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1.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 20(4): 263-274, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501267

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: High-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) therapy poses challenges in various neoplasms due to individualized pharmacokinetics and associated adverse effects. Our purpose is to identify early risk factors associated with HDMTX-induced toxicities, paving the way for personalized treatment. AREAS COVERED: A systematic review of PubMed and Cochrane databases was conducted for articles from inception to July 2023. Eligible studies included reviews, clinical trials, and real-world analyses. Irrelevant studies were excluded, and manual searches and citation reviews were performed. Factors such as MTX exposure, drug interactions, demographics, serum albumin, urine pH, serum calcium, and genetic polymorphisms affecting MTX transport (e.g. SLCO1B1), intracellular folate metabolism (MTHFR), cell development (ARID5B), metabolic pathways (UGT1A1, PNPLA3), as well as epigenetics were identified. EXPERT OPINION: This comprehensive review aids researchers and clinicians in early identification of HDMTX toxicity risk factors. By understanding the multifaceted risk factors associated with hematologic malignancies, personalized treatment approaches can be tailored to optimize therapeutic outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Antimetabolitos Antineoplásicos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Metotrexato , Humanos , Antimetabolitos Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Antimetabolitos Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Antimetabolitos Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Interacciones Farmacológicas , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Metotrexato/administración & dosificación , Polimorfismo Genético , Medicina de Precisión/métodos , Factores de Riesgo
2.
Birth Defects Res ; 116(2): e2315, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348645

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Chemotherapy, particularly with methotrexate (MTX), often elicits testicular toxicity, leading to impaired spermatogenesis and hormone imbalances. This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of selenium (Se) against MTX-induced testicular injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male mice were divided into control, MTX, Se, and MTX + Se groups. Histopathological examination involved the preparation of testicular tissue sections using the Johnsen's tubular biopsy score (JTBS) for spermatogenesis evaluation. Biochemical tests included the assessment of testosterone, malondialdehyde (MDA), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was employed to analyze the expression of caspase 3 (casp3), tumor protein 53 (p53), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), and Bcl2-associated X protein (Bax) genes. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests (p < .05). RESULTS: Histopathological analysis revealed significant testicular damage in the MTX group, with decreased spermatogenesis and Leydig cell count, while Se administration mitigated these effects, preserving the structural integrity of the reproductive epithelium. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that MTX led to elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced testosterone, LH, and FSH levels, suggesting oxidative stress and Leydig cell dysfunction. Gene expression analysis indicated that MTX upregulated proapoptotic genes (casp3, p53, and bax) while downregulating the antiapoptotic Bcl2 gene. In contrast, Se treatment reversed these trends, highlighting its potential antiapoptotic properties. CONCLUSION: Our findings underscore the potential of Se as a therapeutic agent to mitigate the reproductive toxicity associated with MTX-induced testicular injury. Se exerts protective effects by regulating oxidative stress, preserving hormone balance, and modulating apoptotic pathways. These results suggest that Se supplementation could be a promising strategy to alleviate chemotherapy-induced testicular damage and preserve male fertility.


Asunto(s)
Metotrexato , Selenio , Masculino , Ratones , Animales , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Selenio/farmacología , Caspasa 3/metabolismo , Proteína X Asociada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína p53 Supresora de Tumor , Testosterona , Hormona Luteinizante/metabolismo , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Hormona Folículo Estimulante
3.
BMJ Open ; 14(1): e076571, 2024 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38238175

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a progressive inflammatory autoimmune disease characterised by chronic systemic inflammation, which can cause swelling, stiffening and destruction of articular cartilage and bone. Early diagnosis and treatment of RA can improve outcomes and slow the progression of joint damage. Preliminary exploratory research had hinted an expected effect of modified Zhiwang decoction (MZWD) in treating early RA. However, few randomised clinical trials have evaluated the effectiveness of MZWD in early RA. Therefore, a parallel-group randomised controlled trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MZWD combined with methotrexate (MTX) on early RA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a prospective, parallel-group, single-centre randomised controlled clinical study. A total of 150 patients will be randomly assigned to either the treatment (n=75) or control group (n=75). The treatment group will receive MZWD and MTX, and the control group will receive MTX for 12 weeks. The primary outcome of this study is Disease Activity Score-28, and the secondary outcomes are Fatigue Scale-14, Visual Analogue Scale pain scores and traditional Chinese medicine symptom scores. Safety outcomes, including adverse events and results of ECG and laboratory tests, will be monitored. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the China-Japan Friendship Hospital (no. 2022-KY-124) on 8 July 2022. The findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT05508815).


Asunto(s)
Antirreumáticos , Artritis Reumatoide , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Humanos , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Estudios Prospectivos , Artritis Reumatoide/tratamiento farmacológico , Artritis Reumatoide/inducido químicamente , Medicina Tradicional China/métodos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/efectos adversos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Método Doble Ciego , Antirreumáticos/efectos adversos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(4): e37070, 2024 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277521

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Low-dose methotrexate has a relatively good safety profile. However, in cases where patients with multiple risk factors, a delayed excretion has been observed, resulting in the occurrence of severe adverse reactions. It is necessary to supervise and intervene throughout the entire process of treating patients with multiple risk factors for methotrexate, and to strengthen the rational application of methotrexate. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: A 66-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with rheumatoid arthritis and underlying conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This patient received treatment with low-dose MTX (10 mg/week) and experienced adverse reactions including anemia. He was diagnosed with methotrexate-induced bone marrow suppression. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: The therapeutic drug monitoring revealed that the serum drug concentration of methotrexate was at a critical level and the patient was rescue with calcium folinate and other adjuvant therapy such as transfusions of red blood cells, plasma, platelets, oral Yixuesheng tablets and Leucogen tablets. We conducted a 1-month follow-up, and there was no recurrence of bone marrow suppression and anemia. LESSONS: To ensure rational administration of methotrexate, it is important to fully evaluate the clinical manifestations and physical condition of patients and regularly detecting the serum drug concentration of methotrexate when patients with multiple risk factors, Otherwise, even low-dose methotrexate administration may cause delayed excretion, resulting in severe adverse reactions.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Reumatoide , Metotrexato , Anciano , Humanos , Masculino , Anemia/inducido químicamente , Antirreumáticos/efectos adversos , Artritis Reumatoide/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de la Médula Ósea/inducido químicamente , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Factores de Riesgo
6.
Dermatologie (Heidelb) ; 75(3): 214-217, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38240813

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Radiation-induced morphea is a fibro-inflammatory remodelling process of the subcutaneous connective tissue caused by ionising radiation, most commonly in the context of breast cancer treatment. The underlying pathomechanisms and putative risk factors are unknown. Therefore, misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment pose a significant problem in the care of those patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to provide an overview as well as guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of radiation-induced morphea based on current case reports and review articles. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Radiation-induced morphea is a rare condition that represents an interdisciplinary challenge for (gynaecological) oncology, radiotherapy and dermatology. Frequent misdiagnoses include infection (erysipelas), cancer recurrence or radiation dermatitis. Early histological diagnosis and the initiation of anti-inflammatory therapy using topical glucocorticoids or calcineurin inhibitors in combination with phototherapy and/or methotrexate are the most relevant success factors for an adequate clinical response.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Esclerodermia Localizada , Humanos , Femenino , Esclerodermia Localizada/diagnóstico , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/complicaciones , Neoplasias de la Mama/complicaciones , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Fototerapia/efectos adversos
7.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 24(3): 187-193.e1, 2024 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38008594

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: High-dose methotrexate (HDMTX)-based regimens are the treatment of choice in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Folinic acid (FA) rescue is used to mitigate the toxic effects of MTX on normal cells. However, the optimal dosing of FA in PCNSL remains uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed the relationship between FA dosing and treatment efficacy and toxicity in a cohort of 36 PCNSL patients treated at our institute between the years 2014 and 2022. A combination of univariate and multivariate analyses using known prognostic factors were used to determine the association between FA dosing and treatment outcomes. RESULTS: We found that higher per-treatment cumulative FA doses were associated with inferior progression-free survival (PFS), with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.2 for each 100 mg/m2 increase in FA dose. We identified a threshold of 350 mg/m2/treatment, above which there was a significant reduction in PFS. Notably, lower FA doses did not result in increased toxicity. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that optimizing FA dosing to avoid very high rescue doses may improve treatment outcomes in PCNSL patients receiving HDMTX. Further prospective studies are warranted to validate these findings.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Sistema Nervioso Central , Linfoma , Humanos , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Leucovorina/efectos adversos , Antimetabolitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Linfoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias del Sistema Nervioso Central/tratamiento farmacológico , Sistema Nervioso Central , Estudios Retrospectivos
8.
Eur J Pediatr ; 183(2): 581-590, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37851084

RESUMEN

This study aims to assess the role of methotrexate-related gene polymorphisms in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) therapy and to explore their effects on serum metabolites before and after HD-MTX treatment. The MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, ABCB1 3435C>T, and GSTP1 313A>G genotypes of 189 children with ALL who received chemotherapy with the CCCG-ALL-2020 regimen from January 2020 to April 2023 were analyzed, and toxic effects were reported according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, version 5.0). Fasting peripheral blood serum samples were collected from 27 children before and after HD-MTX treatment, and plasma metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results of univariate and multivariate analyses showed that MTHFR 677C>T and ABCB1 3435 C>T gene polymorphisms were associated with the delayed MTX clearance (P < 0.05) and lower platelet count after treatment in children with MTHFR 677 mutation compared with wild-type ones (P < 0.05), and pure mutations in ABCB1 3435 were associated with higher serum creatinine levels (P < 0.05). No significant association was identified between MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, ABCB1 3435 C>T, and GSTP1 313A>G genes and hepatotoxicity or nephrotoxicity (P > 0.05). However, the serum metabolomic analysis indicated that the presence of the MTHFR 677C > T gene polymorphism could potentially contribute to delayed MTX clearance by influencing L-phenylalanine metabolism, leading to the occurrence of related toxic side effects. CONCLUSION: MTHFR 677C>T and ABCB1 3435 C>T predicted the risk of delayed MTX clearance during HD-MTX treatment in children with ALL. Serum L-phenylalanine levels were significantly elevated after HD-MTX treatment in children with the MTHFR 677C>T mutation gene. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR2000035264; registration: 2020/08/05; https://www.chictr.org.cn/ ). WHAT IS KNOWN: • MTX-related genes play an important role in MTX pharmacokinetics and toxicity, but results from different studies are inconsistent and the mechanisms involved are not clear. WHAT IS NEW: • Characteristics, prognosis, polymorphisms of MTX-related genes, and metabolite changes were comprehensively evaluated in children treated with HD-MTX chemotherapy. • Analysis revealed that both heterozygous and pure mutations in MTHFR 677C>T resulted in a significantly increased risk of delayed MTX clearance, and that L-phenylalanine has the potential to serve as a predictive marker for the metabolic effects of the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism.


Asunto(s)
Metotrexato , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Niño , Humanos , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Polimorfismo Genético , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamiento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Genotipo , Metilenotetrahidrofolato Reductasa (NADPH2)/genética , Fenilalanina , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
9.
Lancet Oncol ; 25(2): 255-264, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38142702

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The optimal perioperative chemotherapy for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer is not defined. The VESPER (French Genito-Urinary Tumor Group and French Association of Urology V05) trial reported improved 3-year progression-free survival with dose-dense methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin (dd-MVAC) versus gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) in patients who received neoadjuvant therapy, but not in the overall perioperative setting. In this Article, we report on the secondary endpoints of overall survival and time to death due to bladder cancer at 5-year follow-up. METHODS: VESPER was an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial done at 28 university hospitals or comprehensive cancer centres in France, in which adults (age ≤18 years and ≤80 years) with primary bladder cancer and histologically confirmed muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma were randomly allocated (1:1; block size four) to treatment with dd-MVAC (every 2 weeks for a total of six cycles) or GC (every 3 weeks for a total of four cycles). Overall survival and time to death due to bladder cancer (presented as 5-year cumulative incidence of death due to bladder cancer) was analysed by intention to treat (ITT) in all randomly assigned patients. Overall survival was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method with the treatment groups compared with log-rank test stratified for mode of administration of chemotherapy (neoadjuvant or adjuvant) and lymph node involvement. Time to death due to bladder cancer was analysed with an Aalen model for competing risks and a Fine and Gray regression model stratified for the same two covariates. Results were presented for the total perioperative population and for the neoadjuvant and adjuvant subgroups. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01812369, and is complete. FINDINGS: From Feb 25, 2013, to March 1, 2018, 500 patients were randomly assigned, of whom 493 were included in the final ITT population (245 [50%] in the GC group and 248 [50%] in the dd-MVAC group; 408 [83%] male and 85 [17%] female). 437 (89%) patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 5·3 years (IQR 5·1-5·4); 190 deaths at the 5-year cutoff were reported. In the perioperative setting (total ITT population), we found no evidence of association of overall survival at 5 years with dd-MVAC treatment versus GC treatment (64% [95% CI 58-70] vs 56% [50-63], stratified hazard ratio [HRstrat] 0·79 [95% CI 0·59-1·05]). Time to death due to bladder cancer was increased in the dd-MVAC group compared with in the GC group (5-year cumulative incidence of death: 27% [95% CI 21-32] vs 40% [34-46], HRstrat 0·61 [95% CI 0·45-0·84]). In the neoadjuvant subgroup, overall survival at 5 years was improved in the dd-MVAC group versus the GC group (66% [95% CI 60-73] vs 57% [50-64], HR 0·71 [95% CI 0·52-0·97]), as was time to death due to bladder cancer (5-year cumulative incidence: 24% [18-30] vs 38% [32-45], HR 0·55 [0·39-0·78]). In the adjuvant subgroup, the results were not conclusive due to the small sample size. Bladder cancer progression was the cause of death for 157 (83%) of the 190 deaths; other causes of death included cardiovascular events (eight [4%] deaths), deaths related to chemotherapy toxicity (four [2%]), and secondary cancers (four [2%]). INTERPRETATION: Our results on overall survival at 5 years were in accordance with the primary endpoint analysis (3-year progression-free survival). We found no evidence of improved overall survival with dd-MVAC over GC in the perioperative setting, but the data support the use of six cycles of dd-MVAC over four cycles of GC in the neoadjuvant setting. These results should impact practice and future trials of immunotherapy in bladder cancer. FUNDING: French National Cancer Institute.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Transicionales , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Cisplatino , Vinblastina/efectos adversos , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/tratamiento farmacológico , Gemcitabina , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Doxorrubicina , Desoxicitidina , Terapia Neoadyuvante/efectos adversos , Músculos/patología
10.
J Dermatolog Treat ; 35(1): 2292962, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38124505

RESUMEN

Background:Methotrexate is an off-label therapy for atopic dermatitis. A lack of consensus on dosing regimens poses a risk of underdosing and ineffective treatment or overdosing and increased risk of side effects. This systematic review summarizes the available evidence on dosing regimens.Materials and methods:A literature search was conducted, screening all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and guidelines published up to 6 July 2023, in the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases.Results:Five RCTs and 21 guidelines were included. RCTs compared methotrexate with other treatments rather than different methotrexate dosing regimens. The start and maintenance doses in RCTs varied between 7.5-15 mg/week and 14.5-25 mg/week, respectively. Despite varied dosing, all RCTs demonstrated efficacy in improving atopic dermatitis signs and symptoms. Guidelines exhibited substantial heterogeneity but predominantly proposed starting doses of 5-15 mg/week for adults and 10-15 mg/m2/week for children. Maintenance doses suggested were 7.5-25 mg/week for adults and 0.2-0.7 mg/kg/week for children. One guideline suggested a test dose and nearly half advised folic acid supplementation.Conclusion:This systematic review highlights the lack of methotrexate dosing guidelines for atopic dermatitis. It identifies commonly recommended and utilized dosing regimens, serving as a valuable resource for clinicians prescribing methotrexate off-label and providing input for an upcoming consensus study.


Asunto(s)
Dermatitis Atópica , Metotrexato , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Metotrexato/uso terapéutico , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Dermatitis Atópica/tratamiento farmacológico
11.
J Clin Exp Hematop ; 63(4): 251-256, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38148015

RESUMEN

Subacute myelopathy is a rare but serious complication of methotrexate (MTX) that may cause paraplegia. Although its underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, homocysteine is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of this adverse effect. Herein, we report the case of a 34-years old female patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who developed progressive paraplegia accompanied by dysfunctional bladder and bowel movements after treatment with a modified CODOX-M/IVAC regimen, including high-dose intravenous MTX and intrathecal (IT-) MTX. Neurological symptoms gradually improved to almost normal levels within 4.5 months of onset following treatment with a combination of S-adenosylmethionine, methionine, cyanocobalamin, and folate. During chemotherapy, including high-dose MTX and IT-MTX for hematological malignancies, MTX-induced subacute neuronal damage should be carefully evaluated, and appropriate treatment should be initiated as early as possible.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de la Médula Ósea , Linfoma de Células B Grandes Difuso , Enfermedades de la Médula Espinal , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Enfermedades de la Médula Espinal/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades de la Médula Espinal/patología , Linfoma de Células B Grandes Difuso/inducido químicamente , Metionina/efectos adversos , S-Adenosilmetionina/efectos adversos , Paraplejía/inducido químicamente
12.
Lancet Oncol ; 24(12): 1359-1374, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37926100

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with early breast cancer improves outcomes but its toxicity affects patients' quality of life (QOL). The UK TACT2 trial investigated whether accelerated epirubicin improves time to recurrence and if oral capecitabine is non-inferior to cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF) for efficacy with less toxicity. Results showed no benefit for accelerated epirubicin and capecitabine was non-inferior. As part of the QOL substudy, we aimed to assess the effect of chemotherapies on psychological distress, physical symptoms, and functional domains. METHODS: TACT2 was a multicentre, phase 3, open-label, parallel-group, randomised, controlled trial done in 129 UK centres. Participants were aged 18 years or older with histologically confirmed node-positive or high-risk node-negative invasive primary breast cancer, who had undergone complete excision, and due to receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to four cycles of 100 mg/m2 epirubicin either every 3 weeks (standard epirubicin) or every 2 weeks with 6 mg pegfilgrastim on day 2 of each cycle (accelerated epirubicin), followed by four 4-week cycles of either CMF (600 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide intravenously on days 1 and 8 or 100 mg/m2 orally on days 1-14; 40 mg/m2 methotrexate intravenously on days 1 and 8; and 600 mg/m2 fluorouracil intravenously on days 1 and 8 of each cycle) or four 3-week cycles of 2500 mg/m2 capecitabine (1250 mg/m2 given twice daily on days 1-14 of each cycle). The randomisation schedule was computer generated in random permuted blocks, stratified by centre, number of nodes involved (none vs 1-3 vs ≥4), age (≤50 years vs >50 years), and planned endocrine treatment (yes vs no). QOL was one of the secondary outcomes and is reported here. All patients from a subset of 44 centres were invited to complete QOL questionnaires (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS] and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] Quality of Life Questionnaire 30-item core module [QLQ-C30] and Quality of Life Questionnaire breast module [QLQ-BR23]) at baseline, end of standard or accelerated epirubicin, end of CMF or capecitabine, and at 12 and 24 months after randomisation. The QOL substudy prespecified two coprimary QOL outcomes assessed in the intention-to-treat population: overall QOL (reported elsewhere) and HADS total score. Prespecified secondary QOL outcomes were EORTC QLQ-C30 subscales of physical function, role function, and fatigue and EORTC QLQ-BR23 subscales of sexual function and systemic therapy side-effects. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN68068041, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00301925. FINDINGS: From Dec 16, 2005, to Dec 5, 2008, 4391 patients (20 [0·5%] of whom were male) were enrolled in TACT2; 1281 (85·8%) of 1493 eligible patients were included in the QOL substudy. Eight (0·6%) participants in the QOL substudy were male and 1273 (99·4%) were female. Median follow-up was 85·6 months (IQR 80·6-95·9). Analysis was performed on the complete QOL dataset (as of Sept 15, 2011) when all participants had passed the 24-month timepoint. Prerandomisation questionnaires were completed by 1172 (91·5%) patients and 1179 (92·0%) completed at least one postrandomisation questionnaire. End-of-treatment HADS depression score (p=0·0048) and HADS total change score (p=0·0093) were worse for CMF versus capecitabine. Accelerated epirubicin led to worse physical function (p=0·0065), role function (p<0·0001), fatigue (p=0·0002), and systemic side-effects (p=0·0001), but not sexual function (p=0·36), compared with standard epirubicin during treatment, but the effect did not persist. Worse physical function (p=0·0048), sexual function (p=0·0053), fatigue (p<0·0001), and systemic side-effects (p<0·0001), but not role functioning (p=0·013), were seen for CMF versus capecitabine at end of treatment; these differences persisted at 12 months and 24 months. INTERPRETATION: Accelerated epirubicin was associated with worse QOL than was standard epirubicin but only during treatment. These findings will help patients and clinicians make an informed choice about accelerated chemotherapy. CMF had worse QOL effects than did capecitabine, which were persistent for 24 months. The favourable capecitabine QOL compared with CMF supports its use as an adjuvant option after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK, Amgen, Pfizer, and Roche.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Capecitabina , Epirrubicina/efectos adversos , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Calidad de Vida , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Fluorouracilo , Ciclofosfamida , Quimioterapia Adyuvante/métodos , Fatiga/inducido químicamente , Reino Unido
13.
Neurology ; 101(17): e1741-e1746, 2023 10 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37527941

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The folate antagonist high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) is integral to induction chemotherapy for primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL); however, it can be associated with leukoencephalopathy. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is involved in intracellular folate depletion. We assessed whether MTHFR polymorphisms affect the risk of leukoencephalopathy. METHODS: We retrospectively searched our database at the Massachusetts General Hospital for newly diagnosed PCNSL treated with HD-MTX (without radiotherapy nor intrathecal chemotherapy). RESULTS: Among 68 patients with PCNSL, MTHFR polymorphisms were found in 60 individuals (88.2%) including a 677C→T genotype, a 1298A→C genotype, or a combined 677C→T/1298A→C genotype. Neither MTX clearance nor response to induction therapy was affected by specific genotypes, and complete response was achieved in 72.1% of patients by HD-MTX-based induction. However, the 1298A→C genotype was associated with increased frequency and severity of leukoencephalopathy over time (odds ratio 4.0, CI 1.5-11.4). Such genotype predicted treatment-induced leukoencephalopathy with a sensitivity of 71.0% and a specificity of 62.2% (area under the curve 0.67, CI 0.5-0.8; p = 0.019). While progression-free survival did not differ in genotype-based subgroups, overall survival was lower for the 1298A→C genotype. DISCUSSION: The MTHFR 1298A→C genotype may serve to identify patients with PCNSL at elevated risk of HD-MTX-induced leukoencephalopathy. This seems to translate into reduced survival, potentially due to decreased functional status.


Asunto(s)
Linfoma , Metotrexato , Humanos , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Metilenotetrahidrofolato Reductasa (NADPH2)/genética , Estudios Retrospectivos , Ácido Fólico , Genotipo , Linfoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Linfoma/genética
14.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 22(5): 391-406, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37329288

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: A discussion of safety of systemic treatments for nail psoriasis is lacking, particularly in reference to approval of new therapies assessed for nail outcomes. A review of safety profiles for agents commonly utilized for treatment of nail psoriasis is warranted to help inform treatment choices. The PubMed database was searched on 5 April 20235 April 2023, with articles discussing safety of nail psoriasis systemic therapies identified and reviewed. AREAS COVERED: Systemic treatments for nail psoriasis include biologic therapies (tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors, interleukin-17 inhibitors, interleukin-23 inhibitors, interleukin-12/23 inhibitors), small molecule inhibitors (apremilast, tofacitinib), and oral systemic immunomodulators (methotrexate, cyclosporine, acitretin), each with unique safety profiles and considerations. Herein, we discuss adverse events, contraindications, drug-drug interactions, screening/monitoring guidelines, as well as utilization for special populations, including pregnant, older, and pediatric patients. EXPERT OPINION: The advent of targeted therapies, including biologic treatments and small molecule inhibitors, has revolutionized outcomes for nail psoriasis patients, but warrant review and monitoring for potential adverse events. Oral systemic immunomodulators have demonstrated moderate efficacy for nail psoriasis treatment, but are notable for frequent contraindications and drug-drug interactions. Further study of these agents and their use in special populations is needed to elucidate safety profiles for long-term use.


Asunto(s)
Psoriasis , Humanos , Niño , Psoriasis/patología , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Acitretina/uso terapéutico , Terapia Biológica , Factores Inmunológicos
15.
Clin Rheumatol ; 42(8): 2069-2077, 2023 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37211570

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Methotrexate (MTX) is an anchor drug in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Frailty is the intermediate condition between being healthy and disabled, and can lead to negative health outcomes. Adverse events (AEs) due to RA drugs are expected to be higher in frail patients. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between frailty and MTX discontinuation due to AEs in RA patients. METHODS: Of 538 RA patients who visited us between June and August 2020 as part of the retrospective T-FLAG study, 323 used MTX. After 2 years of follow-up, we investigated AEs leading to MTX discontinuation. Frailty was defined as a Kihon Checklist (KCL) score ≥ 8. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with MTX discontinuation due to AEs. RESULTS: Of the 323 RA patients (251 women, 77.7%) who used MTX, 24 (7.4%) discontinued MTX due to AEs during the 2-year follow-up period. Mean ages in the MTX continuation/discontinuation groups were 64.5 ± 13.9/68.5 ± 11.7 years (p = 0.169), Clinical Disease Activity Index was 5.6 ± 7.3/6.2 ± 6.0 (p = 0.695); KCL was 5.9 ± 4.1/9.0 ± 4.9 points (p < 0.001); and the proportion of frailty was 31.8%/58.3% (p = 0.012). MTX discontinuation due to AEs was significantly associated with frailty (hazard ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.02-5.37) even after adjusting for age and diabetes mellitus. AEs included liver dysfunction (25.0%), pneumonia (20.8%), and renal dysfunction (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Because frailty is a significant factor contributing to MTX discontinuation due to AEs, the latter should be carefully monitored in frail RA patients who use MTX. Key Points • Of the 323 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (251 women, 77.7%) who used methotrexate (MTX), 24 (7.4%) discontinued MTX due to adverse events (AEs) during the 2-year follow-up period. • MTX discontinuation due to AEs was significantly associated with frailty (hazard ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.02-5.37) even after adjusting for age and diabetes mellitus, and neither the MTX dose, folic acid supplementation, nor GC co-therapy were factors in MTX discontinuation. • Frailty is a predominant factor in MTX discontinuation among established, long-term pretreated RA patients, and the occurrence of AEs due to MTX should be carefully monitored when frail RA patients use MTX.


Asunto(s)
Antirreumáticos , Artritis Reumatoide , Fragilidad , Humanos , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Antirreumáticos/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
16.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 9(6): 3670-3679, 2023 06 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37184981

RESUMEN

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that mainly affects joints, and it can lead to disability and damage to vital organs if not diagnosed and treated in time. However, all current therapeutic agents for RA have limitations such as high dose, severe side effects, long-term use, and unsatisfactory therapeutic effects. The long-term use and dose escalation of methotrexate (MTX) may cause mild and severe side effects. To overcome the limitations, it is critical to target drug delivery to the inflamed joints. In this work, we constructed a folic acid-targeted and cell-mimetic nanodrug, MTX-loaded mesoporous silica composite nanoplatform (MMPRF), which can regulate drug release under ultrasound (US) and microbubble (MB) mediation. The targeted delivery and drug therapy were investigated through in vitro RAW264.7 cell experiments and in vivo collagen-induced arthritis animal experiments. The result showed that the targeting ability to the joints of MMPRF was strong and was more significant after US and MB mediation, which can potently reduce joint swelling, bone erosion, and inflammation in joints. This work indicated that the US- and MB-mediated MMPRF not only would be a promising method for synergistic targeted treatment of RA but also may show high potential for serving as a nanomedicine for many other biomedical fields.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Reumatoide , Nanopartículas , Animales , Artritis Reumatoide/diagnóstico por imagen , Artritis Reumatoide/tratamiento farmacológico , Artritis Reumatoide/inducido químicamente , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Microburbujas , Nanopartículas/uso terapéutico
17.
Nutrients ; 15(7)2023 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37049427

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the gastrointestinal tract. Methotrexate is a folate analog immunosuppressant used in the management of pediatric IBD. Daily folic acid supplementation is currently recommended to prevent folate deficiency and reduce the side effects of methotrexate such as nausea, stomatitis, and hepatotoxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and adequacy of once-weekly folic acid supplementation in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease patients taking methotrexate. METHODS: In this single-arm observational study, we included subjects aged 2-21 years old with inflammatory bowel disease who were receiving a standard oral methotrexate dose of 10-15 mg/m2 weekly and 800 mcg of folic acid daily. Baseline folate level, blood counts and chemistries, and a symptom questionnaire were completed. Subjects were switched to weekly 800 mcg of folic acid to be taken in conjunction with methotrexate. Monthly phone calls with a standardized questionnaire were used to assess compliance and any change in symptoms. Follow-up blood tests were obtained 6 months after enrollment. Normal folate level was defined as >5.38 ng/mL. RESULTS: Thirty-one subjects were enrolled. Five subjects were withdrawn due to poor compliance or transition to adult gastroenterology. Twenty-one (81%) subjects had Crohn's disease (17 with ileal involvement) and five (19%) had ulcerative colitis. Twelve (39%) subjects were on methotrexate as a combination therapy with a biologic agent. At the 6-month follow-up visit, all subjects had stable folic acid levels (>5.38 µg/L) without macrocytic anemia. Monthly questionnaires found no increased symptoms, and there were no adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Once weekly folic acid supplementation at a dose commonly found in a multivitamin may be sufficient to maintain normal folate levels without the development of adverse symptoms in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease on methotrexate therapy.


Asunto(s)
Colitis Ulcerosa , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino , Adulto , Humanos , Niño , Preescolar , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Ácido Fólico , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/inducido químicamente , Inmunosupresores/efectos adversos , Colitis Ulcerosa/tratamiento farmacológico
18.
Eur J Hosp Pharm ; 30(5): e28, 2023 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36732034

RESUMEN

A female patient in her early 30s was treated with imatinib and high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) for Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The patient developed delayed MTX clearance and grade 3 acute kidney injury characterised by elevated creatinine (114% increase from baseline). After intensified calcium folinate rescue therapy and hydration, the MTX serum level was appropriately decreased 72 hours after the start of MTX infusion, and renal function returned to normal. Medication analysis by a clinical pharmacist suggested that the concomitant treatment with imatinib likely contributed to the delayed MTX clearance and caused the acute kidney injury.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Humanos , Adulto , Femenino , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapéutico , Cromosoma Filadelfia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamiento farmacológico , Lesión Renal Aguda/inducido químicamente , Lesión Renal Aguda/diagnóstico
19.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 45(1): 1-11, 2023 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598958

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To review all studies providing evidence of the correlation between folinic acid (FA) rescue inadequacy and long-term cognitive damage in neuropsychological studies of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or osteogenic sarcoma treated under protocols using high-dose methotrexate and FA rescue. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed of all databases of the Web of Science Citation Index, during 1990-2020, for the terms: neuropsychological, neurocognitive, and cognitive, together with acute lymphoblastic (and lymphocytic) leukemia and osteogenic sarcoma. English-language peer-reviewed articles on neuropsychological assessments of children who had been treated with high-dose methotrexate without irradiation, and which included details of methotrexate and FA schedules, were selected. In addition, a personal database of over 500 reprints of articles from over 130 journals was reviewed on the subjects of methotrexate and FA and their side effects. RESULTS: Three groups of studies were found and analyzed, with (1) no evidence of cognitive deterioration, (2) evidence of cognitive deterioration, and (3) more than 1 protocol grouped together, preventing separate analysis of any protocols, Protocols without cognitive deterioration reported adequate FA rescue, and those with cognitive deterioration reported inadequate FA rescue. CONCLUSION: Neuropsychological evaluation supported inadequate FA being the cause of neurocognitive damage after high-dose methotrexate and that adequate FA rescue prevents this complication.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Óseas , Leucovorina , Metotrexato , Síndromes de Neurotoxicidad , Osteosarcoma , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Niño , Humanos , Neoplasias Óseas/tratamiento farmacológico , Leucovorina/uso terapéutico , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Síndromes de Neurotoxicidad/etiología , Síndromes de Neurotoxicidad/prevención & control , Síndromes de Neurotoxicidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Osteosarcoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamiento farmacológico
20.
Pharmacogenomics ; 23(15): 821-834, 2022 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36193736

RESUMEN

Aim: To evaluate the association between SLCO1B1 polymorphisms and elimination/toxicities of high-dose methotrexate (MTX). Methods: SLCO1B1 rs11045879 and rs4149056 polymorphisms were retrospectively genotyped in 301 children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. MTX concentration, doses of leucovorin rescue and toxicities were recorded. Results: SLCO1B1 rs11045879C carriers (CC + CT) had higher plasma MTX levels at 96 hr, and longer MTX elimination time. The number of leucovorin rescue doses in rs4149056C carriers (CC + CT) was more than those in TT ones. Moreover, SLCO1B1 polymorphisms were associated with HDMTX toxicities including thrombocytopenia, renal toxicity and anal mucositis, but not associated with MTX level at other time points or delayed elimination. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that genotyping of SLCO1B1 might be useful to optimize MTX therapy.


Asunto(s)
Metotrexato , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Niño , Humanos , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Leucovorina , Estudios Retrospectivos , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamiento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Transportador 1 de Anión Orgánico Específico del Hígado/genética
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