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1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300063, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603703

RESUMEN

Vitamin D plays an essential role in bone and mineral metabolism. There is increased interest in understanding prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy as many studies report association of low vitamin D levels with obstetric complications and neonatal sequelae. There is a paucity of studies in Singapore evaluating levels of vitamin D levels during the first trimester of pregnancies. We aim to study the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in this population. Our study assessed vitamin D levels in these women. Vitamin D (Plasma 25(OH)D concentration) levels in multiracial women during the first trimester were collected via venepuncture at their booking antenatal visit. They were stratified into sufficient ≥30ng/ml, insufficient ≥20ng/ml and <30ng/ml, moderately deficient ≥10ng/ml and <20ng/ml and severely deficient <10ng/ml. 93 women were included in this study. Only 2.2% of our study population had sufficient vitamin D levels. In women who had insufficient levels, the heavier the weight, the more likely to be vitamin D deficient. Interestingly, we also note that the older the patient, the less likely they are to be deficient. In women with periconceptual multivitamin supplementation, the average vitamin D level for those with supplementation was 2.10ng/ml higher than those without. Majority of patients were recruited from a single study member's patient pool who were mostly Chinese. Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in general obstetric patients with higher BMI and darker skinned patients may be even lower in Singapore. The high prevalence of Vitamin D insufficiency in our patients prove that it is a prominent problem in our population. We aim to implement screening of vitamin D levels as part of antenatal investigations in the first trimester and recommend supplementation as required. We also hope to evaluate the association of low vitamin D levels with obstetric or neonatal complications further understanding its implications.


Asunto(s)
Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Singapur/epidemiología , Vitaminas , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/epidemiología
2.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0296247, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625871

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The role of Vitamin D in immune function is well reported with a growing evidence base linking low levels to poorer outcomes from infectious disease. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are prevalent worldwide with healthcare workers identified as a known at-risk group. Here we aim to investigate serum Vitamin D levels in a UK population of front line healthcare workers and to promote the occupational risk. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 639 volunteers was conducted to identify the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency amongst a population of front-line health care workers in the UK. Participant demographics and co-morbid factors were collected at the time of serum sampling for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Only 18.8% of the population had a normal vitamin D level greater than or equal to 75nmol/L. This is compared to Public Health England's (PHE) stipulated normal levels of 60% during winter. 81.2% had a level less than 75nmol/L, with 51.2% less than 50nmol/L and 6.6% less than 25nmol/L. For serum levels less than 25nmol/L, Asian ethnicity was more likely to have a vitamin D deficiency than non-asian (OR (95%CI): 3.81 (1.73-8.39), p = 0.001), whereas white ethnicity was less likely to have a vitamin D deficiency compared to non-white (OR (95%CI: 0.43 (0.20-0.83), p = 0.03). Other factors that contributed to a higher likelihood of lower-than-normal levels within this population included male sex, decreased age and not taking supplementation. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that our population of healthcare workers have higher rates of abnormal vitamin D levels in comparison with the general UK population reported prevalence. Furthermore, Asian ethnicity and age 30 years and below are more at risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency. This highlights an occupational risk factor for the healthcare community to consider.


Asunto(s)
Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Vitaminas , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Prevalencia
3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 412, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566103

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bone-modifying agents (BMA) are key components in the management of cancer patients with bone metastasis. Despite their clinical benefits, the use of BMA is associated with dental adverse events (AEs) including medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). This study investigated the frequency of dental surveillance before BMA treatment and the prevalence of dental AEs including MRONJ, after BMA treatment in patients with bone metastasis from breast and prostate cancer using data from the national health insurance system. METHODS: Data, including age, cancer diagnosis, administered BMA, and dental AEs during cancer treatment, of patients with bone metastasis from breast and prostate cancer who received at least one infusion of BMA between 2007 and 2019 were extracted from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (KNHIS) dataset. RESULTS: Of the 15,357 patients who received BMA, 1,706 patients (11.1%) underwent dental check-ups before BMA treatment. The proportion of patients receiving dental check-up increased from 4.4% in 2007 to 16.7% in 2019. Referral to dentists for a dental check-up was more active in clinics/primary hospitals than general/tertiary hospitals, and medical doctors and urologists actively consulted to dentists than general surgeons, regardless of the patient's health insurance status. After BMA treatment, 508 patients (3.8%) developed dental AEs, including abscess (42.9%), acute periodontitis (29.7%), acute pericoronitis (14.9%), and MRONJ (12.5% of dental AEs cases, 0.5% of total BMA treated patients). CONCLUSIONS: Considering the long treatment period in patients with metastatic cancer, coordination between dentists and oncologists is necessary to ensure appropriate dental management before the initiation of BMA.


Asunto(s)
Osteonecrosis de los Maxilares Asociada a Difosfonatos , Conservadores de la Densidad Ósea , Neoplasias de la Próstata , Cirujanos , Masculino , Humanos , Osteonecrosis de los Maxilares Asociada a Difosfonatos/diagnóstico , Osteonecrosis de los Maxilares Asociada a Difosfonatos/etiología , Osteonecrosis de los Maxilares Asociada a Difosfonatos/terapia , Conservadores de la Densidad Ósea/efectos adversos , Prevalencia , Neoplasias de la Próstata/tratamiento farmacológico , Programas Nacionales de Salud , República de Corea/epidemiología , Difosfonatos/efectos adversos
4.
Nutr. clín. diet. hosp ; 44(2): 83-90, Abr. 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-VR-3

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre talla baja y erro-res de refracción ocular en escolares de Muquiyauyo. Metodología: El tamaño de la población estuvo constituidapor 250 escolares y el tamaño muestral (n) para el nivel deconfianza 99.99% fue de 215 escolares, el estudio fue analí-tico observacional transversal, y la técnica utilizada para la re-colección de datos fue de observación y encuesta medianteuna ficha con datos de medición antropométrica y refracciónocular (medida de vista con autokeratorefractometro). Resultados: De los 215 niños evaluados 158 presentanerrores de refracción ocular, a quienes se les realizó la medidade vista con autokeratorefractometro; presentando 17 niñosmiopía, 9 hipermetropía, 21 astigmatismo, 32 miopía y astig-matismo y 79 hipermetropía y astigmatismo. Con respecto al análisis bivariado de talla baja y miopía, astigmatismo, hiperme tropía se encontraron que los niños que tienen tallabaja se asociaron significativamente con el astigmatismo p = <0.0000965, la razón de prevalencia =2.33 IC (1.44,3.78); es decir, que los que presentan talla baja tienen dosveces más el riesgo de presentar astigmatismo. Los niños que presentaron talla baja se asocian significati-vamente con refracción ocular P=<0.01 razón de prevalencia6.81 IC (2.57,18.1). Conclusión: Los escolares de Muquiyauyo con talla bajatienen 6 veces más riesgo de presentar alteraciones en la re-fracción ocular.(AU)


Objective: To determine the association between shortstature and ocular refractive errors in schoolchildren inMuquiyauyo. Methodology: The population size consisted of 250 scho-olchildren and the sample size(n) for the 99.99% confidencelevel was 215 schoolchildren. The study was a cross-sectionalobservational analytical study, and the technique used fordata collection was observation and survey using an anthro-pometric measurement and ocular refraction data sheet (eyemeasurement with autokeratorefractometer). Results: Of the 215 children evaluated, 158 had ocular re-fractive errors, and their eyesight was measured with an au-tokeratorefractometer; 17 children had myopia, 9 had hypero-pia, 21 had astigmatism, 32 had myopia and astigmatism and79 had hyperopia and astigmatism. With respect to the biva-riate analysis of short stature and myopia, astigmatism andhyperopia, it was found that children with short stature weresignificantly associated with astigmatism p = <0.0000965,prevalence ratio =2.33 CI (1.44, 3.78); that is, those withshort stature have twice the risk of presenting astigmatism. Children with short stature are significantly associated withocular refraction P=<0.01 prevalence ratio 6.81 CI (2.57,18.1). Conclusion: Muquiyauyo school children with short statureare 6 times more likely to have ocular refractive disorders.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Refracción Ocular , Estatura , Prevalencia , Crecimiento , Desarrollo Infantil , Perú , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Bone ; 184: 117108, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642819

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) has adverse implications for bone health but is relatively understudied. In this study we examine the prevalence and determinants of SHPT and describe the relationship of SHPT with bone turnover markers and bone mineral density (BMD) in older Irish adults. METHOD: Eligible participants (n = 4139) were identified from the Trinity-Ulster-Department of Agriculture (TUDA) study, a cohort of Irish adults aged ≥60 years. Exclusion criteria included an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 ml/min and serum calcium >2.5 mmol/l to remove hyperparathyroidism due to advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and primary hyperparathyroidism respectively. The relationship between SHPT and bone turnover markers and BMD (measured by densitometry) was examined in a subsample (n = 1488). Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25 (OH)D] <30 nmol/l. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 73.6 ± 7.9 years, 65.1 % were female and 19.4 % were found to be vitamin D deficient. The prevalence of SHPT decreased as vitamin D increased, from 30.6 % in those deficient to 9.8 % in those with 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l and increased with declining kidney function. In non­calcium supplement users, principal determinants of SHPT were vitamin D deficiency (OR 4.18, CI 3.05-5.73, p < 0.001), eGFR 30-44 ml/min (OR 3.69, CI 2.44-5.57, p < 0.001), loop diuretic use (OR 3.52, CI 2.59-4.79, p < 0.001) and to a lesser extent body mass index (p = 0.001), eGFR 45-59 ml/min (p < 0.001) and 25(OH)D level 30-49 nmol/l (p = 0.002). Similar findings were observed in calcium supplement users, though proton pump inhibitors were also associated with SHPT (OR 1.55, CI 1.08-2.22, p = 0.018) while vitamin D 30-49 nmol/l was not. In participants with SHPT versus those without, bone turnover markers were higher: bone alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.017) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (p = 0.033), whilst there was lower BMD at the neck of femur (0.880 vs. 0.903 g/cm2, p = 0.033) and total hip (0.968 vs. 0.995 g/cm2, P = 0.017). DISCUSSION: The results show that up to one in six older Irish adults had SHPT and this was associated with lower BMD and higher concentrations of bone turnover markers. Both vitamin D deficiency and 25(OH)D level 30-49 nmol/l were important predictors of SHPT. Loop diuretics and PPIs may also increase the risk of SHPT, and their use may need to be carefully considered in this population. Further studies examining the potential impact of these factors on bone health in similar populations to our study sample are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores , Densidad Ósea , Remodelación Ósea , Hiperparatiroidismo Secundario , Vitamina D , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Anciano , Vitamina D/sangre , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Densidad Ósea/fisiología , Hiperparatiroidismo Secundario/sangre , Biomarcadores/sangre , Remodelación Ósea/fisiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/sangre , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/complicaciones , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/epidemiología , Anciano de 80 o más Años
6.
J Nutr ; 154(6): 1917-1926, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621624

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data regarding effects of small-quantity-lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) on maternal serum zinc concentrations (SZC) in pregnancy and lactation are limited. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of preconception compared with prenatal zinc supplementation (compared with control) on maternal SZC and hypozincemia during pregnancy and early lactation in women in low-resource settings, and assess associations with birth anthropometry. METHODS: From ∼100 women/arm at each of 3 sites (Guatemala, India, and Pakistan) of the Women First Preconception Maternal Nutrition trial, we compared SZC at 12- and 34-wk gestation (n = 651 and 838, respectively) and 3-mo postpartum (n = 742) in women randomly assigned to daily SQ-LNS containing 15 mg zinc from ≥3 mo before conception (preconception, arm 1), from ∼12 wk gestation through delivery (early pregnancy, arm 2) or not at all (control, arm 3). Birth anthropometry was examined for newborns with ultrasound-determined gestational age. Statistical analyses were performed separately for each time point. RESULTS: At 12-wk gestation and 3-mo postpartum, no statistical differences in mean SZC were observed among arms. At 34-wk, mean SZC for arms 1 and 2 were significantly higher than for arm 3 (50.3, 50.8, 47.8 µg/dL, respectively; P = 0.005). Results were not impacted by correction for inflammation or albumin concentrations. Prevalence of hypozincemia at 12-wk (<56 µg/dL) was 23% in Guatemala, 26% in India, and 65% in Pakistan; at 34 wk (<50 µg/dL), 36% in Guatemala, 48% in India, and 74% in Pakistan; and at 3-mo postpartum (<66 µg/dL) 79% in Guatemala, 91% in India, and 92% in Pakistan. Maternal hypozincemia at 34-wk was associated with lower birth length-for-age Z-scores (all sites P = 0.013, Pakistan P = 0.008) and weight-for-age Z-scores (all sites P = 0.017, Pakistan P = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: Despite daily zinc supplementation for ≥7 mo, high rates of maternal hypozincemia were observed. The association of hypozincemia with impaired fetal growth suggests widespread zinc deficiency in these settings. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01883193.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Lactancia , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Zinc , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Zinc/administración & dosificación , Zinc/sangre , Adulto , Recién Nacido , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven , Complicaciones del Embarazo , India , Estado Nutricional , Atención Preconceptiva
7.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 63(3): 103922, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664087

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Anemia is associated with adverse outcomes and prolonged hospitalizations in critically ill patients. Regarding the recent adoption of restrictive transfusion protocols in intensive care unit (ICU) management, anemia remains highly prevalent even after ICU discharge. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anemia following ICU discharge and factors affecting recovery from anemia. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study involving 3969 adult ICU survivors, we assessed anemia severity using the National Cancer Institute criteria at six time points: ICU admission, ICU discharge, hospital discharge, and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month post-hospital discharge. In addition, baseline characteristics, including age, sex, comorbidities, and recent iron supplementation or erythropoietin administration, were evaluated. RESULTS: Our findings revealed an in-hospital mortality rate of 28.6%. The median hospital and ICU stays were 20 and 5 days, respectively, with common comorbidities including hypertension, and diabetes mellitus (DM). Among the patients, the hemoglobin levels of 3967 patients were confirmed at the time of discharge from the ICU, representing 99.95% of the total. The prevalence of anemia persisted post- ICU discharge; less than 30% of patients recovered, whereas 13.6% of them experienced worsening of anemia post-ICU discharge. Factors contributing to anemia severity were female sex, DM, chronic renal failure, malignant solid tumors, and administration of iron supplements. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the need for targeted interventions to manage anemia post-ICU discharge and suggested potential factors that influence recovery from anemia.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Anemia/epidemiología , Anemia/terapia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Anciano , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Adulto
8.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 960, 2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575928

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Childhood malnutrition in all forms is a major public health issue worldwide. This review systematically examined the prevalence and determinants and identify the potential interventions and current gap in addressing malnutrition including undernutrition, overnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) in Vietnamese children aged 0-18 years old. METHODS: Embase, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science were systematically searched through June 2022 to identify relevant articles published within the past 25 years. Study selection and data extraction were performed by one reviewer and checked for accuracy by the other two reviewers in accordance with PRISMA guideline. Risk of publication bias was assessed using American Dietetic Association Quality Criteria Checklist. RESULTS: Seventy-two studies that met the inclusion criteria were included. Undernutrition has decreased over time but still 22.4%, 5.2% and 12.2% of children under 5 were stunted, wasted and underweight, respectively. Anaemia, iron, zinc, and vitamin D deficiencies were the more common forms of MNDs, the prevalence varied by age, region, and socioeconomic group. Population-based surveys reported that 11% and 48% of children aged 0-11 years old were iron and vitamin D deficient, respectively. Zinc deficiency affected almost one-quarter of the children and adolescents. Retinol deficiency was of less concern (< 20%). However, more evidence on MNDs prevalence is needed. Overweight and obesity is now on the rise, affecting one-third of school-aged children. The key determinants of undernutrition included living in rural areas, children with low birth weight, and poor socio-economic status, whereas living in urban and affluent areas, having an inactive lifestyle and being a boy were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. Nutrition specific intervention studies including supplementation and food fortification consistently showed improvements in anthropometric indices and micronutrient biomarkers. National nutrition-sensitive programmes also provided nutritional benefits for children's growth and eating behaviours, but there is a lack of data on childhood obesity. CONCLUSION: This finding highlights the need for effective double duty actions to simultaneously address different forms of childhood malnutrition in Vietnam. However, evidence on the potential intervention strategies, especially on MNDs and overnutrition are still limited to inform policy decision, thus future research is warranted.


Asunto(s)
Desnutrición , Hipernutrición , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Hierro , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Desnutrición/complicaciones , Micronutrientes , Estado Nutricional , Hipernutrición/complicaciones , Hipernutrición/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Obesidad Infantil/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Vietnam/epidemiología , Zinc
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 126, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561770

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ethno-veterinary practices could be used as a sustainable developmental tool by integrating traditional phytotherapy and husbandry. Phytotherapeutics are available and used worldwide. However, evidence of their antiparasitic efficacy is currently very limited. Parasitic diseases have a considerable effect on pig production, causing economic losses due to high morbidity and mortality. In this respect, especially smallholders and organic producers face severe challenges. Parasites, as disease causing agents, often outcompete other pathogens in such extensive production systems. A total of 720 faecal samples were collected in two farms from three age categories, i.e. weaners, fatteners, and sows. Flotation (Willis and McMaster method), modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained faecal smear, centrifugal sedimentation, modified Blagg technique, and faecal cultures were used to identify parasites and quantify the parasitic load. RESULTS: The examination confirmed the presence of infections with Eimeria spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Balantioides coli (syn. Balantidium coli), Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum spp., Strongyloides ransomi, and Trichuris suis, distributed based on age category. A dose of 180 mg/kg bw/day of Allium sativum L. and 90 mg/kg bw/day of Artemisia absinthium L. powders, administered for 10 consecutive days, revealed a strong, taxonomy-based antiprotozoal and anthelmintic activity. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlighted the therapeutic potential of both A. sativum and A. absinthium against gastrointestinal parasites in pigs. Their therapeutic effectiveness may be attributed to the content in polyphenols, tocopherols, flavonoids, sterols, sesquiterpene lactones, and sulfoxide. Further research is required to establish the minimal effective dose of both plants against digestive parasites in pigs.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Artemisia absinthium , Criptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium , Ajo , Parasitosis Intestinales , Parásitos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , Porcinos , Femenino , Antiparasitarios/farmacología , Antiparasitarios/uso terapéutico , Granjas , Parasitosis Intestinales/tratamiento farmacológico , Parasitosis Intestinales/veterinaria , Parasitosis Intestinales/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Heces/parasitología , Prevalencia
10.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299478, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457395

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Hearing loss is the inability to hear speech or sounds well, owing to a number of causes. This study aimed to simultaneously determine the prevalence, incidence, and the Gap between them in hearing loss in South Korean patients at the same point in time as well as to identify patients who have not recovered from hearing loss. METHODS: We examined the prevalence and incidence of patients diagnosed with hearing loss in the National Health Insurance Service database over an 11-year period from 2010 to 2020. The difference between the prevalence and the incidence was defined in this study as the term "Gap". Gap is the number of patients converted into the number of patients per 100,000 people by subtracting the incidence from the prevalence. Clinical characteristics such as sex and age per 100,000 individuals were examined. RESULTS: As of 2020, the domestic prevalence obtained in this study was 1.84%, increasing annually, and the prevalence increased with age to 4.10% among those over 60. The domestic incidence was 1.57%, increasing annually, and the incidence increased with age to 3.36% for those over 60s. The Gap was 0.27%, showing a steady increase from 2011 to 2020 with a corresponding increase in insurance benefit expenses. CONCLUSION: To fully understand the burden of hearing loss and develop effective prevention and treatment strategies, it is important to measure the Gap between its prevalence and incidence. This Gap means a lot because hearing loss is an irreversible disease. Gap represents patients who have already been diagnosed with hearing loss and are being diagnosed every year, indicating that the number of patients who do not recover is increasing. In other words, the increase in Gap meant that there were many patients who constantly visited the hospital for diagnosis of hearing loss.


Asunto(s)
Sordera , Pérdida Auditiva , Humanos , Anciano , Preescolar , Prevalencia , Incidencia , Pérdida Auditiva/diagnóstico , Pérdida Auditiva/epidemiología , Programas Nacionales de Salud
11.
Nutrients ; 16(6)2024 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542778

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is recognized as a general health condition globally and is acknowledged as a public health concern in Europe. In Romania, a national program of examination of the status of vitamin D for high-risk groups has demonstrated a vitamin D deficiency prevalence of 39.83%. No national data on the status of vitamin D in the general adult population are available to date. METHODS: We used the framework of the European Health Examination Survey to analyze vitamin D levels in a sample population of adults aged 25-64 years, from 120 family doctors' patients lists, by using a sequential sampling method. Data were weighted to the Romanian population. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL. RESULTS: In total, 5380 adults aged 25-64 years were included in this study. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is 24.8%. Predictors of vitamin D deficiency were found to be obesity, female sex, living in rural areas, lower education level, and lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Specific recommendations for vitamin D screening and supplementation should be issued for women by specialist boards. Further studies are needed to identify seasonal variation and to establish a correlation with nutritional surveys.


Asunto(s)
Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Rumanía/epidemiología , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/epidemiología , Vitaminas , Europa (Continente) , Prevalencia
12.
Int Orthop ; 48(5): 1323-1330, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467869

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Prevalence of osteoporotic fracture (OPF) is increasing with ageing, resulting in a significant financial burden for healthcare. However, research on the nationwide epidemiological data of OPF in Chinese elderly is still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of OPF in Chinese population aged 60 years or order. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in an elderly Chinese population in five centres. Questionnaire investigation and imaging examination were taken in all participants to identify OPF prevalence and risk factors. Diagnosis of OPF was determined based on imaging of vertebral fractures or history of fall-related fractures. We then used multivariate logistic regression model to analyze the associations between the potential risk factors and OPF. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of OPF in population aged 60 years or older was 24.7% (1,071/4,331), showing an increasing trend with age (P < 0.001). The prevalence of OPF was geographically distinct (P < 0.001), but similar between men and women (P > 0.05). Up to 96.8% of OPFs consisted of vertebral fractures, especially involving T11, T12, and L1 segments. Advanced age (≥ 80), vision loss, severe hearing loss, multiple exercise forms, chronic kidney disease, osteoarthritis, and trauma-related vertebral fractures were significantly associated with risk factors, while education level and vitamin D supplementation were associated with protective factors of OPF. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of OPF is a serious threat to bone health among elderly people in China. There is an urgent need for effective strategies to diagnose, prevent, and treat OPF in elderly adults.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas Osteoporóticas , Fracturas de la Columna Vertebral , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Densidad Ósea , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Fracturas Osteoporóticas/epidemiología , Fracturas Osteoporóticas/etiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Fracturas de la Columna Vertebral/complicaciones , Persona de Mediana Edad
13.
Am J Ind Med ; 67(5): 483-495, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530105

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although firefighters have increased risk for colon and prostate cancer, limited information exists on screening practices for these cancers in volunteer firefighters who compose two-thirds of the US fire service. We estimated the prevalence of colon and prostate cancer screening among volunteer firefighters using eligibility criteria from 4 evidence-based screening recommendations and evaluated factors influencing screening. METHODS: We evaluated colon (n = 569) and prostate (n = 498) cancer screening prevalence in a sample of US volunteer firefighters using eligibility criteria from the US Preventive Services Taskforce (USPSTF), National Fire Protection Association, American Cancer Society, and National Comprehensive Cancer Network. We assessed associations with fire service experience, demographics, and cancer risk perception based on USPSTF guidelines. RESULTS: For those eligible based on USPSTF guidelines, colon and prostate cancer screening prevalence was 51.7% (95% CI: 45.7, 57.8) and 48.8% (95% CI: 40.0, 57.6), respectively. Higher odds of colon and prostate cancer screening were observed with older age and with some college education compared to those with less education. Fire service experience and cancer risk perception were not associated with screening practices. CONCLUSION: This is the first large study to assess colon and prostate cancer screening among US volunteer firefighters based on different screening guidelines. Our findings suggest gaps in cancer prevention efforts in the US volunteer fire service. Promoting cancer screening education and opportunities for volunteer firefighters by their fire departments, healthcare professionals, and public health practitioners, may help to address the gaps.


Asunto(s)
Bomberos , Neoplasias de la Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Neoplasias de la Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Próstata/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/prevención & control , Prevalencia , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Voluntarios , Colon
14.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 31(1): 151-157, 2024 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38549491

RESUMEN

Iron is an essential trace element for various cellular proteins and for biological processes in all cells. Severe iron deficiency (ID) impairs haem synthesis, reduces erythropoiesis and causes iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). Iron restriction in anaemia of inflammation is mainly due to retention of iron in macrophages. This condition is known as 'functional iron deficiency'. A review of studies performed in Europe shows that the prevalence of ID and IDA in young children varies by region. It is more common in eastern than western European countries. This overview summarises information on the need for iron supplementation in children, and the current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of iron homeostasis and ironrestricted erythropoiesis. The causes of anaemia during infection and the usefulness of classical and new indicators to distinguish absolute from functional iron deficiency are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Anemia Ferropénica , Anemia , Deficiencias de Hierro , Niño , Humanos , Preescolar , Anemia Ferropénica/epidemiología , Anemia Ferropénica/etiología , Anemia/complicaciones , Hierro/metabolismo , Inflamación/complicaciones , Prevalencia
15.
J Food Prot ; 87(5): 100265, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492643

RESUMEN

Limited data exist on the environmental factors that impact pathogen prevalence in the soil. The prevalence of foodborne pathogens, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, and the prevalence and concentration of generic E. coli in Florida's agricultural soils were evaluated to understand the potential risk of microbial contamination at the preharvest level. For all organisms but L. monocytogenes, a longitudinal field study was performed in three geographically distributed agricultural areas across Florida. At each location, 20 unique 5 by 5 m field sampling sites were selected, and soil was collected and evaluated for Salmonella presence (25 g) and E. coli and coliform concentrations (5 g). Complementary data collected from October 2021 to April 2022 included: weather; adjacent land use; soil properties, including macro- and micro-nutrients; and field management practices. The overall Salmonella and generic E. coli prevalence was 0.418% (1/239) and 11.3% (27/239), respectively; with mean E. coli concentrations in positive samples of 1.56 log CFU/g. Farm A had the highest prevalence of generic E. coli, 22.8% (18/79); followed by Farm B, 10% (8/80); and Farm C 1.25% (1/80). A significant relationship (p < 0.05) was observed between generic E. coli and coliforms, and farm and sampling trip. Variation in the prevalence of generic E. coli and changes in coliform concentrations between farms suggest environmental factors (e.g. soil properties) at the three farms were different. While Salmonella was only detected once, generic E. coli was detected in Florida soils throughout the duration of the growing season meaning activities that limit contact between soil and horticultural crops should continue to be emphasized. Samples collected during an independent sampling trip were evaluated for L. monocytogenes, which was not detected. The influence of local environmental factors on the prevalence of indicator organisms in the soil presents a unique challenge when evaluating the applicability of more global models to predict pathogen prevalence in preharvest produce environments.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Escherichia coli , Salmonella , Microbiología del Suelo , Suelo , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , Florida , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Prevalencia , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Humanos , Enterobacteriaceae/aislamiento & purificación
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518085

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Circulating levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with frailty among Koreans (a population with a high intake of fish), but whether this association exists in Western populations with low fish intake is unknown. The present study examined the hypothesis that the prevalence of frailty was inversely associated with plasma levels of n-3 PUFAs, with the intake of oily fish, and with fish oil supplementation in older adults in the United Kingdom. METHODS: UK Biobank including 79 330 adults aged ≥65 years with dietary data, and 18 802 participants with plasma fatty acid data were used. Frailty was defined using the Cardiovascular Health Study index, plasma levels of n-3 PUFAs were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance, and intake of oily fish and/or fish oil supplements was collected via food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: Frailty prevalence was inversely associated with n-3 PUFA levels [odds ratios (OR) per SD: 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-0.94; p < .001], with oily fish intake (never vs ≥2 servings per week; OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.52-0.68, p < .001), and with the use of fish oil supplements (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.66-0.78; p < .001) after adjusting for confounding factors. All 3 exposures were also associated with each frailty criterion, particularly low physical activity and walking pace. CONCLUSIONS: Inverse associations between plasma n-3 PUFA levels and measures of frailty suggest that higher intakes of oily fish or the use of fish oil supplements may help prevent frailty in older adults in the United Kingdom.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos Omega-3 , Fragilidad , Humanos , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Biobanco del Reino Unido , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Prevalencia , Aceites de Pescado , Dieta
17.
Cancer Res Treat ; 56(2): 357-371, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38487832

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The current study provides national cancer statistics and their secular trends in Korea, including incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence in 2021. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Incidence, survival, and prevalence rates of cancer were calculated using the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, from 1999 to 2021, with survival follow-up until December 31, 2022. Deaths from cancer were assessed using causes-of-death data obtained from Statistics Korea. RESULTS: The number of new cancer diagnoses in 2021 increased by 27,002 cases (10.8%) compared to 2020. In 2021, newly diagnosed cancer cases and deaths from cancer were reported as 277,523 (age-standardized rate [ASR], 289.3 per 100,000) and 82,688 (ASR, 67.6 per 100,000), respectively. The overall cancer incidence rates increased by 3.3% annually from 1999 to 2012, and decreased by 5.3% from 2012 to 2015, thereafter, followed by non-significant changes. Cancer mortality rates have been decreasing since 2002, with more rapid decline in recent years (annual decrease of 2.8% from 2002 to 2013; 3.2% from 2013 to 2021). The 5-year relative survival between 2017 and 2021 was 72.1%, which contributed to prevalent cases reaching over 2.4 million in 2021. CONCLUSION: In 2021, the number of newly diagnosed cancer patients increased as healthcare utilization recovered from the coronavirus disease 2019-related declines of 2020. Revised cancer registration guidelines expanded the registration scope, particularly for stomach and colorectal cancer. Survival rates have improved over the years, leading to a growing population of cancer survivors, necessitating a comprehensive cancer control strategy. The long-term impact of the pandemic on cancer statistics requires future investigation.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Humanos , Incidencia , Prevalencia , Tasa de Supervivencia , República de Corea/epidemiología
18.
Nutrition ; 122: 112390, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458063

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Concurrent wasting and stunting (WaSt) in a child is a health problem that leads to detrimental effects. However, to our knowledge, there is limited research regarding the prevalence and determinants of WaSt, including in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and determinants of WaSt in children 6 to 23 mo of age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with data sets from the Indonesia Nutritional Status Survey (INSS). Data was collected between January and December 2021. About 15 641 children, ages 23 mo, were included. A χ2 analysis examined the association between the dependent and independent variables. A multivariate test analyzed the risk for the independent variable to the dependent, seen through the adjusted odds ratio (aOR). RESULTS: The prevalence of WaSt was 2.4%. Higher odds for WaSt were seen in the following: • Boys: 2.15 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72-2.68); • Children ages 12 to 23 mo 3.15 times (95% CI, 2.33-4.25); • Those with low birth weight 3.11 times (95% CI, 2.33-4.15) • Those with small birth size: 2 times (95% CI, 1.59-2.54) • Babies born from mothers >35 y of age: 1.5 times (95% CI, 1.19-1.89); • Children who experienced infection: 1.43 times (95% CI, 1.16-1.76); • Children not using the Integrated Health and Nutrition Services (Posyandu): 1.17 times (95% CI; 1.29-2.27); • Children from middle- income families:2.54 times higher odds (95% CI, 1.75-3.7); and • Children from rural areas: 1.37 times (95% CI, 1.1-1.71). CONCLUSION: WaSt is associated with multiple factors in Indonesia. Hence, policymakers need to address this problem comprehensively.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Crecimiento , Madres , Niño , Lactante , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Indonesia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/etiología , Prevalencia
19.
Matern Child Nutr ; 20(3): e13648, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517120

RESUMEN

To address high rates of malnutrition among children from vulnerable households in Rwanda, the government initiated a national food supplementation programme. A before and after evaluation, using repeat cross-sectional surveys in randomly selected villages was conducted; aimed at assessing the effectiveness of providing fortified blended food (FBF) to children 18-23 months of age, pregnant and lactating women in the lowest tier of Rwanda's social support system. Data were collected in 2017, 2018 and 2021 through interviews with caregivers; anthropometric measurements and a capillary blood sample were obtained from children. The primary statistical analysis compared the nutritional status of children before and after the introduction of FBF. We enroled 724 children during each survey. The prevalence of stunting declined from 47% to 35% between 2017 and 2021; in 2018, the prevalence of stunting was 43%. Children had a 42% reduction in the odds of being stunted (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47-0.74, p < 0.001) from 2017 to 2021 even after adjusting for inherent, distal, proximal, and intermediate covariates. The reduction in stunting observed within the first year of the programme was not statistically significant (AOR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.67-1.03, p < 0.091). We observed meaningful reductions in the prevalence of stunting among children which coincided with the introduction of Government-led initiative to reduce malnutrition. The Rwandan Government has committed to improving the living conditions of vulnerable households and has made strong investments in reducing malnutrition. The impact of these investments can be seen in the overall trend towards improved nutritional status highlighted in this evaluation.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Crecimiento , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Estado Nutricional , Humanos , Rwanda/epidemiología , Lactante , Femenino , Estudios Transversales , Masculino , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/prevención & control , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante/fisiología , Alimentos Fortificados , Prevalencia , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Suplementos Dietéticos , Adulto
20.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 100(4): 360-366, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462231

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and severe deficiency in children and adolescents, in a large Brazilian sample. METHODOLOGY: Results of 413,988 25(OH)D measurements in children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years collected between 01/2014 and 10/2018 were obtained from the database of a Clinical Laboratory. In this population, 25 hydroxyvitamin D concentrations below 20 ng/mL are considered deficient, and below 12 ng/mL as severe deficiency. All measurements were performed by immunoassay and the results were distributed by gender, age group, seasonality, and latitude. RESULTS: The mean of 25(OH)D levels was 29.2 ng/mL with a standard deviation of 9.2 ng/mL. Of the total samples, 0.8% had a concentration < 12 ng/mL, and 12.5% of the samples had a concentration < 20 ng/mL, with a higher prevalence in females. Children under 2 years of age had the lowest prevalence. The effects of latitude and seasonality were quite evident. In samples of female adolescents from the southern region in winter, 36% of vitamin D deficiency and 5% of severe deficiency were found. CONCLUSION: In this large number of measurements of 25(OH)D in children and adolescents, 12.5% had a deficiency and 0.8% had severe deficiency. A greater deficiency was observed among adolescents, especially females, which raises questions about the need for supplementation during this period of life.


Asunto(s)
Estaciones del Año , Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Humanos , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/epidemiología , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/sangre , Brasil/epidemiología , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Masculino , Prevalencia , Preescolar , Lactante , Vitamina D/sangre , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Recién Nacido , Distribución por Sexo , Distribución por Edad
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