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1.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 19(10): 841-854, 2024 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436253

RESUMEN

Aims: Preparation and evaluation of nanoparticles for tumor chemotherapy and immunotherapy mild photothermal therapy and oxaliplatin. Methods: The double emulsion method was used for nanoparticle preparations. Polydopamine was deposited on the surface, which was further modified with folic acid. Cytotoxicity assays were carried out by cell counting kit-8. In vivo antitumor assays were carried out on 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. Results: The nanoparticles exhibited a 190 nm-diameter pomegranate-like sphere, which could increase temperature to 43-46°C. In vivo distribution showed enhanced accumulation. The nanoparticles generated stronger immunogenic cell death effects. By stimulating the maturation of dendritic cells, mild photothermal therapy combined with oxaliplatin significantly increased the antitumor effect by a direct killing effect and activation of immunotherapy. Conclusion: This study provided a promising strategy of combination therapy for tumors.


Asunto(s)
Hipertermia Inducida , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Animales , Ratones , Oxaliplatino/uso terapéutico , Terapia Fototérmica , Fototerapia/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Inmunoterapia , Línea Celular Tumoral
2.
Int J Surg ; 110(4): 2071-2084, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320099

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The addition of immune checkpoint inhibitors to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in operable advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction (G/GEJ) cancer aroused wide interest. This study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant sintilimab, a programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) inhibitor, in combination with fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel (FLOT) chemotherapy for HER2-negative locally advanced G/GEJ cancer. METHODS: Eligible patients with clinical stage cT4 and/or cN+M0 G/GEJ cancer were enroled in this phase II study. Patients received neoadjuvant sintilimab (200 mg every 3 weeks) for three cycles plus FLOT (50 mg/m 2 docetaxel, 80 mg/m 2 oxaliplatin, 200 mg/m 2 calcium levofolinate, 2600 mg/m 2 5-fluorouracil every 2 weeks) for four cycles before surgery, followed by four cycles of adjuvant FLOT with same dosages after resection. The primary endpoint was the pathological complete response (pCR) rate. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were enroled between August 2019 and September 2021, with a median follow-up of 34.8 (95% CI, 32.8-42.9) months. Thirty-two (100%) patients received neoadjuvant therapy, and 29 underwent surgery with an R0 resection rate of 93.1%. The pCR (TRG0) was achieved in 5 (17.2%; 95% CI, 5.8-35.8%) patients, and the major pathological response was 55.2%. Twenty-three (79.3%) patients had T downstaging, 21 (72.4%) had N downstaging, and 19 (65.5%) had overall TNM downstaging. Six (20.7%) patients experienced recurrence. Patients achieving pCR showed better event-free survival (EFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) than non-pCR. The estimated 3-year EFS rate, 3-year DFS rate, and 3-year OS rate were 71.4% (95% CI, 57.2-89.2%), 78.8% (95% CI, 65.1-95.5%), and 70.9% (95% CI, 54.8-91.6%), respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 84.4% (95% CI, 68.3-93.1%) and 96.9% (95% CI, 84.3-99.5%), respectively. Twenty-five (86.2%) received adjuvant therapy. The main grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were lymphopenia (34.4%), neutropenia (28.1%), and leukopenia (15.6%). no patients died from TRAE. The LDH level exhibited a better predictive value to pathological responses than PD-L1 and MSI status. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated an encouraging efficacy and manageable safety profile of neoadjuvant sintilimab plus FLOT in HER2-negative locally advanced G/GEJ cancer, which suggested a potential therapeutic option for this population.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Docetaxel , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Unión Esofagogástrica , Fluorouracilo , Leucovorina , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patología , Unión Esofagogástrica/patología , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administración & dosificación , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Anciano , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/administración & dosificación , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/efectos adversos , Adenocarcinoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Adulto , Leucovorina/administración & dosificación , Leucovorina/efectos adversos , Leucovorina/uso terapéutico , Fluorouracilo/administración & dosificación , Docetaxel/administración & dosificación , Docetaxel/efectos adversos , Docetaxel/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patología , Oxaliplatino/administración & dosificación , Oxaliplatino/efectos adversos , Oxaliplatino/uso terapéutico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo
3.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 51(4): e13844, 2024 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350599

RESUMEN

Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT) is being shown to have anticancer action as a potential adjuvant treatment. The transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin 2 (TRPM2) stimulator action of BoNT was reported in glioblastoma cells, but not in colorectal cancer (HT29) cells. By activating TRPM2, we evaluated the impacts of BoNT and oxaliplatin (OXA) incubations on oxidant and apoptotic values within the HT29 cells. Control, BoNT (5 IU for 24 h), OXA (50 µM for 24 h) and their combinations were induced. We found that TRPM2 protein is upregulated and mediates enhanced BoNT and OXA-induced Ca2+ entry in cells as compared to control cells. The increase of free reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the decrease of glutathione is the main ROS responsible for TRPM2 activation on H29 exposure to oxidative stress. BoNT and OXA-mediated Ca2+ entry through TRPM2 stimulation in response to H2 O2 results in mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, followed by mitochondrial membrane depolarization, apoptosis and caspase-3/-8/-9, although they were diminished in the TRPM2 antagonist groups (N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid and carvacrol). In conclusion, by increasing the susceptibility of HT29 tumour cells to oxidative stress and apoptosis, the combined administration of BoNT and OXA via the targeting of TRPM2 may offer a different approach to kill the tumour cells.


Asunto(s)
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Neoplasias Colorrectales , Canales Catiónicos TRPM , Humanos , Oxaliplatino/farmacología , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/metabolismo , Regulación hacia Arriba , Canales Catiónicos TRPM/genética , Canales Catiónicos TRPM/metabolismo , Muerte Celular , Estrés Oxidativo/fisiología , Apoptosis/fisiología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/tratamiento farmacológico , Calcio/metabolismo
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 19: 1843-1865, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38414530

RESUMEN

Purpose: The lack of specificity of conventional chemotherapy is one of the main difficulties to be solved in cancer therapy. Biomimetic magnetoliposomes are successful chemotherapy controlled-release systems, hyperthermia, and active targeting agents by functionalization of their surface with monoclonal antibodies. The membrane receptor Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) stands out as colorectal cancer (CRC) biomarker and appears to be related to treatment resistance and the development of metastasis. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of LGR5-targeted biomimetic magnetoliposomes loaded with oxaliplatin (OXA) or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the selective treatment of CRC and their possible application in hyperthermia. Methods: Synthesis, characterization and determination of heating capacity of magnetoliposomes transporting OXA or 5-FU (with and without LGR5 functionalization) were conducted. In vitro antitumoral activity was assayed in multiple colorectal cell lines at different times of exposition. In addition to this, cell internalization was studied by Prussian Blue staining, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. In vivo acute toxicity of magnetoliposomes was performed to evaluate iron-related toxicity. Results: OXA and 5-FU loaded magnetoliposomes functionalized with LGR5 antibody showed higher cellular uptake than non-targeted nanoformulation with a reduction of the percentage of proliferation in colon cancer cell lines up to 3.2-fold of the IC50 value compared to that of free drug. The differences between non-targeted and targeted nanoformulations were more evident after short exposure times (4 and 8 hours). Interestingly, assays in the MC38 transduced cells with reduced LGR5 expression (MC38-L(-)), showed lower cell internalization of LGR5-targeted magnetoliposomes compared to non-transduced MC38 cell line. In addition, magnetoliposomes showed an in vitro favorable heating response under magnetic excitation and great iron-related biocompatibility data in vivo. Conclusion: Drug-loaded magnetoliposomes functionalized with anti-LGR5 antibodies could be a promising CRC treatment strategy for LGR5+ targeted chemotherapy, magnetic hyperthermia, and both in combination.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Colon , Neoplasias Colorrectales , Hipertermia Inducida , Humanos , Biomimética , Neoplasias del Colon/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias del Colon/metabolismo , Fluorouracilo/uso terapéutico , Oxaliplatino/uso terapéutico , Hierro , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorrectales/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología
5.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 168, 2024 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308227

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN) in general and painful OIPN in particular is a debilitating late effect that severely affects cancer survivors' quality of life and causes premature cessation of potentially lifesaving treatment. No preventive treatments and no effective treatment for chronic OIPN exist despite many attempts. One of several suggested mechanisms includes neuroinflammation as a contributing factor to OIPN. Fish oil containing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) are precursors to specialized proresolving mediators that mediate the resolution of inflammation. Our primary hypothesis is that a high supplementation of n-3 LCPUFAs will lower the prevalence and severity of OIPN. METHODS: The OxaNeuro project is an investigator-initiated, multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study. We will include 120 patients eligible to receive adjuvant oxaliplatin after colorectal cancer surgery. Patients will receive fish oil capsules containing n-3 LCPUFAs or corn oil daily for 8 months. The primary endpoint is the prevalence of OIPN at 8 months defined as relevant symptoms, including one of the following: abnormal nerve conduction screening, abnormal vibration threshold test, abnormal skin biopsy, or abnormal pinprick test. Additional endpoints include the intensity and severity of OIPN-related neuropathic pain, patient-reported OIPN symptoms, quality of life, mental health symptoms, body composition, and cognitive evaluation. Furthermore, we will evaluate inflammatory biomarkers in blood samples and skin biopsies, including the potential OIPN biomarker neurofilament light protein (NfL) which will be measured before each cycle of chemotherapy. DISCUSSION: If readily available fish oil supplementation alleviates OIPN prevalence and severity, it will significantly improve the lives of both cancer survivors and palliative cancer patients receiving oxaliplatin; it will improve their quality of life, optimize chemotherapeutic treatment plans by lowering the need for dose reduction or premature cessation, and potentially increase survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov identifier: NCT05404230 Protocol version: 1.2, April 25th. 2023.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Periférico , Humanos , Oxaliplatino/efectos adversos , Aceites de Pescado/uso terapéutico , Calidad de Vida , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Periférico/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Periférico/prevención & control , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Periférico/diagnóstico , Suplementos Dietéticos , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Colorrectales/tratamiento farmacológico , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto
6.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 23(1): 95-103.e3, 2024 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242766

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients with stage III colorectal cancer (CRC) are older than 70 years. Optimal adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) for older patients (OP) continues to be debated, with subgroup analyses of randomized trials not demonstrating a survival benefit from the addition of oxaliplatin to a fluoropyrimidine backbone. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed the multisite Australian ACCORD registry, which prospectively collects patient, tumor and treatment data along with long term clinical follow-up. We compared OP (≥70) with stage III CRC to younger patients ([YP] <70), including the proportion recommended AC and any reasons for not prescribing AC. AC administration, regimen choice, completion rates, and survival outcomes were also examined. RESULTS: One thousand five hundred twelve patients enrolled in the ACCORD registry from 2005 to 2018 were included. Median follow-up was 57.0 months. Compared to the 827 YP, the 685 OP were less likely to be offered AC (71.5% vs. 96.5%, P < .0001) and when offered, were more likely to decline treatment (15.1% vs. 2.8%, P < .0001). Ultimately, 60.0% of OP and 93.7% of YP received AC (P < .0001). OP were less likely to receive oxaliplatin (27.5% vs. 84.7%, P < .0001) and to complete AC (75.9% vs. 85.7%, P < .0001). The probability of remaining recurrence-free was significantly higher in OP who received AC compared to those not treated (HR 0.73, P = .04) but not significantly improved with the addition of oxaliplatin (HR 0.75, P = .18). CONCLUSION: OP were less likely than YP to receive AC. Receipt of AC reduced recurrences in OP, supporting its use, although no significant benefit was observed from the addition of oxaliplatin.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Fluorouracilo , Humanos , Oxaliplatino/uso terapéutico , Australia/epidemiología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología , Quimioterapia Adyuvante/efectos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 326: 117735, 2024 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38211824

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional plant-based medicines (TMs) have been widely used to prevent chronic oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (OIPN). However, the prevention and safety of TMs for chronic OIPN remain ambiguous. Furthermore, diverse TM prescriptions and complicated components limit in-depth research on the mechanisms of TMs. AIM OF THIS STUDY: To determine core TMs and potential pharmacological pathways on the basis of a thorough investigation into the preventive benefits and safety of oral TMs for chronic OIPN in colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: A search of the PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang databases for RCTs reporting on TMs for chronic OIPN was conducted through December 1, 2022. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis and meta-regression were applied to assess the impacts of influencing variables. The assessment of Risk of Bias was relied on Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. The funnel plot, Egger's test, and the Trim and Fill method were applied to identify potential publication bias. Trial sequential analyses (TSA) were carried out by the TSA tool to increase the robustness. The assessment of the quality of evidence was according to the GRADE system. System pharmacology analysis was employed to screen core herbal combinations to elucidate possible mechanisms for preventing chronic OIPN in CRC. RESULTS: The pooled effect estimate with robustness increased by TSA analysis demonstrated that oral TMs appeared to significantly decrease the incidence of chronic OIPN (RR = 0.66, 95% CI (0.56, 0.78); P<0.00001), leukocytopenia (RR = 0.65, 95% CI (0.54,0.79); P<0.00001), and nausea and vomiting (RR = 0.72, 95% CI (0.61,0.84); P<0.0001) as well as improve the Objective Response Rate (ORR) (RR = 1.31, 95% CI (1.09,1.56); P = 0.003). The incidence of severe chronic OIPN was revealed a significant reduction, particularly when chemotherapy was administered for periods of time shorter than six months (RR = 0.33, 95% CI (0.15,0.71); P = 0.005; actuation duration<3 months; RR = 0.33, 95% CI (0.17,0.62); P = 0.0007; actuation duration≥3 months, <6 months). The considerable heterogeneity among studies may be attributable to the severity of dysfunction categorized by grade and accumulated dosage. Using core TMs consisting of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge, Atractylodes Macrocephala Koidz., Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf, and Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. To regulate nuclear factor-kappa B against inflammation caused by activation of microglia might be an approach to preventing chronic OIPN. CONCLUSIONS: TMs appear to be effective and safe in the prevention of chronic OIPN, especially severe chronic OIPN. Additionally, core TMs consisting of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge, Atractylodes Macrocephala Koidz., Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf, and Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf were presumably responsible for reducing the incidence of chronic OIPN, and the mechanism may be related to relieving inflammation. However, quality-assured trials with long-term follow-up for exploring inflammatory factors and preliminary research on core TMs and pharmacological pathways are needed.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Síndromes de Neurotoxicidad , Lobos , Animales , Humanos , Oxaliplatino/efectos adversos , Síndromes de Neurotoxicidad/etiología , Síndromes de Neurotoxicidad/prevención & control , Neoplasias Colorrectales/tratamiento farmacológico , Inflamación
8.
Food Funct ; 15(3): 1355-1368, 2024 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38205834

RESUMEN

Dietary nutritional support for special populations is an effective and feasible method to improve the quality of life of patients and reduce medical pressure. Acer truncatum Bunge seed oil (ATSO) is widely recognized for its ability to promote nerve myelin regeneration. To evaluate the ameliorative effects of ATSO on chemotherapy-induced demyelination, a zebrafish model of chemotherapy-induced demyelination was established. The results showed that 100 µg mL-1 of ATSO reversed tail morphology damage, axon degeneration, touch response delay, ROS level upregulation and the expression of myelin basic protein decrease in chemotherapy-induced zebrafish. In addition, the expression of myelin markers (including sox10, krox20, and pmp22) in oxaliplatin-induced cells was markedly reversed by ATSO and its active components (gondoic acid, erucic acid, and nervonic acid). ATSO and its active components could reverse demyelination by ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction. Conversely, linoleic acid and linolenic acid promoted demyelination by exacerbating mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, the Pink1/Parkin pathway was recognized as the main reason for ATSO and its active components improving mitochondrial function by activating mitophagy and restoring autophagic flow. Taken together, this study demonstrated that ATSO and its active components could be further developed as novel functional food ingredients to antagonize demyelination.


Asunto(s)
Acer , Antineoplásicos , Enfermedades Desmielinizantes , Enfermedades Mitocondriales , Animales , Humanos , Mitofagia , Oxaliplatino/farmacología , Pez Cebra/metabolismo , Calidad de Vida , Semillas/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligasas/metabolismo , Aceites de Plantas/farmacología , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinasas
9.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 29(3): 276-285, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286874

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previously, we reported SMR (skeletal muscle radiodensity) as a potential prognostic marker for colorectal cancer. However, there have been limited studies on the association between SMR and the continuation of adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 143 colorectal cancer patients underwent curative surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy using the CAPOX regimen. Patients' SMRs were measured from preoperative CT images and divided into low (bottom quarter) and high (top three quarters) SMR groups. We compared chemotherapy cycles, capecitabine and oxaliplatin doses, and adverse effects in each group. RESULTS: The low SMR group had significantly fewer patients completing adjuvant chemotherapy compared to the high SMR group (44% vs. 68%, P < 0.01). Capecitabine and oxaliplatin doses were also lower in the low SMR group. Incidences of Grade 2 or Grade 3 adverse effects did not differ between groups, but treatment discontinuation due to adverse effects was significantly higher in the low SMR group. Logistic regression analysis revealed Stage III disease (odds ratio 18.09, 95% CI 1.41-231.55) and low SMR (odds ratio 3.26, 95% CI 1.11-9.56) as factors associated with unsuccessful treatment completion. Additionally, a higher proportion of low SMR patients received fewer than 2 cycles of chemotherapy (50% vs. 12%). CONCLUSION: The low SMR group showed higher treatment incompletion rates and received lower drug doses during adjuvant chemotherapy. Low SMR independently contributed to treatment non-completion in colorectal cancer patients.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias Colorrectales , Humanos , Capecitabina/efectos adversos , Oxaliplatino/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Quimioterapia Adyuvante/efectos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología , Fluorouracilo/efectos adversos , Estadificación de Neoplasias
10.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 9(3): 205-217, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38237621

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In patients undergoing resection for pancreatic cancer, adjuvant modified fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) improves overall survival compared with alternative chemotherapy regimens. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX with the standard strategy of upfront surgery in patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: NORPACT-1 was a multicentre, randomised, phase 2 trial done in 12 hospitals in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, with a WHO performance status of 0 or 1, and had a resectable tumour of the pancreatic head radiologically strongly suspected to be pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Participants were randomly assigned (3:2 before October, 2018, and 1:1 after) to the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group or upfront surgery group. Patients in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group received four neoadjuvant cycles of FOLFIRINOX (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2, irinotecan 180 mg/m2, leucovorin 400 mg/m2, and fluorouracil 400 mg/m2 bolus then 2400 mg/m2 over 46 h on day 1 of each 14-day cycle), followed by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients in the upfront surgery group underwent surgery and then received adjuvant chemotherapy. Initially, adjuvant chemotherapy was gemcitabine plus capecitabine (gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 over 30 min on days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle and capecitabine 830 mg/m2 twice daily for 3 weeks with 1 week of rest in each 28-day cycle; four cycles in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group, six cycles in the upfront surgery group). A protocol amendment was subsequently made to permit use of adjuvant modified FOLFIRINOX (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2, irinotecan 150 mg/m2, leucovorin 400 mg/m2, and fluorouracil 2400 mg/m2 over 46 h on day 1 of each 14-day cycle; eight cycles in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group, 12 cycles in the upfront surgery group). Randomisation was performed with a computerised algorithm that stratified for each participating centre and used a concealed block size of two to six. Patients, investigators, and study team members were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was overall survival at 18 months. Analyses were done in the intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol populations. Safety was assessed in all patients who were randomly assigned and received at least one cycle of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02919787, and EudraCT, 2015-001635-21, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Feb 8, 2017, and April 21, 2021, 77 patients were randomly assigned to receive neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX and 63 to undergo upfront surgery. All patients were included in the ITT analysis. For the per-protocol analysis, 17 (22%) patients were excluded from the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group (ten did not receive neoadjuvant therapy, four did not have pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and three received another neoadjuvant regimen), and eight (13%) were excluded from the upfront surgery group (seven did not have pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and one did not undergo surgical exploration). 61 (79%) of 77 patients in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group received neoadjuvant therapy. The proportion of patients alive at 18 months by ITT was 60% (95% CI 49-71) in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group versus 73% (62-84) in the upfront surgery group (p=0·032), and median overall survival by ITT was 25·1 months (95% CI 17·2-34·9) versus 38·5 months (27·6-not reached; hazard ratio [HR] 1·52 [95% CI 1·00-2·33], log-rank p=0·050). The proportion of patients alive at 18 months in per-protocol analysis was 57% (95% CI 46-67) in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group versus 70% (55-83) in the upfront surgery group (p=0·14), and median overall survival in per-protocol population was 23·0 months (95% CI 16·2-34·9) versus 34·4 months (19·4-not reached; HR 1·46 [95% CI 0·99-2·17], log-rank p=0·058). In the safety population, 42 (58%) of 73 patients in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group and 19 (40%) of 47 patients in the upfront surgery group had at least one grade 3 or worse adverse event. 63 (82%) of 77 patients in the neoadjuvant group and 56 (89%) of 63 patients in the upfront surgery group had resection (p=0·24). One sudden death of unknown cause and one COVID-19-related death occurred after the first cycle of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX. Adjuvant chemotherapy was initiated in 51 (86%) of 59 patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group and 44 (90%) of 49 patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in the upfront surgery group (p=0·56). Adjuvant modified FOLFIRINOX was given to 13 (25%) patients in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group and 19 (43%) patients in the upfront surgery group. During adjuvant chemotherapy, neutropenia (11 [22%] patients in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group and five [11%] in the upfront surgery group) was the most common grade 3 or worse adverse event. INTERPRETATION: This phase 2 trial did not show a survival benefit from neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX in resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma compared with upfront surgery. Implementation of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX was challenging. Future trials on treatment sequencing in resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma should be biomarker driven. FUNDING: Norwegian Cancer Society, South Eastern Norwegian Health Authority, The Sjöberg Foundation, and Helsinki University Hospital Research Grants.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Irinotecán/uso terapéutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirugía , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patología , Oxaliplatino/uso terapéutico , Leucovorina/efectos adversos , Terapia Neoadyuvante/efectos adversos , Capecitabina , Gemcitabina , Adenocarcinoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/cirugía , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Fluorouracilo/efectos adversos , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamiento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirugía
11.
Med Oncol ; 41(2): 53, 2024 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198041

RESUMEN

Various conventional treatments including endocrine therapy, radiotherapy, surgery, and chemotherapy have been used for several decades to treat breast cancer; however, these therapies exhibit various life-threatening and debilitating adverse effects in patients. Additionally, combination therapies are required for prompt action as well as to prevent drug resistance toward standard breast cancer medications. Ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly gaining momentum for their application in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Spinel ferrites are particularly used against breast cancer and have shown in vitro and in vivo better efficacy as compared to conventional cancer therapies. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, magnetic particle imaging tracers, cell separation, and immune assays are some aspects related to the diagnosis of breast cancer against which different ferrite NPs have been successfully evaluated. Moreover, citrate-coated nickel ferrite, Mg/Zn ferrites, poly amidoamine dendrimers, cobalt ferrites, graphene oxide cobalt ferrites, doxorubicin functionalized cobalt ferrites, chitosan-coated zinc ferrites, PEG-coated cobalt ferrite, and copper ferrite NPs have demonstrated antiproliferative action against different breast cancer cells. Oxaliplatin-loaded polydopamine/BSA-copper ferrites, functionalized cobalt and zinc ferrites of curcumin, oxaliplatin-copper ferrite NPs, tamoxifen/diosgenin encapsulated ZnO/Mn ferrites, and fabricated core-shell fibers of doxorubicin have been developed to increase the bioavailability and anti-proliferative effect and decrease the toxicity of anticancer drugs. These ferrite NPs showed an anticancer effect at different doses in the presence or absence of an external magnetic field. The present review covers the in-depth investigations of ferrite NPs for the diagnosis and management of breast cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Humanos , Femenino , Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Cobre , Oxaliplatino , Doxorrubicina , Cobalto , Zinc
12.
Epidemiology ; 35(2): 241-251, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38290143

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the presence of effect measure modification, estimates of treatment effects from randomized controlled trials may not be valid in clinical practice settings. The development and application of quantitative approaches for extending treatment effects from trials to clinical practice settings is an active area of research. METHODS: In this article, we provide researchers with a practical roadmap and four visualizations to assist in variable selection for models to extend treatment effects observed in trials to clinical practice settings and to assess model specification and performance. We apply this roadmap and visualizations to an example extending the effects of adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil vs. plus oxaliplatin) for colon cancer from a trial population to a population of individuals treated in community oncology practices in the United States. RESULTS: The first visualization screens for potential effect measure modifiers to include in models extending trial treatment effects to clinical practice populations. The second visualization displays a measure of covariate overlap between the clinical practice populations and the trial population. The third and fourth visualizations highlight considerations for model specification and influential observations. The conceptual roadmap describes how the output from the visualizations helps interrogate the assumptions required to extend treatment effects from trials to target populations. CONCLUSIONS: The roadmap and visualizations can inform practical decisions required for quantitatively extending treatment effects from trials to clinical practice settings.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Colon , Fluorouracilo , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Fluorouracilo/uso terapéutico , Oxaliplatino/uso terapéutico , Proyectos de Investigación
13.
Microbiol Immunol ; 68(1): 15-22, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37964433

RESUMEN

Some chemotherapeutic drugs can induce cancer cell death and enhance antitumor T-cell immunity in cancer-bearing hosts. Immunomodulatory reagents could augment such chemotherapy-induced effects. We previously reported that oral digestion of Lentinula edodes mycelia (L.E.M.) extract or  l-arginine supplementation can augment antitumor T-cell responses in cancer-bearing mice. In this study, the effects of L.E.M. extract with or without  l-arginine on the therapeutic efficacy of immunogenic chemotherapy by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/oxaliplatin (L-OHP) and/or cyclophosphamide (CP) are examined using two mouse colon cancer models. In MC38 and CT26 cancer models, therapy with 5-FU/L-OHP/CP significantly suppressed tumor growth, and supplementation with L.E.M. extract halved the tumor volumes. However, the modulatory effect of L.E.M. extract was not significant. In the CT26 cancer model, supplementation with L.E.M. extract and  l-arginine had no clear effect on tumor growth. In contrast, their addition to chemotherapy halved the tumor volumes, although the effect was not significant. There was no difference in the cytotoxicity of tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells generated from CT26-cured mice treated by chemotherapy alone versus chemotherapy combined with L.E.M. extract/ l-arginine. These results indicate that the antitumor effects of immunogenic chemotherapy were too strong to ascertain the effects of supplementation of L.E.M. extract and  l-arginine, but these reagents nonetheless have immunomodulatory effects on the therapeutic efficacy of immunogenic chemotherapy in colon cancer-bearing mice.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Colon , Hongos Shiitake , Ratones , Animales , Hongos Shiitake/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias del Colon/tratamiento farmacológico , Fluorouracilo/farmacología , Fluorouracilo/uso terapéutico , Oxaliplatino/farmacología , Oxaliplatino/uso terapéutico , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapéutico , Arginina/uso terapéutico , Suplementos Dietéticos
14.
Gastric Cancer ; 27(1): 110-117, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37889360

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer (LAGC) patients with DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency (D-MMR) is controversial due to concerns about its potential detrimental effect. The PRODIGY trial showed the survival benefit of adding preoperative docetaxel, oxaliplatin, and S-1 (DOS) to surgery plus postoperative S-1 for LAGC patients. In this sub-analysis, we evaluated the benefit of preoperative DOS according to MMR status. METHODS: Among patients enrolled in the PRODIGY trial treated with either preoperative DOS followed by surgery and postoperative S-1 (CSC arm), or surgery and postoperative S-1 (SC arm) at Asan Medical Center (n = 249), those in the full analysis set with available tissue to assess MMR status were included in the present analysis. RESULTS: A total of 231 patients (CSC arm, n = 108; SC arm, n = 123) were included (median age, 58 years [range, 27-75]), and 21 patients (CSC arm, n = 8 [7.4%]; SC arm, n = 13 [10.6%]) had D-MMR tumors. Progression-free survival and overall survival tended to be superior in the CSC arm than in the SC arm among D-MMR patients (HR 0.48 [95% CI 0.09-2.50]; log-rank P = 0.37 and HR 0.55 [95% CI 0.11-2.86]; log-rank P = 0.46, respectively), as well as among proficient MMR (P-MMR) patients (HR 0.68 [95% CI 0.46-1.03]; log-rank P = 0.07 and HR 0.75 [95% CI 0.49-1.14]; log-rank P = 0.17, respectively). CONCLUSION: Preoperative DOS followed by surgery and postoperative S-1 may be considered a treatment option for LAGC patients regardless of MMR status.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Docetaxel , Oxaliplatino , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirugía , Fluorouracilo , Quimioterapia Adyuvante , ADN/uso terapéutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Reparación de la Incompatibilidad de ADN
15.
Saudi J Gastroenterol ; 30(2): 114-122, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37955212

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the most common malignancy in Saudi males and third most common in females. Patients with locally advanced colon cancer may eventually develop metastatic disease if not treated promptly and according to guidelines. The recent National Comprehensive Cancer Network guideline recommends tumor resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III and high-risk stage II tumors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize patients with locally advanced colon cancer and identify factors associated with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and the addition of oxaliplatin in locally advanced colon cancer patients. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with locally advanced colon cancer at National Guard Health Affairs (NGHA) during 2016-2021 were investigated. Patients' characteristics were compared using Chi-square and Fisher exact test, whereas predictors of adjuvant chemotherapy/Oxaliplatin use were identified using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Out of 222 patients diagnosed with locally advanced colon cancer, 133 received adjuvant chemotherapy. Factors associated with adjuvant chemotherapy administration were age and smoking status. In the multivariable analysis, older patients were less likely to receive oxaliplatin than younger patients. Stage III patients diagnosed during 2019-2021 had 5.61 times higher odds of receiving oxaliplatin. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that older patients and smokers are less likely to be treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Moreover, age as well as diagnosis year were important determinants of oxaliplatin administration in stage III locally advanced colon cancer patients.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Colon , Fluorouracilo , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Oxaliplatino/uso terapéutico , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias del Colon/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias del Colon/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Colon/patología , Quimioterapia Adyuvante
16.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 30(1): 446-453, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37820675

RESUMEN

Objective: Oxaliplatin is a first-line chemotherapy drug for the treatment of colorectal cancer, but its induced oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (OIPN) affect the chemotherapy process and quality of life of tumor patients. OIPN is a serious and potentially permanent side effect of cancer treatment. Currently, no unified standard has been established for preventing and treating OIPN in Western medicine. Therefore, it is very important to seek effective prevention and treatment measures. Many clinical trials have reported that Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu decoction can effectively prevent OIPN, but substantial evidence base to support this treatment is lacking. We collected existing literature and evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu decoction for OIPN by performing a meta-analysis. Methods: We systematically searched China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), VIP, Wan Fang Database, Pubmed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library from inception through to Oct 2022 to identify only randomized controlled trials examining the prevention of OIPN using Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu decoction. This search was supplemented by manual retrieval, including dissertations and conference papers. All data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software. Results: A total of 18 papers involving 564 patients in the treatment group and 523 patients in the control group were included. A total of 17 articles reported the overall incidence of peripheral neurotoxicity (I² = 0%), and the overall incidence of peripheral neurotoxicity in the treatment group was 0.27 times higher than in the control group (95% CI: 0.20-0.36). A total of 16 articles reported the incidence of level III-IV severe peripheral neurotoxicity (I² = 0%), which was 0.16 times higher in the treatment group than in the control group (95% CI: 0.09-0.32). In the Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu VS no-interference subgroup, it showed that the incidence of severe peripheral neurotoxicity in the treat group was significantly lower than in the control group (OR:0.13, 95% CI:0.06-0.28). But in the Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu VS west medicine therapy subgroup, no significant difference between Huangqi Quizhi Wuwu and conventional Western medicine was observed for the prevention and treatment of severe OIPN (OR:0.37, 95% CI:0.09-1.53). A total of 2 articles were reported median nerve conduction velocity (I² = 51.2%); and no significant difference was found between the treatment and control groups (SMD: 1.43; 95% CI: 0.80-2.08); 4 studies showed Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu decoction did not increase the incidence of chemotherapy-related adverse reactions and was safe. Conclusions: Our current findings support the application of Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu decoction for the clinical prevention and treatment of patients with OIPN. However, high-quality RCT research is still needed to further exploration. The potential impact of Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu decoction on the quality of life or treatment compliance of cancer patients needs further research.


Asunto(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Oxaliplatino/efectos adversos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
J Psychosom Res ; 177: 111562, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38113795

RESUMEN

AIM: We investigated the impact of sleep disturbance on immune status in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with consideration of the moderating role of circadian clock gene polymorphisms. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study design was used to collect information regarding sleep disturbance. Blood samples for immunologic assays were obtained the day before the first (baseline) and last cycles of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) chemotherapy. Clinical sleep disturbance was compared between the two-time points using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) global score. We analysed single-nucleotide polymorphisms in rs2278749, rs3749474, rs2291738, rs17031614, and rs2287161. The dependent variables included changes in the percentages of CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, and CD16/56+ lymphocytes between the two-time points. The results were analysed using moderated regression analysis; the p-values were adjusted using the false discovery rate. RESULTS: Among the 104 patients, no significant dyadic associations were observed between changes in lymphocyte percentages and the PSQI global score. However, the moderated regression analysis revealed five significant associations (rs2287161 with CD8+, rs2278749 and rs2291738 with CD19+, and rs17031614 with CD4+ and CD16/56+ lymphocytes). The inclusion of each interaction resulted in a significant increase (5.7-10.7%) in the variance explained by changes in lymphocyte percentage. CONCLUSION: Patients with specific circadian gene allele types may be more susceptible to immune dysregulation when experiencing sleep disturbances. Considering that sleep disturbance is a modifiable factor that can impact immune regulation, it is essential to prioritise the management of sleep disturbances in CRC patients receiving FOLFOX chemotherapy.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Subgrupos Linfocitarios , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Prospectivos , Fluorouracilo/uso terapéutico , Oxaliplatino/uso terapéutico , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Leucovorina/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Colorrectales/complicaciones , Neoplasias Colorrectales/genética , Sueño
18.
In Vivo ; 38(1): 453-459, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38148079

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: In recent years, the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) has been reported as a predictor of prognosis in many patients with cancer. This study investigated the association of preoperative GNRI with the occurrence of adverse events and duration of treatment with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (CAPOX), a postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, in 59 patients with colorectal cancer from September 2019 to April 2022. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cut-off value of 100.9 was used to categorize patients into high and low GNRI groups. RESULTS: The incidence of grade ≥2 leukopenia (p=0.03), and all grades peripheral neuropathy (p=0.04) were significantly more frequent in the low GNRI group. Analysis of factors influencing treatment duration by univariate and multivariate Cox regression proportional hazards models showed a significant difference in GNRI (p=0.0097). CONCLUSION: GNRI, a nutritional indicator assessed before the start of treatment, influences the occurrence of adverse events and duration of treatment with CAPOX as adjuvant chemotherapy. To complete CAPOX therapy, preoperatively, it is important to assess the patients' nutritional status using the GNRI and to actively intervene in nutritional therapy.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Duración de la Terapia , Humanos , Anciano , Estado Nutricional , Pronóstico , Oxaliplatino/efectos adversos , Neoplasias Colorrectales/tratamiento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adyuvante/efectos adversos , Evaluación Nutricional , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Retrospectivos
19.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 143(12): 1075-1081, 2023.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38044112

RESUMEN

Since it is important that patients take their oral anticancer therapy as prescribed, pharmacists need to assess adherence. In addition, oral anticancer drugs are expensive, and reuse of leftover drugs at outpatient pharmacy clinics is useful in reducing drug costs. The present study aimed to clarify when and why patients have leftover capecitabine tablets, and the cost of leftover capecitabine tablets reused at an outpatient pharmacy clinic, focusing on adjuvant capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (CAPOX) chemotherapy for gastric cancer. We retrospectively studied patients who received adjuvant CAPOX chemotherapy for gastric cancer between November 1, 2015, and April 30, 2021, at the Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research. The cost of leftover capecitabine reused by pharmacists was calculated based on the National Health Insurance drug price standard for the study period. This study included 64 patients who received adjuvant CAPOX chemotherapy. Thirty-seven patients had 152 leftover capecitabine tablets. The most common reasons for leftover capecitabine tablets were nausea and vomiting (21.7%), missed doses (18.4%), and diarrhea (13.2%). The leftover capecitabine tablets for 25 patients were reused at the outpatient pharmacy clinic at a cost of JPY 604142.8 (JPY 24165.7 per patient). The study results suggest that evaluating capecitabine adherence and the reasons for leftover capecitabine tablets at outpatient pharmacy clinics as well as reusing leftover medication can contribute to reducing drug costs.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Capecitabina/efectos adversos , Oxaliplatino , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Quimioterapia Adyuvante/efectos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Comprimidos , Fluorouracilo/efectos adversos
20.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1232858, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38022553

RESUMEN

Background: The efficacy of current adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric adenocarcinoma/gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (GA/GEJA) leaves much to be desired. ctDNA could serve as a potential marker to identify patients who are at higher risk of recurrence. Reinforcing standard adjuvant chemotherapy with immunotherapy has already been indicated to significantly improve clinical outcome, albeit such evidence is rare in GA/GEJA. Here, we intend to explore the clinical benefit of the reinforcement of adjuvant immunotherapy and antiangiogenics alongside with chemotherapy in patients who are deemed in high risk of recurrence by ctDNA analysis, which might shed light on further improvements in adjuvant therapy for GA/GEJA. Methods/Design: This study is designed as a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled phase II study in patients histologically or cytologically diagnosed with GA/GEJA who underwent D2 gastrectomy and achieved R0 or R1 resection. From February 2022, a total of 300 stage III patients will be enrolled and subjected according to ctDNA sequencing results, and those with positive results will subsequently be randomized 1:1 to arm A or B. Patients in arm A will receive anlotinib, penpulimab and XELOX for 6-8 cycles, maintained with anlotinib and penpulimab for up to 1 year, while patients in arm B will receive XELOX alone for 6-8 cycles. ctDNA-negative patients will be assigned to arm C, and patients who are ctDNA positive but failed in randomization will be assigned to arm D. Patients in arms C and D will receive the investigator's choice of therapy. The primary endpoint is the median disease-free survival (DFS) of arm A versus arm B determined via CT/MRI imaging. Secondary endpoints include the DFS of ctDNA positive patients versus ctDNA negative patients, the 2- and 3-year DFS rates, overall survival (OS), the impact of hallmark molecules on the treatment response, adverse events (AEs), and the impact of nutrition status or exercise on recurrence. Discussion: We expect that ctDNA would be a strong prognostic factor and ctDNA-positive patients are at higher risk of relapse than ctDNA-negative patients. The addition of anlotinib and penpulimab to XELOX, may contribute to delaying relapse in ctDNA-positive patients. Trial registration: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT05494060.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Fluorouracilo , Humanos , Fluorouracilo/uso terapéutico , Estudios Prospectivos , Oxaliplatino/uso terapéutico , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/tratamiento farmacológico , Unión Esofagogástrica , Adenocarcinoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Recurrencia , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , Ensayos Clínicos Fase II como Asunto
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