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2.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 15: 21501319241236007, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627966

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 (C19) pandemic shocked primary care systems around the world. Those systems responded by supporting patients in the community, and acute care facilities in crisis. In Canada, the Patient Medical Home (PMH) is a widely adopted care model that aims to operationalize the tenets and principles of Primary Health Care (PHC) as developed since the Alma-Ata Declaration. This paper describes how personnel working in and with Primary Care Networks (PCNs) in Alberta, Canada deployed the PMH model and its underlying PHC principles to frame and respond to the C19 shock. METHODS: Using purposive and snowball sampling techniques, we interviewed 57 participants who worked in public health and primary care, including community-based family physicians. We used interpretive description to analyze the interviews. RESULTS: PCN staff and physicians described how the PMH model was foundational to normal operations, and how C19 responses were framed by the patient-centric, team-delivered, and continuous care principles the model shares with PHC. Specifically, participants described ensuring access to care, addressing the social determinants of health, being patient centered, and redeploying and expanding PHC teams to accomplish these goals. DISCUSSION: Delivering PHC through the PMH allowed physicians and allied health staff to deliver patient-centered, team-based, holistic bio-medical services to Albertans. In tailoring services to meet the specific social and health needs of the populations served by each PCN, healthcare providers were able to ensure relevant support remained available and accessible.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Atención Primaria de Salud , Humanos , Alberta , Canadá , Atención Dirigida al Paciente , Médicos de Familia
3.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 83(1): 2336680, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590216

RESUMEN

The goal of this study was to examine and address critical knowledge gaps and develop an understanding of both the positive and negative societal outcomes resulting from the public health measures associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in Nunavut and the interventions being undertaken to promote positive well-being. Data collection for this study included narrative, in-person interviews in Iqaluit, Rankin Inlet, Baker Lake, and Cambridge Bay between September 2022 and January 2023. A total of 70 participants were interviewed for this study. Community highlighted challenges, such as crowding and food insecurity, and concern for the collective wellbeing of the community. Strengths included financials supports, food sharing, and maintaining community connections over a distance. Recommendations included a focus on holistic health such as 1) public education and awareness about communicable disease, 2) financial supports, 3) housing, 4) access to healthcare, 5) focus on Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit, 6) mental-health and addiction supports, and 7) community spaces. Community members described both strengths and challenges they believe impacted their experiences and service delivery as well as recommendations for the future.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Inuk , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Nunavut , Pandemias
4.
J Glob Health ; 14: 04068, 2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606605

RESUMEN

Background: Central and bridge nodes can drive significant overall improvements within their respective networks. We aimed to identify them in 16 prevalent chronic diseases during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to guide effective intervention strategies and appropriate resource allocation for most significant holistic lifestyle and health improvements. Methods: We surveyed 16 512 adults from July 2020 to August 2021 in 30 territories. Participants self-reported their medical histories and the perceived impact of COVID-19 on 18 lifestyle factors and 13 health outcomes. For each disease subgroup, we generated lifestyle, health outcome, and bridge networks. Variables with the highest centrality indices in each were identified central or bridge. We validated these networks using nonparametric and case-dropping subset bootstrapping and confirmed central and bridge variables' significantly higher indices through a centrality difference test. Findings: Among the 48 networks, 44 were validated (all correlation-stability coefficients >0.25). Six central lifestyle factors were identified: less consumption of snacks (for the chronic disease: anxiety), less sugary drinks (cancer, gastric ulcer, hypertension, insomnia, and pre-diabetes), less smoking tobacco (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), frequency of exercise (depression and fatty liver disease), duration of exercise (irritable bowel syndrome), and overall amount of exercise (autoimmune disease, diabetes, eczema, heart attack, and high cholesterol). Two central health outcomes emerged: less emotional distress (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eczema, fatty liver disease, gastric ulcer, heart attack, high cholesterol, hypertension, insomnia, and pre-diabetes) and quality of life (anxiety, autoimmune disease, cancer, depression, diabetes, and irritable bowel syndrome). Four bridge lifestyles were identified: consumption of fruits and vegetables (diabetes, high cholesterol, hypertension, and insomnia), less duration of sitting (eczema, fatty liver disease, and heart attack), frequency of exercise (autoimmune disease, depression, and heart attack), and overall amount of exercise (anxiety, gastric ulcer, and insomnia). The centrality difference test showed the central and bridge variables had significantly higher centrality indices than others in their networks (P < 0.05). Conclusion: To effectively manage chronic diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic, enhanced interventions and optimised resource allocation toward central lifestyle factors, health outcomes, and bridge lifestyles are paramount. The key variables shared across chronic diseases emphasise the importance of coordinated intervention strategies.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Autoinmunes , COVID-19 , Eccema , Hipertensión , Síndrome del Colon Irritable , Hepatopatías , Infarto del Miocardio , Estado Prediabético , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Adulto , Humanos , Colesterol , Enfermedad Crónica , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estilo de Vida , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Pandemias , Calidad de Vida , Úlcera
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 470, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622621

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic unveiled huge challenges in health workforce governance in the context of public health emergencies in Africa. Several countries applied several measures to ensure access to qualified and skilled health workers to respond to the pandemic and provide essential health services. However, there has been limited documentation of these measures. This study was undertaken to examine the health workforce governance strategies applied by 15 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Africa Region in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We extracted data from country case studies developed from national policy documents, reports and grey literature obtained from the Ministries of Health and other service delivery agencies. This study was conducted from October 2020 to January 2021 in 15 countries - Angola, Burkina Faso, Chad, Eswatini, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal and Togo. RESULTS: All 15 countries had national multi-sectoral bodies to manage the COVID-19 response and a costed national COVID-19 response plan. All the countries also reflected human resources for health (HRH) activities along the different response pillars. These activities included training for health workers, and budget for the recruitment or mobilization of additional health workers to support the response, and for provision of financial and non-financial incentives for health workers. Nine countries recruited additional 35,812 health workers either on a permanent or temporary basis to respond to the COVID-19 with an abridged process of recruitment implemented to ensure needed health workers are in place on time. Six countries redeployed 3671 health workers to respond to the COVID-19. The redeployment of existing health workers was reported to have impacted negatively on essential health service provision. CONCLUSION: Strengthening multi-sector engagement in the development of public health emergency plans is critical as this promotes the development of holistic interventions needed to improve health workforce availability, retention, incentivization, and coordination. It also ensures optimized utilization based on competencies, especially for the existing health workers.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Senegal , Organización Mundial de la Salud
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e54008, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587889

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Numerous prior opinion papers, administrative electronic health record data studies, and cross-sectional surveys of telehealth during the pandemic have been published, but none have combined assessments of video visit success monitoring with longitudinal assessments of perceived challenges to the rapid adoption of video visits during the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to quantify (1) the use of video visits (compared with in-person and telephone visits) over time during the pandemic, (2) video visit successful connection rates, and (3) changes in perceived video visit challenges. METHODS: A web-based survey was developed for the dual purpose of monitoring and improving video visit implementation in our health care system during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey included questions regarding rates of in-person, telephone, and video visits for clinician-patient encounters; the rate of successful connection for video visits; and perceived challenges to video visits (eg, software, hardware, bandwidth, and technology literacy). The survey was distributed via email to physicians, advanced practice professionals, and clinicians in May 2020. The survey was repeated in March 2021. Differences between the 2020 and 2021 responses were adjusted for within-respondent correlation across surveys and tested using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: A total of 1126 surveys were completed (511 surveys in 2020 and 615 surveys in 2021). In 2020, only 21.7% (73/336) of clinicians reported no difficulty connecting with patients during video visits and 28.6% (93/325) of clinicians reported no difficulty in 2021. The distribution of the percentage of successfully connected video visits ("Over the past two weeks of scheduled visits, what percentage did you successfully connect with patients by video?") was not significantly different between 2020 and 2021 (P=.74). Challenges in conducting video visits persisted over time. Poor connectivity was the most common challenge reported by clinicians. This response increased over time, with 30.5% (156/511) selecting it as a challenge in 2020 and 37.1% (228/615) in 2021 (P=.01). Patients not having access to their electronic health record portals was also a commonly reported challenge (109/511, 21.3% in 2020 and 137/615, 22.3% in 2021, P=.73). CONCLUSIONS: During the pandemic, our health care delivery system rapidly adopted synchronous patient-clinician communication using video visits. As experience with video visits increased, the reported failure rate did not significantly decline, and clinicians continued to report challenges related to general network connectivity and patient access to technology.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Medios de Comunicación , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , Estudios Transversales , Comunicación
7.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1298471, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38633263

RESUMEN

Introduction: In light of the public health burden of the COVID-19 pandemic, boosting the safety and immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines is of great concern. Numerous Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations have shown to beneficially modulate immunity. Based on pilot experiments in mice that showed that supplementation with Huoxiang Suling Shuanghua Decoction (HSSD) significantly enhances serum anti-RBD IgG titers after inoculation with recombinant SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD protein, we conducted this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial aimed to evaluate the potential immunogenicity boosting effect of oral HSSD after a third homologous immunization with Sinovac's CoronaVac SARS-CoV-2 (CVS) inactivated vaccine. Methods: A total of 70 participants were randomly assigned (1:1 ratio) to receive a third dose of CVS vaccination and either oral placebo or oral HSSD for 7 days. Safety aspects were assessed by recording local and systemic adverse events, and by blood and urine biochemistry and liver and kidney function tests. Main outcomes evaluated included serum anti-RBD IgG titer, T lymphocyte subsets, serum IgG and IgM levels, complement components (C3 and C4), and serum cytokines (IL-6 and IFN-γ). In addition, metabolomics technology was used to analyze differential metabolite expression after supplementation with HSSD. Results: Following a third CVS vaccination, significantly increased serum anti-RBD IgG titer, reduced serum IL-6 levels, increased serum IgG, IgM, and C3 and C4 levels, and improved cellular immunity, evidenced by reduce balance deviations in the distribution of lymphocyte subsets, was observed in the HSSD group compared with the placebo group. No serious adverse events were recorded in either group. Serum metabolomics results suggested that the mechanisms by which HSSD boosted the immunogenicity of the CVS vaccine are related to differential regulation of purine metabolism, vitamin B6 metabolism, folate biosynthesis, arginine and proline metabolism, and steroid hormone biosynthesis. Conclusion: Oral HSSD boosts the immunogenicity of the CVS vaccine in young and adult individuals. This trial provides clinical reference for evaluation of TCM immunomodulators to improve the immune response to COVID-19 vaccines.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados , Adulto , Humanos , Animales , Ratones , Interleucina-6 , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inmunoglobulina G , Inmunoglobulina M
8.
J Infect Public Health ; 17(5): 767-773, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518682

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The common cold is one of the most frequently occurring illnesses worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine which OTC anti-common cold medications were most often recommended by pharmacists and if the COVID-19 pandemic affected such recommendations. METHODS: Non-interventional, observational research trial using a self-developed questionnaire to collect data on pharmacists' recommendations for anti-common cold OTC treatment. The data were collected during the COVID-19 pandemic (December 2021-February 2022) in four large community network pharmacies in Lodz (Poland) and then compared with an analogue period of time before the pandemic (December 2019-February 2020). RESULTS: During COVID-19 pandemic there was a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in paracetamol, acetylsalicylic acid, metamizole magnesium, inosines, alpha-mimetics, mucolytics, homeopathics, and sore throat products and an increase in other tablets/capsules and add-on product recommendations. There was a significant relationship (p < 0.05, OR > 1) between the recommended frequency of paracetamol, inosines, sore throat products (each symptom), metamizole magnesium (headache, fever), acetylsalicylic acid (headache, fever, fatigue), NSAIDs, alpha-mimetics (headache, rhinorrhea), pseudoephedrine (rhinorrhea), homeopathics (headache), herbal products (fatigue), antihistamines (rhinorrhea, cough), and mucolytics (headache, fever, cough). CONCLUSIONS: Favorable prices (before COVID-19 pandemic) and reports on common NSAIDs side effects (beginning of the pandemic) led to high sale of paracetamol. Increased awareness of clinical effectiveness of some medications or their reduced availability influenced their limited recommendations.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Resfriado Común , Faringitis , Humanos , Acetaminofén/uso terapéutico , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/uso terapéutico , Aspirina/uso terapéutico , Resfriado Común/tratamiento farmacológico , Resfriado Común/inducido químicamente , Tos , Expectorantes/uso terapéutico , Cefalea/inducido químicamente , Cefalea/tratamiento farmacológico , Medicamentos sin Prescripción/uso terapéutico , Pandemias , Farmacéuticos , Faringitis/inducido químicamente , Faringitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Rinorrea
9.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 37: 46-50, 2024 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432840

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Due to the rapid advance of coronavírus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020, social distancing was the main way to reduce the transmission of the virus. Although this measure was efficient and necessary, the social distancing had severe consequences for physical function, mainly in older individuals. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of social distancing in the functional and cognitive capacity of community-dwelling oldest-old adults. METHODS: The present study is part of a larger prospective cohort study. Fifteen participants aged 90 years old or older were assessed in the 8-foot-timed-up-and-go test (8-footTUG), sit-to-stand-up test (STS), handgrip strength test (HGS), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Katz Index and Lawton Scale before and after one year of social distancing. RESULTS: A significant worsening in the 8-footTUG and MMSE score was observed, while there were no significant changes in the other variables. When analyzing the decreases in relation to previous functional capacity, it was observed that individuals categorized as dependent by STS cut-off points had the worst decreases in functional capacity. CONCLUSION: The social distancing provoked by COVID-19 pandemic negatively affected the 8-footTUG and cognition. Moreover, individuals dependents showed greater decline in their functional capacity.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adulto , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Humanos , Anciano , COVID-19/epidemiología , Centenarios , Nonagenarios , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Fuerza de la Mano , Distanciamiento Físico , Equilibrio Postural , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios de Tiempo y Movimiento , Cognición
10.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1309089, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38487184

RESUMEN

The coronavirus pandemic that began in December 2019, has had an unprecedented impact on the global economy, health systems and infrastructure, in addition to being responsible for significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. The "new normal" has brought along, unforeseen challenges for the scientific community, owing to obstructions in conducting field-based research in lieu of minimizing exposure through in-person contact. This has had greater ramifications for the LMICs, adding to the already existing concerns. As a response to COVID-19 related movement restrictions, public health researchers across countries had to switch to remote data collections methods. However, impediments like lack of awareness and skepticism among participants, dependence on paper-based prescriptions, dearth of digitized patient records, gaps in connectivity, reliance on smart phones, concerns with participant privacy at home and greater loss to follow-up act as hurdles to carrying out a research study virtually, especially in resource-limited settings. Promoting health literacy through science communication, ensuring digitization of health records in hospitals, and employing measures to encourage research participation among the general public are some steps to tackle barriers to remote research in the long term. COVID-19 may not be a health emergency anymore, but we are not immune to future pandemics. A more holistic approach to research by turning obstacles into opportunities will not just ensure a more comprehensive public health response in the coming time, but also bolster the existing infrastructure for a stronger healthcare system for countries.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Alfabetización en Salud , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , Comunicación , Países en Desarrollo
11.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1250608, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38525347

RESUMEN

Introduction: Scholars worldwide have defined the COVID-19 pandemic as a mass-disabling event of our time. The situation is grave for families experiencing financial hurdles while caring for young adults in recovery from addiction problems. Methods: Using semi-structured interviews with 30 purposively selected family caregivers (FCGs) of young adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) in Lusaka, Zambia, this study reveals several factors influencing forgone healthcare for this medically vulnerable group. Results: Financial challenges and huge out-of-pocket bills; caregivers' perceived far-fetched recovery of the young adult; the cost of medication and transportation; the young adult's little perceived need for healthcare service use, their runaway and treatment elusive tendencies; caregiver concerns about contracting the virus, and the stigma associated with it; and a fragmented child and adolescent mental health system influenced forgone healthcare. The young adults were often unavailable for days and months, posing challenges to the continuity of care. Despite caregivers' acknowledgment of the availability of healthcare professionals, young adults with problematic substance use had limited access to SUD recovery services, resulting in adverse health outcomes. Results also show that most family caregivers encountered challenges in accessing and purchasing psychotropic medications, which were difficult to find during the lockdowns. Some family caregivers lost their sources of income by being laid off from work due to the pandemic and skipping work to attend to caregiving responsibilities. Most of those in self-employment had to close their business and stay home to look after their youth. Several caregivers kept their youth at home because they failed to access private residential SUD recovery services. Family caregivers mostly relied on outpatient public health services, alternative medicine from traditional healers, and faith-based healing, all of which some young adults rarely accessed because of their problematic behaviors of escaping healthcare. Conclusion: These identifiable risk factors, and their detrimental consequences highlight the need for interventions to improve healthcare access for this vulnerable population. Supporting FCGs of addicted young adults is crucial in ensuring the well-being of both the caregivers and care recipients. Further research is warranted to explore potential solutions, such as peer support programs, policy changes, and education initiatives for carers and recipients in the (post) pandemic era.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Niño , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Cuidadores/psicología , Pandemias , Zambia/epidemiología , Atención a la Salud , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia
12.
Glob Public Health ; 19(1): 2323028, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471036

RESUMEN

ABSTRACTScientific evidence on the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical drugs, substances and herbal medicines is important in medical advertising and promotion. Following guidelines for conducting a scoping review, we systematically searched PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science to identify in peer reviewed articles medications that were promoted and used widely in Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also searched for information about how safety concerns about untested/or not properly tested drugs were communicated to the public during the pandemic. Of the 2043 articles identified, 41 papers were eligible for inclusion. Most studies were clinical trials (n = 11), systematic reviews (n = 9), quantitative studies (n = 9) the rest were qualitative studies, reviews and reports. We found that following global trends, several drugs, traditional and herbal treatments were used and repurposed for the treatment of respiratory symptoms of COVID-19 in Africa. The results highlighted the value of some herbal medicines for treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the risks posed by the unregulated sharing of advice and recommendations on treatments in Africa, and globally.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Medicina Tradicional , Humanos , África , Pandemias
13.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 125(4): 244-249, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526861

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated independently of clinical education, it has been emphasized that students experience fear, anxiety, sadness and uncertainty during the pandemic. AIM: This study aimed to investigate the effect of fear of COVID-19 on the level of anxiety and self-confidence of midwifery students who did their clinical internship during the pandemic. METHODS: Convenience sampling yielded 181 senior midwifery students who had experienced clinical internships during the COVID-19 pandemic. Two state universities conducted an online cross-sectional predictive study from February to June 2021. Data were collected by an Information Form, the COVID-19 Fear Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Self-Confidence Scale. RESULTS: The study findings were that the students' fear of COVID-19 (16.72 ± 4.89), state anxiety (52.65 ± 8.41), and trait anxiety (48.66 ± 6.80) were above average, and their self-confidence was moderate. The result indicated that midwifery students' fear of COVID-19 increased, their state anxiety increased (p < 0.01), and their self-confidence decreased (p < 0.01). Fear of COVID-19 accounted for 47% of state anxiety, 6% of trait anxiety, and 22% of self-confidence. CONCLUSION: The level of COVID-19 fear of midwifery students who did clinical internships during the pandemic negatively affected their anxiety and self-confidence levels (Tab. 4, Ref. 34). Text in PDF www.elis.sk Keywords: pandemic, midwifery, fear of COVID-19, anxiety, self-confidence.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Partería , Humanos , Embarazo , Femenino , Estudios Transversales , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Miedo , Estudiantes
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 279, 2024 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443959

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Healthcare accessibility and utilization are important social determinants of health. Lack of access to healthcare, including missed or no-show appointments, can have negative health effects and be costly to patients and providers. Various office-based approaches and community partnerships can address patient access barriers. OBJECTIVES: (1) To understand provider perceptions of patient barriers; (2) to describe the policies and practices used to address late or missed appointments, and (3) to evaluate access to patient support services, both in-clinic and with community partners. METHODS: Mailed cross-sectional survey with online response option, sent to all Nebraska primary care clinics (n = 577) conducted April 2020 and January through April 2021. Chi-square tests compared rural-urban differences; logistic regression of clinical factors associated with policies and support services computed odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Response rate was 20.3% (n = 117), with 49 returns in 2020. Perceived patient barriers included finances, higher among rural versus urban clinics (81.6% vs. 56.1%, p =.009), and time (overall 52.3%). Welcoming environment (95.5%), telephone appointment reminders (74.8%) and streamlined admissions (69.4%) were the top three clinic practices to reduce missed appointments. Telehealth was the most commonly available patient support service in rural (79.6%) and urban (81.8%, p =.90) clinics. Number of providers was positively associated with having a patient navigator/care coordinator (OR = 1.20, CI = 1.02-1.40). For each percent increase in the number of privately insured patients, the odds of providing legal aid decreased by 4% (OR = 0.96, CI = 0.92-1.00). Urban clinics were less likely than rural clinics to provide social work services (OR = 0.16, CI = 0.04-0.67) or assist with applications for government aid (OR = 0.22, CI = 0.06-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: Practices to reduce missed appointments included a variety of reminders. Although finances and inability to take time off work were the most frequently reported perceived barriers for patients' access to timely healthcare, most clinics did not directly address them. Rural clinics appeared to have more community partnerships to address underlying social determinants of health, such as transportation and assistance applying for government aid. Taking such a wholistic partnership approach is an area for future study to improve patient access.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Pandemias , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Políticas , Atención Primaria de Salud
15.
BMC Res Notes ; 17(1): 65, 2024 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38444033

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates a multi-centered complementary medicine (CM) student-led telehealth clinic during the COVID-19 pandemic. Likert and qualitative responses explore student and educator learning and teaching perceptions of the implementation of a successful telehealth clinic. RESULTS: 51 students and 17 educators completed the survey. Respondents agreed that support from educators (90%) and orientation (70%) assisted effective performance. Over 90% (93%) of all respondents supported telehealth in student-led clinics, whilst 87% encountered barriers such as technical and infrastructure issues. Respondents agreed that telehealth practice skills improved in case history taking (90%), treatment (90%) and building patient rapport (60%). Respondents (61%) disagreed that physical examination was effectively performed, and 100% of respondents agreed telehealth was a valuable learning experience. This study is the first to explore student and educator perceptions of telehealth in an Australian University multi-centered CM student-led clinic. To be successful in an educational environment, students and educators require digital literacy and adequate telehealth practice infrastructure. Whilst some in-person practice skills are transferable to telehealth, educators need to adapt curriculum to ensure counselling and physical examination skills are specifically taught for virtual consultations. Telehealth in clinical practice requires continued investigation and educational development.


Asunto(s)
Terapias Complementarias , Telemedicina , Humanos , Pandemias , Australia , Estudiantes
16.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474807

RESUMEN

Over the past few decades, vitamin D has been found to play a crucial role in bone homeostasis, muscle function, oncogenesis, immune response and metabolism. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous researchers have tried to determine the role vitamin D might play in the immune response to the virus. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to demonstrate that preventive vitamin D supplementation can play a protective role in the incidence of COVID-19, mortality and admission to intensive care units (ICUs). A comprehensive search on the PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane and Google Scholar databases was performed on 15 May 2023, and two of the authors independently screened the literature. As effect measures, we calculated the Odds Ratios with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (ICs). The assessment of potential bias and the evaluation of study quality will be conducted independently by two researchers. Sixteen publications were selected for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Our findings indicate that vitamin D supplementation has a protective effect against the incidence of COVID-19 in RCT studies (OR 0.403, 95% IC 0.218, 0.747), in the incidence of COVID-19 in analytical studies (OR = 0.592, 95% IC 0.476-0.736) and in ICU admission (OR 0.317, 95% IC 0.147-0.680). Subsequent analyses were conducted by type of subject treated (patient/healthcare workers) and type of supplementation (vitamin D vs. placebo/no treatment or high dose vs. low dose). Our meta-analysis suggests a definitive and significant association between the protective role of vitamin D and COVID-19 incidence and ICU admission.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamina D , Humanos , Pandemias , Vitaminas , Suplementos Dietéticos
17.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299300, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478509

RESUMEN

Loneliness, perceived stress, depression, and anxiety have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many of existing mindfulness and compassion-based intervention are effective, but are time-intensive, decreasing overall accessibility and scalability. Single-session interventions (SSIs) serve as a promising alternative. The current pre-registered randomized clinical trial evaluated a newly developed, manualized, mindfulness-based single-session intervention. 91 adults were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) one-hour mindfulness only telehealth intervention; (b) one-hour mindfulness and compassion telehealth intervention; or (c) one-week waitlist control (before randomization to an active intervention). Intervention sessions were conducted by graduate students in clinical psychology. The primary outcome was self-reported loneliness; secondary outcomes were self-reported perceived stress, depression, and anxiety. Using Bayesian multilevel models, we found that compared to the waitlist-control, the inclusion of a compassion component led to meaningful reductions in perceived stress b = -3.75, 95% HDI [-6.95, -0.59], anxiety b = -3.79, 95% HDI [-6.99, -0.53], and depression b = -3.01, 95% HDI [-5.22, -0.78], but not loneliness at the 1-week follow-up. Results suggest that a single-session mindfulness and compassion intervention may lead to meaningful reductions in perceived stress, symptoms of anxiety, and symptoms of depression, but not loneliness. Implications of these findings are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Atención Plena , Adulto , Humanos , Atención Plena/métodos , Depresión/terapia , Depresión/psicología , Teorema de Bayes , Pandemias , Ansiedad/terapia , Ansiedad/psicología
18.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 54(1): 106-117, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480581

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of stress vulnerability and parental burnout on the mental health of women with early school-aged children, with a focus on the mediating role of spirituality. METHODS: A survey was conducted among 171 women with early school-aged children in Gyeonggi Province, Gangwon Province, and Seoul. Data were collected from September to December 2022 using the Korean-Symptom Check List 95, the Parental Burnout Assessment, and the Spirituality Assessment Scale. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling with SPSS/WIN 22.0 and AMOS 20.0. RESULTS: The study model demonstrated a good fit, explaining 40.5% of the variance in mental health through stress vulnerability, parental burnout, and spirituality. Spirituality had a significant direct impact on mental health. Additionally, participants' spirituality directly influenced their mental health, while stress vulnerability and parental burnout indirectly affected their mental health and were mediated through spirituality. CONCLUSION: Stress vulnerability and parental burnout are negatively associated with mental health, while spirituality partially mediates these effects. Implementing a program to promote spirituality is suggested to assist mothers in recognizing the value and meaning of parenting activities during nursing interventions for mental health.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , COVID-19 , Niño , Humanos , Femenino , Salud Mental , Espiritualidad , Pandemias , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Agotamiento Psicológico , Madres/psicología
19.
Healthc Pap ; 21(4): 5-14, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38482653

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization envisions achieving "Health for All," to strive for equitable access to important health information and services to attain wellness (WHO 2023a). The COVID-19 pandemic reshaped the Canadian health system toward increasing digital health services, which improved access for some but underserved others. Integrating digital health into holistic health services delivery deserves careful consideration. This paper introduces the concept of "essential digital health for the underserved," by first defining the terms "digital health," "essential" and "underserved." Then, we share a summary of a discussion at a May 2023 conference with stakeholders, including patients, caregivers, health professionals, health policy makers, private sectors and health researchers. A series of papers follow to explore how digital health can help chart a responsible course for the future of essential digital health in Canada. In this post-pandemic era - with a health human resources shortage through attrition and retirement, an increased health service demand from patients and a greater strain on our recovering economy - innovative solutions need to be implemented to strengthen our Canadian health system.


Asunto(s)
Salud Digital , Pandemias , Humanos , Canadá , Atención a la Salud , Política de Salud
20.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 12: e52968, 2024 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488513

RESUMEN

Background: Perceived stress in the United States has drastically increased since the COVID-19 pandemic and is associated with negative mental health outcomes such as depression and anxiety. Digital mental health (DMH) interventions are efficacious tools to address negative mental health outcomes and have helped reduce the severity of psychological symptoms, such as anxiety, depression, and perceived stress, compared to waitlist controls. Although DMH tools have been studied in controlled settings, less is known about the real-world evidence of such interventions. Objective: This study aimed to (1) characterize patterns in baseline perceived stress and changes in perceived stress among Headspace members with moderate and severe baseline perceived stress and (2) examine associations between engagement with Headspace content and changes in perceived stress (ie, evaluate whether there is a dose-response relationship). Methods: We evaluated real-world perceived stress and engagement data at 2 time points among Headspace app members with baseline moderate and severe perceived stress. Perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and engagement using active days and active minutes engaged with Headspace as well as the number of user sessions. Descriptive statistics were computed for all variables. Correlations between baseline and follow-up scores, percent change in PSS-10 scores, days between PSS-10 use, active days, active days per week, active minutes, active minutes per day, sessions, and sessions per week were evaluated. We used t tests to investigate differences in the abovementioned parameters between (1) participants who did and those who did not see improvements in PSS-10 scores (yes vs no improvement) and (2) participants who saw ≥30% improvement versus those who saw a <30% improvement in PSS-10 scores. Results: Overall, 21,088 Headspace members were included in these analyses. On average, members saw a 23.52% decrease in PSS-10 scores from baseline to follow-up. On average, members had 2.42 (SD 1.76) active days per week and 25.89 (SD 33.40) active minutes per day, and completed 7.11 (SD 8.34) sessions per week. t tests suggest that members who saw improvements in PSS-10 scores from baseline to follow-up had significantly higher baseline PSS-10 scores (Cohen d=0.56), more active days per week (Cohen d=0.33), and more sessions per week (Cohen d=0.27) than those who did not see improvements in PSS-10 scores (all P<.001). Additional t tests suggest that members with ≥30% improvement in PSS-10 scores had significantly higher baseline PSS-10 scores (Cohen d=0.35), more active days per week (Cohen d=0.36), and more sessions per week (Cohen d=0.31) than those with a >30% improvement (all P<.001). Conclusions: Real-world use of Headspace is associated with decreased perceived stress. Furthermore, data suggest that more engagement, specifically weekly active days and sessions, is associated with a greater likelihood of stress reduction.


Asunto(s)
Atención Plena , Aplicaciones Móviles , Pruebas Psicológicas , Autoinforme , Humanos , Pandemias , Estrés Psicológico/terapia , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
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