and 2021 was 72.1%, which contributed to prevalent cases reaching over 2.4 million in 2021. CONCLUSION: In 2021, the number of newly diagnosed cancer patients increased as healthcare utilization recovered from the coronavirus disease 2019-related declines of 2020. Revised cancer registration guidelines expanded the registration scope, particularly for stomach and colorectal cancer. Survival rates have improved over the years, leading to a growing population of cancer survivors, necessitating a comprehensive cancer control strategy. The long-term impact of the pandemic on cancer statistics requires future investigation.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Humanos , Incidencia , Prevalencia , Tasa de Supervivencia , República de Corea/epidemiología
5.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299478, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457395

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Hearing loss is the inability to hear speech or sounds well, owing to a number of causes. This study aimed to simultaneously determine the prevalence, incidence, and the Gap between them in hearing loss in South Korean patients at the same point in time as well as to identify patients who have not recovered from hearing loss. METHODS: We examined the prevalence and incidence of patients diagnosed with hearing loss in the National Health Insurance Service database over an 11-year period from 2010 to 2020. The difference between the prevalence and the incidence was defined in this study as the term "Gap". Gap is the number of patients converted into the number of patients per 100,000 people by subtracting the incidence from the prevalence. Clinical characteristics such as sex and age per 100,000 individuals were examined. RESULTS: As of 2020, the domestic prevalence obtained in this study was 1.84%, increasing annually, and the prevalence increased with age to 4.10% among those over 60. The domestic incidence was 1.57%, increasing annually, and the incidence increased with age to 3.36% for those over 60s. The Gap was 0.27%, showing a steady increase from 2011 to 2020 with a corresponding increase in insurance benefit expenses. CONCLUSION: To fully understand the burden of hearing loss and develop effective prevention and treatment strategies, it is important to measure the Gap between its prevalence and incidence. This Gap means a lot because hearing loss is an irreversible disease. Gap represents patients who have already been diagnosed with hearing loss and are being diagnosed every year, indicating that the number of patients who do not recover is increasing. In other words, the increase in Gap meant that there were many patients who constantly visited the hospital for diagnosis of hearing loss.


Asunto(s)
Sordera , Pérdida Auditiva , Humanos , Anciano , Preescolar , Prevalencia , Incidencia , Pérdida Auditiva/diagnóstico , Pérdida Auditiva/epidemiología , Programas Nacionales de Salud
6.
World J Urol ; 42(1): 180, 2024 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507108

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate complications and urinary incontinence (UI) after endoscopic enucleation of the prostate (EEP) stratified by prostate volume (PV). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent EEP with different energy sources in 14 centers (January 2019-January 2023). INCLUSION CRITERIA: prostate volume ≥ 80 ml. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: prostate cancer, previous prostate/urethral surgery, pelvic radiotherapy. PRIMARY OUTCOME: complication rate. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: incidence of and factors affecting postoperative UI. Patients were divided into 3 groups. Group 1: PV = 80-100 ml; Group 2 PV = 101-200 ml; Group 3 PV > 200 ml. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate independent predictors of overall incontinence. RESULTS: There were 486 patients in Group 1, 1830 in Group 2, and 196 in Group 3. The most commonly used energy was high-power Holmium laser followed by Thulium fiber laser in all groups. Enucleation, morcellation, and total surgical time were significantly longer in Group 2. There was no significant difference in overall 30-day complications and readmission rates. Incontinence incidence was similar (12.1% in Group 1 vs. 13.2% in Group 2 vs. 11.7% in Group 3, p = 0.72). The rate of stress and mixed incontinence was higher in Group 1. Multivariable regression analysis showed that age (OR 1.019 95% CI 1.003-1.035) was the only factor significantly associated with higher odds of incontinence. CONCLUSIONS: PV has no influence on complication and UI rates following EEP. Age is risk factor of postoperative UI.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Láser , Láseres de Estado Sólido , Hiperplasia Prostática , Resección Transuretral de la Próstata , Incontinencia Urinaria , Masculino , Humanos , Próstata/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Incidencia , Terapia por Láser/métodos , Incontinencia Urinaria/epidemiología , Incontinencia Urinaria/etiología , Incontinencia Urinaria/cirugía , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirugía , Hiperplasia Prostática/complicaciones , Resección Transuretral de la Próstata/efectos adversos , Resección Transuretral de la Próstata/métodos , Láseres de Estado Sólido/efectos adversos , Resultado del Tratamiento
7.
Yonsei Med J ; 65(4): 234-240, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515361

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Missing teeth is one of the most important indicators of oral health behavior and the result of dental caries, periodontal disease, and injuries. This study examined a trend in the incidence of severe partial edentulism (SPE) using the Korean National Health Insurance Service (KNHIS) data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of adults aged ≥20 years were obtained from the KNHIS for the 2014-2018 period. SPE was defined in dental information within a population with a treatment history of dental scaling as having 1 to 8 natural teeth. Crude incidence rates (CIRs) and age-standardized incidence rates (AIRs) with 95% confidence interval were calculated per 100000 persons. The Cochran Armitage trend (CAT) test and average annual percentage change were used to analyze SPE trends. RESULTS: The CIRs among Korean adults were from 346.29 to 391.11 in 2014-2016 and from 391.11 to 354.09 in 2016-2018. The AIRs trend statistically increased by 4.31% from 346.29 to 376.80 and decreased by 4.72% from 376.80 to 342.10. The AIRs in men increased by 4.00% and decreased by 3.01%. The AIRs in women decreased by 2.18% and increased by 2.11% (CAT; p<0.01). The AIRs by region and income also showed trends of increase and decrease. CONCLUSION: The study showed that the incidence trend of SPE increased and decreased from 2014 to 2018. This result would be able to aid in the planning of public oral health, and may also serve as fundamental data for verifying the impact of the public oral health policies implemented.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Pérdida de Diente , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Incidencia , Programas Nacionales de Salud , República de Corea/epidemiología
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542173

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the effects of fermented corn-soybean meal mixed feed (FMF) on growth performance, intestinal barrier function, gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in weaned piglets. A total of 128 weaned piglets [Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire), male, 21-day-old] were randomly allocated to four groups. Piglets were fed a control diet (CON) or the control diet supplemented with 10%, 50% or 100% FMF (FMF-10, FMF-50 or FMF-100, respectively) for 14 d. The results showed that the FMF-100 group had higher average daily gain and average daily feed intake and lower diarrhea incidence than the CON group (p < 0.05). The FMF-50 and FMF-100 groups had greater villus height in the duodenum and jejunum, and the FMF-10 and FMF-100 groups had higher villus height-to-crypt depth ratio in the duodenum and jejunum than the CON group. Additionally, the FMF-100 group had higher protein expression of duodenal, jejunal and ileal ZO-1 and jejunal claudin-1; higher mRNA expression of duodenal and ileal TJP1 and jejunal CLDN1 and IL10; and lower jejunal IL1B mRNA expression (p < 0.05). The FMF-50 group showed higher jejunal ZO-1 and claudin-1 protein levels, higher mRNA expression levels of IL10 and TJP1 and lower levels of TNF in the jejunum; the FMF-10 group had higher mRNA expression levels of IL10 and lower levels of TNF in the jejunum than the CON group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the FMF-10 and FMF-50 groups had higher colonic Lactobacillus abundance and butyrate levels; the FMF-100 group had higher abundance of colonic butyrate, Lactobacillus and Faecalibacterium than the CON group (p < 0.05). Collectively, our results suggest that FMF could improve intestinal mucosal barrier function, gut microbiota and their metabolites, thereby enhancing average daily gain and reducing diarrhea incidence in weaned piglets.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Zea mays , Porcinos , Animales , Masculino , Interleucina-10 , Funcion de la Barrera Intestinal , Glycine max , Claudina-1 , Harina , Incidencia , Suplementos Dietéticos , Diarrea/prevención & control , Diarrea/veterinaria , ARN Mensajero , Butiratos
9.
Nutrients ; 16(6)2024 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542673

RESUMEN

Cardiac surgery (CS) with extracorporeal circulation (ECC), induces intense oxidative stress (OS) and systemic inflammatory response (SIR), which may seriously affect postoperative lung function. We aimed to test if high parenteral (200 mg/kg/24 h) daily doses of Vitamin C (VitC), given within 48 h after the beginning of the operation, may reduce the incidence and severity of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in CS patients. This single-center, prospective, randomized, single-blinded, interventional trial included 150 patients, assigned to control Group A (n = 75) and interventional Group B (n = 75). Group B intraoperatively received one-fourth (i.e., 50 mg/kg) of the planned daily Vit C dose, divided into three equal parts and diluted in 10 mL of normal saline, while Group A received an equal volume of normal saline at the same time frames (i.e., the induction of anesthesia, aortic cross-clamp release, and sternal closure). After 6 h from the first intraoperative dose, the following regimen was applied: Group B: 50 mg/kg, 30 min i.v. infusion of VitC in 50 mL of normal saline, every 6 h, for the next 48 h, and Group A: 30 min i.v. infusion of an equal volume of normal saline every 6 h, for the next 48 h. Modified Kroenke's score was used to determine the incidence and severity of PPCs. The overall incidence of PPCs was 36.7% and was significantly lower in Group B (13.3% vs. 60.0%, p < 0.001). The PPCs severity score was also significantly lower in Group B (1 vs. 3, p < 0.001). In addition, patients from Group B had significantly less damaged lungs, better postoperative renal function, shorter ICU stays, fewer ICU re-admissions, and lower hospital mortality. No VitC-related adverse effects were recorded. High parenteral daily VitC doses given within 48 h after the beginning of CS are safe and effective in reducing the incidence and severity of PPCs. A multicenter RCT is needed to confirm these results.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Cardíacos , Solución Salina , Humanos , Incidencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Pulmón , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/prevención & control , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Cardíacos/efectos adversos , Circulación Extracorporea/efectos adversos , Ácido Ascórbico
10.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 22(6): 1217-1225.e6, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354970

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Potassium-competitive acid blockers (PCABs) have been increasingly used to treat upper gastrointestinal disorders, replacing proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Whereas PPIs are associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer (GC) after Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication, it is uncertain whether PCABs carry the same risk. METHODS: Using a population-based claims database in Japan, we identified patients who were prescribed a clarithromycin-based first regimen of Hp eradication between 2015 and 2018. Patients who failed this regimen and those diagnosed with GC before or within 1 year after Hp eradication were excluded. We compared GC incidence between PCAB users and histamine type-2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) users, matching them on the basis of propensity scores calculated with considerations for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, comorbidities, and co-administered medications. PCABs included only vonoprazan in this study. RESULTS: Among 54,055 patients, 568 (1.05%) developed GC during the follow-up period (mean, 3.65 years). The cumulative incidence of GC was 1.64% at 3 years, 2.02% at 4 years, and 2.36% at 5 years in PCAB users and 0.71% at 3 years, 1.04% at 4 years, and 1.22% at 5 years in H2RA users. The use of PCABs was associated with a higher GC risk (matched hazard ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-3.25; P = .016). Longer PCAB use and high-dose PCAB use were significantly associated with higher incidence of GC. Sensitivity analyses showed the risk of GC incidence among PCAB users was comparable with that of PPI users. CONCLUSIONS: The use of PCABs was associated with an increased risk of GC among Hp-eradicated patients, with duration/dose response effects.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Helicobacter , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones , Pirroles , Neoplasias Gástricas , Sulfonamidas , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiología , Infecciones por Helicobacter/complicaciones , Persona de Mediana Edad , Japón/epidemiología , Sulfonamidas/efectos adversos , Sulfonamidas/uso terapéutico , Anciano , Incidencia , Pirroles/efectos adversos , Pirroles/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones/efectos adversos , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones/administración & dosificación , Helicobacter pylori , Antagonistas de los Receptores H2 de la Histamina/efectos adversos , Antagonistas de los Receptores H2 de la Histamina/uso terapéutico , Antagonistas de los Receptores H2 de la Histamina/administración & dosificación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Antibacterianos/efectos adversos , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico
11.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337633

RESUMEN

23-Hydroxy ursolic acid (23-OH UA) is a potent atheroprotective and anti-obesogenic phytochemical, with anti-inflammatory and inflammation-resolving properties. In this study, we examined whether dietary 23-OH UA protects mice against the acute onset and progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Female C57BL/6 mice were fed either a defined low-calorie maintenance diet (MD) or an MD supplemented with 0.2% wgt/wgt 23-OH UA for 5 weeks prior to actively inducing EAE and during the 30 days post-immunization. We observed no difference in the onset of EAE between the groups of mice, but ataxia and EAE disease severity were suppressed by 52% and 48%, respectively, and disease incidence was reduced by over 49% in mice that received 23-OH UA in their diet. Furthermore, disease-associated weight loss was strikingly ameliorated in 23-OH UA-fed mice. ELISPOT analysis showed no significant differences in frequencies of T cells producing IL-17 or IFN-γ between 23-OH UA-fed mice and control mice, suggesting that 23-OH UA does not appear to regulate peripheral T cell responses. In summary, our findings in EAE mice strongly suggest that dietary 23-OH UA may represent an effective oral adjunct therapy for the prevention and treatment of relapsing-remitting MS.


Asunto(s)
Encefalomielitis Autoinmune Experimental , Esclerosis Múltiple , Femenino , Ratones , Animales , Encefalomielitis Autoinmune Experimental/tratamiento farmacológico , Esclerosis Múltiple/tratamiento farmacológico , Ácido Ursólico , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Incidencia , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Suplementos Dietéticos
12.
J Neurol ; 271(5): 2745-2757, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38388926

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Understanding the increasing trends in Italy may inform new prevention strategies and better treatments. We investigated trends and risk factors of dementia, stroke, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Italy with the second-oldest population globally, compared to European and high-income countries and the world. METHODS: We analyzed the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019 estimates on incidence and burden (i.e., disability and death combined) of the three conditions in both sexes. We also analyzed the burden attributable to 12 modifiable risk factors and their changes during 1990-2019. RESULTS: In 2019, Italy had 186,108 new dementias (123,885 women) and 94,074 new strokes (53,572 women). Women had 98% higher crude dementia and 24% higher crude stroke burdens than men. The average age-standardized new dementia rate was 114.7 per 100,000 women and 88.4 per 100,000 men, both higher than Western Europe, the European Union, high-income countries, and the world. During 1990-2019, this rate increased in both sexes (4%), despite a decline in stroke (- 45%) and IHD (- 17%) in Italy. Dementia burden attributable to tobacco decreased in both sexes (- 12.7%) during 1990-2019, while high blood glucose and high body mass index combined burden increased (25.4%). Stroke and IHD had similar trends. CONCLUSIONS: While decreases in new strokes and IHDs are encouraging, new approaches to their joint prevention are required to reverse the rising dementia trends, especially among women. Life course approaches to promoting holistic brain health should be implemented at the community, national, and international levels before the growing trends become overwhelming.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Demencia/epidemiología , Italia/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Anciano , Factores de Riesgo , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Países Desarrollados/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Incidencia , Carga Global de Enfermedades/tendencias , Salud Global/tendencias
13.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 50(5): 821-827, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366767

RESUMEN

AIM: To estimate the incidence of abruption in first births and recurrence in the subsequent birth in patients of a large US-based integrated health care system. METHODS: Retrospective population-based cohort study of patients with first two consecutive singleton births using data from the Kaiser-Permanente South California health care system who delivered over a period of 30 years (1991-2021), using longitudinally linked electronic health records. ICD-9/ICD-10 codes "641.20" and "O45.x" identified placental abruption. We calculated the incidence and rates of abruption in first and second pregnancies. We used logistic regression to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for abruption in second pregnancies in patients with and without abruptions in their first pregnancies. RESULTS: Of the 126 264 patients with first two consecutive singleton births over the period, 805 had abruptions in their first births, and 861 in their second births. Rates of abruption in first and second births were 0.63% and 0.68%, respectively. Twenty-seven patients had abruptions in both first and second births. Rates of abruption in the second birth among individuals with and without previous placental abruption were 3.35% and 0.66%, respectively, giving an approximately five-fold increased odds of abruption in a second pregnancy in individuals who had abruption in their first birth when compared with those who did not have placental abruption in their first birth (aOR: 4.95, 95% confidence interval: 3.35-7.31, p < 0.00001). Interpregnancy interval had no statistically significant association with recurrence. CONCLUSION: Abruption in a first birth is associated with an approximately five-fold increased odds of abruption in a second birth.


Asunto(s)
Desprendimiento Prematuro de la Placenta , Recurrencia , Humanos , Femenino , Desprendimiento Prematuro de la Placenta/epidemiología , Embarazo , Adulto , Incidencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , California/epidemiología , Adulto Joven , Factores de Riesgo
14.
Nutr J ; 23(1): 22, 2024 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383449

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The relation between incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and sugar might not only depend on the quantity consumed but also on its source. This study aims to assess the association between various sources of dietary sugars and CVD incidence in the prospective population-based UK Biobank cohort. METHODS: A total of 176,352 participants from the UK Biobank with at least one web-based dietary questionnaire (Oxford WebQ) for assessment of sugar intake were included in this study. Mean follow-up lasted 10.9 years (standard deviation 2.0), with 12,355 incident cases of CVD. To determine the association of free sugar (FS) and intrinsic sugar intake with incident CVD, hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. FS intake from beverages and beverage subtypes, i.e., soda/fruit drinks, juice, milk-based drinks, and tea/coffee, as well as from solid foods and solids subtypes, i.e., treats, cereals, toppings, and sauces, was included as penalised cubic splines. RESULTS: FS intake showed a J-shaped relationship with CVD risk, reaching the lowest HR (HR-nadir) at 9 %E, while intrinsic sugars displayed a non-linear descending association, with the HR-nadir at 14 %E. FS in beverages demonstrated a significant linear relationship with CVD with the HR-nadir at 3 %E, while FS in solids exhibited a significant non-linear U-shaped relationship with the HR-nadir at 7 %E. Within the beverage subtypes, soda/fruit drinks displayed a linear relationship, as did to a lesser extent FS in milk-based drinks and tea/coffee. Juice, however, showed a significant U-shaped relationship with CVD risk. Among solid foods subtypes, FS in treats had a J-shaped relation with the HR-nadir at 5 %E, and FS in cereals showed a linear association. In comparison, FS in toppings and sauces exhibited a U-shaped pattern with HR-nadir at 3 %E and 0.5 %E, respectively. All major results remained similar in various sensitivity analyses and were more robust for ischemic heart disease compared to stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Only some sources of FS exhibit a robust positive association with CVD incidence. Public health efforts aiming at the reduction of CVD risk should prioritise the reduction of sugary beverages with an emphasis on soda/fruit drinks.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Café , Humanos , Animales , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Incidencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Biobanco del Reino Unido , Bebidas , Leche , Azúcares ,
15.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e075218, 2024 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351113

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that acupuncture is beneficial for decreasing the risk of ischaemic stroke in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). DESIGN: A propensity score-matched cohort study. SETTING: A nationwide population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with RA diagnosed between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2010, through the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. INTERVENTIONS: Patients who were administered acupuncture therapy from the initial date of RA diagnosis to 31 December 2010 were included in the acupuncture cohort. Patients who did not receive acupuncture treatment during the same time interval constituted the no-acupuncture cohort. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: A Cox regression model was used to adjust for age, sex, comorbidities, and types of drugs used. We compared the subhazard ratios (SHRs) of ischaemic stroke between these two cohorts through competing-risks regression models. RESULTS: After 1:1 propensity score matching, a total of 23 226 patients with newly diagnosed RA were equally subgrouped into acupuncture cohort or no-acupuncture cohort according to their use of acupuncture. The basic characteristics of these patients were similar. A lower cumulative incidence of ischaemic stroke was found in the acupuncture cohort (log-rank test, p<0.001; immortal time (period from initial diagnosis of RA to index date) 1065 days; mean number of acupuncture visits 9.83. In the end, 341 patients in the acupuncture cohort (5.95 per 1000 person-years) and 605 patients in the no-acupuncture cohort (12.4 per 1000 person-years) experienced ischaemic stroke (adjusted SHR 0.57, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.65). The advantage of lowering ischaemic stroke incidence through acupuncture therapy in RA patients was independent of sex, age, types of drugs used, and comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the beneficial effect of acupuncture in reducing the incidence of ischaemic stroke in patients with RA.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura , Artritis Reumatoide , Isquemia Encefálica , Accidente Cerebrovascular Isquémico , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Estudios de Cohortes , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/terapia , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etiología , Puntaje de Propensión , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiología , Isquemia Encefálica/etiología , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Terapia por Acupuntura/efectos adversos , Artritis Reumatoide/complicaciones , Artritis Reumatoide/terapia , Accidente Cerebrovascular Isquémico/complicaciones , Incidencia , Taiwán/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Retrospectivos
16.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 23(1): 16, 2024 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360651

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Guidelines about febrile neutropenia in paediatric patients are not homogeneous; the best empiric treatment of this condition should be driven by local epidemiology. The Weighted-Incidence Syndromic Combination Antibiogram (WISCA) addresses the need for disease-specific local susceptibility evidence that could guide empiric antibiotic prescriptions based on outcome estimates of treatment regimens obtained as a weighted average of pathogen susceptibilities. This study developed a WISCA model to inform empirical antibiotic regimen selection for febrile neutropenia (FN) episodes in onco-haematological paediatric patients treated at two Italian paediatric tertiary centres. METHODS: We included blood cultures from patients with a bloodstream infection and neutropenia admitted to the Paediatric Haematology-Oncology wards in Padua and Genoa Hospitals from 2016 to 2021. WISCAs were developed by estimating the coverage of 20 antibiotics as monotherapy and of 21 combined regimens with a Bayesian probability distribution. RESULTS: We collected 350 blood cultures, including 196 g-negative and 154 g-positive bacteria. Considering the most used antibiotic combinations, such as piperacillin-tazobactam plus amikacin, the median coverage for the pool of bacteria collected in the study was 78%. When adding a glycopeptide, the median coverage increased to 89%, while the replacement of piperacillin-tazobactam with meropenem did not provide benefits. The developed WISCAs showed that no monotherapy offered an adequate coverage rate for the identified pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: The application of WISCA offers the possibility of maximizing the clinical utility of microbiological surveillance data derived from large hospitals to inform the choice of the best empiric treatment while contributing to spare broad-spectrum antibiotics.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Neutropenia Febril , Humanos , Niño , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Incidencia , Teorema de Bayes , Hospitales Pediátricos , Combinación Piperacilina y Tazobactam , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Bacterias , Italia , Neutropenia Febril/tratamiento farmacológico
17.
Avian Dis ; 67(4): 349-365, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300657

RESUMEN

During a series of pathology surveys in four production complexes of a U.S. broiler integrator, the technical services veterinarians of an animal health company noted a high incidence of severe gizzard erosions and ulcerations (GEU), prompting further clinical investigation and a battery trial. No growth-promoting antibiotics or ionophore coccidiostats were used during the period of these surveys. All used tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) at ≤120 ppm added copper in broiler rations. Clostridium perfringens was isolated from 83% and 67% of gizzard lesions cultured in two complexes, and cecal C. perfringens most probable number determinations were higher in severely affected than in mildly affected or unaffected birds. Histopathology revealed both acellular koilin fusion defects characteristic of copper toxicity, as well as inflammatory cell infiltrates. Intralesional bacilli suggestive of C. perfringens were noted in 78% of affected flocks examined. Species E Aviadenovirus was isolated from one bird in one complex, and that bird had a single intranuclear inclusion body; no other flocks had Adenoviruses isolated or detected on PCR, nor any inclusion bodies. Other viruses detected were thought to be incidental. A pilot study using feed with supplemental copper from TBCC or copper sulfate and challenge with one of the isolated C. perfringens strains reproduced the lesions. A battery study was conducted with an unchallenged negative control group fed a diet with 16 ppm added copper, a group fed the control diet and orally challenged with 108 organisms of a field strain of C. perfringens at 21 and 22 days, and a group treated with the same diet containing 250 ppm added copper from TBCC and orally challenged with C. perfringens. Birds were necropsied at 23 and 28 days. All challenged groups developed lesions, with those receiving both TBCC and C. perfringens having significantly higher gross and histopathological lesion scores than the unchallenged negative controls. Lesions were qualitatively similar to those in the field and contained suspected C. perfringens bacilli. Because the levels of TBCC used in the commercial birds and in the battery trial generally have been considered safe, and because C. perfringens is usually regarded as a pathogen of the lower GI tract, the possible association of these two agents with GEU is a novel observation and warrants further investigation.


Investigaciones sobre el aumento de la incidencia de erosiones y ulceraciones severas en la molleja en pollos de engorde comerciales en los Estados Unidos. Durante una serie de estudios de patología en cuatro complejos de producción de un integrador de pollos de engorde de los Estados Unidos, veterinarios de servicio técnico de una empresa de salud animal observaron una alta incidencia de erosiones y ulceraciones severas de la molleja (GEU), lo que motivó una mayor investigación clínica y un estudio en batería. Durante el período de estas encuestas no se utilizaron antibióticos promotores del crecimiento ni coccidiostáticos ionóforos. Todos utilizaron cloruro de cobre tribásico (TBCC) con un nivel de ≤120 ppm de cobre agregado en raciones para pollos de engorde. Se aisló Clostridium perfringens del 83% y el 67% de las lesiones de molleja cultivadas en dos complejos, y las determinaciones del número más probable de C. perfringens en los sacos ciegos fueron mayores en aves severamente afectadas que en aves levemente afectadas o no afectadas. La histopatología reveló defectos de fusión de la capa córnea acelular característicos de la toxicidad por cobre, así como infiltrados de células inflamatorias. Se observaron bacilos intralesionales sugestivos de C. perfringens en el 78% de las parvadas afectadas examinadas. La especie Aviadenovirus E se aisló de un ave en un complejo, y esa ave tenía un único cuerpo de inclusión intranuclear; en ninguna otra parvada se aislaron o detectaron adenovirus mediante PCR, ni se observaron cuerpos de inclusión. Se pensó que otros virus detectados fueron incidentales. Un estudio piloto que utilizó alimento con cobre suplementario de cloruro de cobre tribásico o sulfato de cobre y con desafío con una de las cepas aisladas de C. perfringens reprodujo las lesiones. Se realizó un estudio de batería con un grupo de control negativo no desafiado alimentado con una dieta con 16 ppm de cobre agregado, un grupo alimentado con la dieta de control y desafiado por vía oral con 108 organismos de una cepa de campo de C. perfringens a los 21 y 22 días, y un grupo tratado con la misma dieta que contenía 250 ppm de cobre agregado de cloruro de cobre tribásico y desafiados por vía oral con C. perfringens. A las aves se les realizó la necropsia a los 23 y 28 días. Todos los grupos desafiados desarrollaron lesiones, y aquellos que recibieron cloruro de cobre tribásico y C. perfringens tuvieron puntuaciones de lesiones macroscópicas e histopatológicas significativamente más altas que los controles negativos no desafiados. Las lesiones eran cualitativamente similares a las del campo y contenían bacilos sospechosos de C. perfringens. Debido a que los niveles de cloruro de cobre tribásico utilizados en las aves comerciales y en el ensayo en batería generalmente se han considerado seguros, y debido a que C. perfringens generalmente se considera un patógeno del tracto gastrointestinal inferior, la posible asociación de estos dos agentes con erosiones y ulceraciones severas de la molleja es una observación reciente y justifica una mayor investigación.


Asunto(s)
Bacillus , Cloruros , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral , Animales , Cobre , Pollos , Molleja de las Aves , Incidencia , Proyectos Piloto , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Clostridium perfringens , Firmicutes
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2863, 2024 02 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311664

RESUMEN

Evidence regarding the association between dietary niacin intake and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is limited. Our study investigates the relationship between dietary niacin intake and the prevalance and incidence of COPD in the adult population of the United States, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003 to 2018. Data on niacin intake were extracted through dietary intake interviews. COPD diagnoses were based on lung function, medical history, and medication usage. We analyzed the association between niacin consumption and COPD using multiple logistic regression and restricted cubic spline models. The study included 7055 adult participants, divided into COPD (n = 243; 3.44%) and non-COPD (n = 6812; 96.56%) groups. Those with COPD had lower average niacin intake (21.39 ± 0.62 mg/day) compared to the non-COPD group (25.29 ± 0.23 mg/day, p < 0.001). In the adjusted multivariable model, the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for COPD in the highest versus lowest quartile of dietary niacin intake were 0.55 (0.33 to 0.89, P for trend = 0.009). Subgroup analysis, after adjustment for various variables, revealed no significant interaction effects. Dietary niacin intake was inversely associated with COPD prevalence in US adults. Participants with the highest dietary niacin intake demonstrated the lowest odds of COPD. The potential of dietary niacin supplementation as a strategy to mitigate COPD warrants further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Niacina , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Encuestas Nutricionales , Incidencia , Prevalencia , Dieta , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/epidemiología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/etiología , Ingestión de Alimentos
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 107, 2024 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310218

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported the association between maternal vitamin D deficiency and preeclampsia. However, the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the occurrence of preeclampsia remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cholecalciferol supplementation on the incidence of preeclampsia in primigravid women and its related maternal and foetal outcomes. METHODS: A single-blinded clinical trial was conducted in fourteen antenatal care health facilities in the North (Goma, Mwesso, Nyiragongo) and South Kivu (Bukavu-Panzi) provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo from March 1, 2020, to June 30, 2021. A total of 1300 primigravid women not exceeding 16 weeks of gestation were randomised with a 1:1 ratio to either the supplemented (A) or control (B) group. Each pregnant woman (A) presenting for antenatal care received a single monthly dose of cholecalciferol (60,000 IU) orally for 6 months. The control group received no vitamin D supplementation or placebo. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at recruitment and at 34 weeks of gestation. Outcomes were assessed monthly until delivery. RESULTS: The median maternal age was 21 years (14-40), while the median gestational age was 15 weeks (5.4-29.0). A significant reduction in the risk of preeclampsia [RR = 0.36 (0.19-0.69); p = 0.001] and preterm delivery [RR = 0.5 (0.32-0.78); p = 0.002] was observed in the intervention group. An RR of 0.43 [(0.27-0.67); p < 0.001] was found for low birth weight. The RR for caesarean section was 0.63 [(0.52-0.75); p < 0.001]. The APGAR score at the 5th minute (p = 0.021) and the size of the newborn were significantly higher in the supplemented group (p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: A single monthly dose (60,000 IU) of vitamin D supplementation, started in earlypregnancy, significantly reduced the incidence of preeclampsia and its maternal and foetal complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Register with ISRCTN46539495 on 17 November 2020.


Asunto(s)
Preeclampsia , Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Lactante , Vitamina D , Preeclampsia/epidemiología , Preeclampsia/prevención & control , República Democrática del Congo/epidemiología , Incidencia , Cesárea , Vitaminas/uso terapéutico , Suplementos Dietéticos , Colecalciferol/uso terapéutico
20.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 29(4): 363-371, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381162

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Japan, comprehensive cancer statistics data have been collected through national cancer registries, but these data are rarely summarized and reported in research articles. METHODS: Here, we compiled the national registry data on malignant tumors originating from gynecologic organs (ovary, corpus uteri, cervix uteri) in Japan. RESULTS: The number of new patients in 2019 was 13,380, 17,880, and 10,879, respectively, and the number of deaths in 2021 was 5081, 2741, and 2894, respectively. Compared with 40 years ago, the incidence of ovarian cancer has tripled, the incidence of uterine corpus cancer (mainly endometrial cancer) has increased eightfold, the mortality rate of uterine corpus cancer has tripled, and the incidence of cervical intraepithelial cancer has increased ninefold in data standardized by the world population. Compared with the United States, the incidence rate of ovarian cancer has overtaken and the mortality rate of uterine corpus cancer is the same, while both the incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer are higher in Japan. CONCLUSION: The incidence of gynecologic cancer is increasing significantly in Japan.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de los Genitales Femeninos , Neoplasias Ováricas , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Neoplasias Uterinas , Humanos , Femenino , Incidencia , Japón/epidemiología , Tasa de Supervivencia , Neoplasias de los Genitales Femeninos/patología , Neoplasias Uterinas/patología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/patología , Neoplasias Ováricas/patología , Sistema de Registros
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