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1.
Pract Radiat Oncol ; 14(1): 24-27, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37748680

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: For early stage breast cancer (BC), the choice of radiation therapy duration (1 vs 3 weeks) is highly debated. Cost and financial toxicity are major concerns that patients with BC face. Nonetheless, there remain limited discussions providing granular details of the role of insurance in the aggregate cost of 1 week versus 3 weeks of radiation therapy for patients. This project aims to disaggregate costs by plan to increase transparency of out-of-pocket (OOP) cost estimates in radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Treatment procedures were determined through the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. OOP treatment costs, deductibles, and copays/coinsurance were calculated by using Medicaid, Original Medicare, Medigap Plan G, and Medicare Part D prescription plans. The medicare.gov, medicaid.oh.gov, aarpmedicareplans.com, and the physician fee schedule from cms.gov were used to determine costs by treatment. Price estimates reflect actual costs per insurance plan rather than costs estimated from claims data. All procedures were considered to be performed in an Ohio hospital setting. One-week radiation therapy was defined as 5 fractions without boost, and 3-week radiation therapy was defined as 15 fractions without boost. RESULTS: Medicare beneficiaries with Original Medicare coverage face an OOP treatment charge of $649.24 for 1 week of radiation therapy and $1006.20 for 3 weeks of radiation therapy. Assuming the deductible is met postlumpectomy, Medigap Plan G beneficiaries are faced with no additional charges for both lengths of radiation therapy. Similarly for Medicaid beneficiaries (assuming treatment is approved by Medicaid), all expenses are covered without limit, resulting in no OOP expense. CONCLUSIONS: Considerations of 1 and 3 weeks of radiation therapy for postlumpectomy early-stage BC are often dependent on cancer characteristics and patient preferences. This model (based on actual cost estimates per insurance plan rather than claims data) compares OOP costs across Medicaid and Medicare plans, which more holistically informs providers and patients in radiation therapy duration decision making.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Medicare , Anciano , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Femenino , Medicaid , Neoplasias de la Mama/radioterapia , Gastos en Salud , Radioterapia Adyuvante
2.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 170(2): 320-334, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37731255

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Initiating postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) within 6 weeks (42 days) of surgery is the first and only Commission on Cancer (CoC) approved quality metric for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). No study has systematically reviewed nor synthesized the literature to establish national benchmarks for delays in starting PORT. DATA SOURCES: Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines, we performed a systematic review of PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL. REVIEW METHODS: Studies that described time-to-PORT or PORT delays in patients with HNSCC treated in the United States after 2003 were included. Meta-analysis of proportions and continuous measures was performed on nonoverlapping datasets to examine the pooled frequency of PORT delays and time-to-PORT. RESULTS: Thirty-six studies were included in the systematic review and 14 in the meta-analysis. Most studies utilized single-institution (n = 17; 47.2%) or cancer registry (n = 16; 44.4%) data. Twenty-five studies (69.4%) defined PORT delay as >6 weeks after surgery (the definition utilized by the CoC and National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines), whereas 4 (11.1%) defined PORT delay as a time interval other than >6 weeks, and 7 (19.4%) characterized time-to-PORT without defining delay. Meta-analysis revealed that 48.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 41.4-55.9) of patients started PORT > 6 weeks after surgery. Median and mean time-to-PORT were 45.8 (95% CI, 42.4-51.4 days) and 47.4 days (95% CI, 43.4-51.4 days), respectively. CONCLUSION: Delays in initiating guideline-adherent PORT occur in approximately half of patients with HNSCC. These meta-analytic data can be used to set national benchmarks and assess progress in reducing delays.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeza y Cuello , Radioterapia Adyuvante , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/cirugía
3.
World J Urol ; 41(12): 3895-3903, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37979002

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Novel techniques and advances in radiation therapy (RT) have been explored to treat testicular seminoma, a highly radiosensitive and curable histology. We evaluated the historical and current indications for radiation therapy (RT) in testicular seminoma. METHODS: A narrative literature review was performed. Studies of RT for testicular seminoma were included. Additionally, recent trials testing the use of combination or surgical therapies for clinical stage (CS) II were included. Search parameters included radiation therapy, testicular seminoma, surgery, and chemoradiation. Parameters and outcomes assessed were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), acute toxicities, long-term sequelae, and rates of secondary malignancies. RESULTS: Practice defining and changing studies in the use or omission of radiation therapy for testicular seminoma were identified along with resultant changes in National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and European guidelines. Recent trials in combined chemoradiation and upfront surgical approaches to CS II disease were reviewed. CONCLUSION: RT has historically been used as adjuvant treatment for CS I disease and is highly effective at treating CS II (A/B) testicular seminoma. The drive to maintain therapeutic efficacy and reduce acute and long-term side effects, namely secondary malignancies, is being tested using new radiation technologies, combined modality therapy in the form of chemoradiation and with upfront surgical approaches. Also, as guidelines now "strongly prefer" surveillance instead of adjuvant RT for CS I disease, the current CS II population comprises patients presenting with CS II disease ("de novo") and those who present with CSII after relapsing post orchiectomy for CS I ("relapsed"). Emerging evidence suggests that these two groups have different outcomes with respect to RT and chemoradiation. Consequently, future trials may need to sub-stratify according to these groups.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Primarias Secundarias , Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Masculino , Humanos , Neoplasias Testiculares/radioterapia , Neoplasias Testiculares/tratamiento farmacológico , Radioterapia Adyuvante , Seminoma/radioterapia , Seminoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/epidemiología , Terapia Combinada , Orquiectomía
4.
Endocr J ; 70(10): 999-1003, 2023 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37779083

RESUMEN

The role of adjuvant external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for locally advanced differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is controversial because of the lack of prospective data. To prepare for a clinical trial, this study investigated the current clinical practice of adjuvant treatments for locally advanced DTC. A survey on treatment selection criteria for hypothetical locally advanced DTC was administered to representative thyroid surgeons of facilities participating in the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Radiation Therapy Study Group. Of the 43 invited facilities, surgeons from 39 (91%) completed the survey. For R1 resection or suspected residual disease, 26 (67%) facilities administered high-dose (100-200 mCi) radioactive iodine (RAI), but none performed EBRT. For R2 resection or unresectable primary disease, 26 (67%) facilities administered high-dose RAI and 7 (18%) performed adjuvant treatments, including EBRT. For complete resection with nodal extra-capsular extension, 13 (34%) facilities administered high-dose RAI and 1 (3%) performed EBRT. For unresectable mediastinal lymph node metastasis, 31 (79%) facilities administered high-dose RAI and 5 (13%) performed adjuvant treatments, including EBRT. Adjuvant EBRT was not routinely performed mainly because of the lack of evidence for efficacy (74%). Approximately 15% of the facilities routinely considered adjuvant EBRT for DTC with R2 resection or unresectable primary or lymph node metastasis disease. Future clinical trials will need to optimize EBRT for these patients.


Asunto(s)
Radioterapia Adyuvante , Neoplasias de la Tiroides , Humanos , Radioisótopos de Yodo/uso terapéutico , Japón , Metástasis Linfática , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/radioterapia , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/patología , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto
5.
Cancer Med ; 12(18): 18729-18744, 2023 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37706222

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network suggested that older women with low-risk breast cancer (LRBC; i.e., early-stage, node-negative, and estrogen receptor-positive) could omit adjuvant radiation treatment (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) if they were treated with hormone therapy. However, the association between RT omission and breast cancer-specific mortality among older women with comorbidity is not fully known. METHODS: 1105 older women (≥65 years) with LRBC in 1998-2012 were queried from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare Health Outcomes Survey data resource and were followed up through July 2018. Latent class analysis was performed to identify comorbidity burden classes. A propensity score-based inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was applied to Cox regression models to obtain subdistribution hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CI for cancer-specific mortality considering other causes of death as competing risks, overall and separately by comorbidity burden class. RESULTS: Three comorbidity burden (low, moderate, and high) groups were identified. A total of 318 deaths (47 cancer-related) occurred. The IPTW-adjusted Cox regression analysis showed that RT omission was not associated with short-term, 5- and 10-year cancer-specific death (p = 0.202 and p = 0.536, respectively), regardless of comorbidity burden. However, RT omission could increase the risk of long-term cancer-specific death in women with low comorbidity burden (HR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.17, 3.33), which warrants further study. CONCLUSIONS: Omission of RT after BCS is not associated with an increased risk of cancer-specific death and is deemed a reasonable treatment option for older women with moderate to high comorbidity burden.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Femenino , Anciano , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/radioterapia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Programa de VERF , Medicare , Radioterapia Adyuvante , Mastectomía Segmentaria , Comorbilidad
6.
Aesthet Surg J ; 44(1): NP60-NP68, 2023 Dec 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37706356

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Indications for breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (BCSAR) in patients with breast carcinoma are increasing, as are indications for risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) in healthy subjects. Most of these cases are reconstructed with silicone shell breast implants (SSBIs). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to study complications of SSBIs in breast reconstruction in patients undergoing RRM with previous BCSAR. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was designed. The study group included cases of RRM reconstructed with SSBI in patients who had previously undergone BCSAR in the same breast. The control group consisted of patients with high-risk breast cancer who had undergone RRM and immediate SSBI reconstruction without previous BCSAR. RESULTS: There was a history of BCSAR in 15.8% of cases. The first SSBI used in immediate reconstruction after RRM was replaced in 51.5% of cases with a mean [standard deviation] survival of 24.04 [28.48] months. BCSAR was significantly associated with pathological capsular contracture (P = .00) with this first SSBI (37.5% vs 5.9%). Of the cases requiring the replacement of the first SSBI, 44.23% suffered failure of the second SSBI, with a mean survival of 27.95 [26.53] months. No significant association was found between the consecutive development of capsular contracture in the second SSBI and a previous history of BCSAR (P = .10). CONCLUSIONS: BCSAR prior to RRM reconstructed with an SSBI is associated with a significant increase in pathological capsular contracture. Patients should be warned of the high rate of SSBI complications and reconstruction failure. Polyurethane-coated implants may provide an alternative in cases in which alloplastic reconstruction is considered in patients with previous BCSAR.


Asunto(s)
Implantes de Mama , Neoplasias de la Mama , Contractura , Mamoplastia , Humanos , Femenino , Mastectomía/efectos adversos , Neoplasias de la Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Implantes de Mama/efectos adversos , Mastectomía Segmentaria , Siliconas , Radioterapia Adyuvante/efectos adversos , Estudios Prospectivos , Contractura/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos
7.
ANZ J Surg ; 93(9): 2208-2213, 2023 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37062870

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sector resection for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) allows wide excision without compromising breast shape. There are concerns that radiotherapy for some DCIS after sector resection is unnecessary and reduces patient satisfaction and quality of life without affecting survival. This study aimed to investigate whether women with DCIS managed with sector resection without radiotherapy had acceptable rates of recurrence and health-related quality of life outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients who underwent sector resection for DCIS without adjuvant radiotherapy from 1992 to 2021. Tumour size, grade, necrosis, margins, follow up and time to ipsilateral recurrence was recorded. Patients were posted a BREAST-Q to assess health-related quality of life. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-eight patients were treated for pure DCIS by two surgeons from 1992 to 2018. One hundred and sixteen patients underwent sector resection, 22 had mastectomy. Average age 61 years. Mean follow up 9.14 years. Recurrence rate after sector resection was 18.97%. 55% were DCIS. Annualized recurrence rate was 2.07%. There were no cancer-related deaths. BREAST-Q completion rate was 44%. Satisfaction with breasts, physical, psychosocial, and sexual well-being scores were significantly higher than normative Australian values and a mixed cohort of women who underwent breast conserving surgery with radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: DCIS can be safely managed with sector resection without radiotherapy and regular long-term follow up. This approach results in low annualized recurrence rates, high levels patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life and should be considered a safe alternative for patients with DCIS to minimize morbidity without affecting cancer survival.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Carcinoma Intraductal no Infiltrante , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Carcinoma Intraductal no Infiltrante/radioterapia , Carcinoma Intraductal no Infiltrante/cirugía , Carcinoma Intraductal no Infiltrante/patología , Mastectomía Segmentaria/métodos , Mastectomía/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estudios Retrospectivos , Neoplasias de la Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , Calidad de Vida , Estudios de Seguimiento , Australia/epidemiología , Radioterapia Adyuvante , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/epidemiología , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/cirugía
8.
Curr Oncol ; 30(3): 2812-2824, 2023 02 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36975427

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is a therapeutic de-escalation option in older women with low-risk early breast cancer (EBC). A qualitative study was implemented to describe EBC physicians' points of view on IORT as a de-escalation option. METHODS: Recorded face-to-face and telephone semi-structured interviews were conducted among diverse physicians from seven French comprehensive cancer centers. Interview transcripts were grouped as corpus to construct a typology. Thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: Positions toward IORT were contrasted between the 16 participating physicians. Five fully supported IORT as a de-escalation option, four were not in favor, and seven had a more reserved or neutral opinion. Points of divergence concerned treatment efficacy, treatment duration, side effects and sequelae, psychological impact, compliance with adjuvant endocrine therapy, logistical constraints, financial cost, and availability of other techniques of partial breast irradiation. Physicians in favor of IORT emphasized direct benefits for the patient, and those against pointed the lack of specific guidelines, risk of lost opportunity in older women with long life expectancy, and challenges of shared decision making. CONCLUSIONS: Despite national policies to preserve cancer patients' quality of life and increase their participation in medical decision making, therapeutic de-escalation using IORT is not consensual among physicians. Further efforts are needed to promote patient-centered care.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Neoplasias de la Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , Calidad de Vida , Radioterapia Adyuvante/métodos , Mastectomía Segmentaria/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento
9.
Radiographics ; 43(3): e220086, 2023 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36795596

RESUMEN

Radiation therapy represents a pillar in the current management of breast cancer. Historically, postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) has been administered only in patients with locally advanced disease and a poor prognosis. These included patients with large primary tumors at diagnosis and/or more than three metastatic axillary lymph nodes. However, during the past few decades, several factors have prompted a shift in perspective, and recommendations for PMRT have become more fluid. Guidelines for PMRT in the United States are outlined by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and the American Society for Radiation Oncology. Because evidence to support performing PMRT is frequently discordant, the decision to offer radiation therapy often requires team discussion. These discussions are usually held in multidisciplinary tumor board meetings in which radiologists play a pivotal role by providing critical information such as the location and extent of disease. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is optional and is safe in cases in which the patient's clinical status allows it. The preferred method in the setting of PMRT is autologous reconstruction. If this is not possible, then a two-step implant-based reconstruction is recommended. Radiation therapy does involve a risk of toxicity. Complications can be seen in acute and chronic settings and range from fluid collections and fractures to radiation-induced sarcomas. Radiologists have a key role in detecting these and other clinically relevant findings and should be prepared to recognize, interpret, and address them. © RSNA, 2023 Quiz questions for this article are available in the supplemental material.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Mamoplastia , Oncología por Radiación , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Femenino , Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias de la Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , Mastectomía , Radioterapia Adyuvante/métodos
10.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 280(5): 2525-2533, 2023 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651960

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different treatment combinations on patient survival in intermediate-risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). METHODS: The 2004-2017 National Cancer Database was queried for intermediate-risk papillary (PTC), follicular (FTC), or Hurthle cell (HTC) thyroid cancer patients. Four treatments were analyzed using Kaplan Meier and multivariable Cox regression: surgery, surgery with adjuvant radioiodine ablation (S + RAI), surgery with adjuvant thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression therapy (S + THST), and S + RAI + THST. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox proportional-hazards analyses evaluated treatment-associated overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Of 65,736 patients, 72.2% were female and the average age was 45.4 ± 15.4 years. The 10-year OS rates for PTC, FTC, and HTC were 93.2%, 85.2%, and 78.5%, respectively. S + RAI + THST exhibited higher OS than surgery alone and S + RAI (all p < 0.05). Compared to surgery alone, S + RAI + THST demonstrated reduced mortality in PTC (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 0.628, p < 0.001), FTC (HR: 0.490, p < 0.001), and HTC (HR: 0.520, p = 0.006). Similarly, adjuvant RAI + THST reduced mortality regardless of lymphovascular invasion (HR: 0.490, p < 0.001), N1a (HR: 0.570, p < 0.001) or N1b metastasis (HR: 0.621, p < 0.001), or positive margin status (HR: 0.572, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment combinations demonstrated varying efficacies in intermediate-risk DTC depending on histology and tumor characteristics, with S + RAI + THST exhibiting the greatest treatment response.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias de la Tiroides , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Masculino , Radioisótopos de Yodo/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/cirugía , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/patología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Radioterapia Adyuvante , Adenocarcinoma/cirugía , Tiroidectomía , Estudios Retrospectivos
11.
Endocrine ; 80(3): 589-599, 2023 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600104

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The role of adjuvant external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in the treatment of locally advanced papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) remains controversial due to the lack of prospective data and the conflicting retrospective data. This study aimed to determine the benefits of adjuvant EBRT in patients with PTC and other organ invasions using propensity score matching to reduce the heterogeneity of the patient population. METHODS: Data from patients with PTC with other organ invasions but no distant metastases who underwent surgery and adjuvant radioactive iodine (RAI) alone (Non-EBRT group) or adjuvant EBRT plus RAI (EBRT group) were retrospectively reviewed. Propensity matching was used to reduce heterogeneity. Survival outcomes and toxicities associated with EBRT were evaluated. RESULTS: Between January 2005 and December 2019, 102 patients in the Non-EBRT group and 26 patients in the EBRT group were evaluated. In the 48 propensity score-matched patients, no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the Non-EBRT and EBRT groups were detected. The locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were significantly higher in the EBRT group compared with the rates in the Non-EBRT group (5y-LRRFS: 100% vs. 74%, p = 0.003, 5y-RFS: 91% vs. 74%, p = 0.035). EBRT was well-tolerated, with no grade ≥ 3 toxicity, and all patients completed the therapy as planned. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant EBRT plus RAI exhibited acceptable toxicity and improved LRRFS and RFS in patients with PTC with other organ invasions compared with RAI alone.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Tiroides , Humanos , Cáncer Papilar Tiroideo/radioterapia , Cáncer Papilar Tiroideo/cirugía , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/radioterapia , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/cirugía , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Radioisótopos de Yodo/uso terapéutico , Puntaje de Propensión , Radioterapia Adyuvante , Tiroidectomía
12.
J Gynecol Oncol ; 34(2): e37, 2023 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36659832

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The use of molecular categorisation is shifting paradigm towards the use of molecular information to refine risk stratification in endometrial cancer (EC). To date, evidence to support molecular-guided therapies is limited to retrospective studies and secondary molecular analyses of patients receiving standard treatment. The PROBEAT study is the first randomized phase III trial to evaluate tailored adjuvant treatment based on WHO-endorsed molecular classification in Chinese EC patients. It is expected to provide a clinical decision-making tool for adjuvant treatment of patients with high-intermediate risk (HIR) or intermediate risk (IR) EC to better optimise and personalise patient care and increase relapse-free survival. METHODS: The PROBEAT trial is a prospective, multicentre study led by Women's Hospital of Zhejiang University Gynaecologic Oncology Group. Recruitment started on January 24, 2022, and 590 patients with HIR or IR endometrioid EC are expected to be recruited from 13 clinical centres in China. All tumor tissues will be classified into four molecular subtypes (POLEmut, MMRd, p53abn, or NSMP) based on WHO-endorsed molecular classification. Patients will be randomly assigned at a 2:1 ratio to either experimental arm and will receive molecular profile-based adjuvant treatment (observation in the POLEmut subgroup, vaginal brachytherapy in the MMRd or NSMP subgroup, or chemoradiotherapy in the p53abn subgroup) or to standard arm and will receive preferred adjuvant radiotherapy as recommended by the recent National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines version 1 (2022). The primary outcome is 3-year rates of recurrence. Secondary outcomes are relapse-free survival, overall survival, adverse events and health-related cancer-specific quality of life. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05179447.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Endometriales , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Pueblos del Este de Asia , Estudios Prospectivos , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Endometriales/genética , Neoplasias Endometriales/terapia , Neoplasias Endometriales/patología , Radioterapia Adyuvante
13.
Iowa Orthop J ; 43(2): 45-51, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38213865

RESUMEN

Background: Wound healing is particularly important for sarcoma patients who undergo neoadjuvant radiation therapy. Previous studies have demonstrated wound complications in this population approaching 35%. With this high rate of wound healing issues, identifying treatment modalities to minimize these complications is of paramount importance. Methods: All patients with high grade bone and soft tissue sarcoma received 15 days of twice daily amino acid supplementation starting in the immediate post-operative period. We documented the healing status of the surgical wound, the primary outcome, at all follow up appointments until six months after surgery. Non-healing wounds were defined as any wound requiring 1) a return visit to the OR for debridement, 2) IV antibiotics (ABX), and 3) unhealed wounds at 6 months post-operatively.1 For each patient, we collected biometrics with lean body mass analysis at preoperative appointment, and two and six weeks postoperatively. The proportion with non-healing wounds was compared with a historical patient cohort using the chi-square test. In a subgroup of participants with body composition measurements, we also compared changes in mean fat mass, lean mass, and psoas index from pre-operative baseline to 6 months post-operative using generalized linear models. Results: A total of 33 consecutive patients were supplemented with a branched chain amino acid (BCAA) formulation. The historical cohort included 146 participants from the previous 7 years (2010-2017). 26% of patients in the historical cohort experienced wound complications compared to 30% in the supplemented group. (p=0.72) When focusing specifically on lower extremity sarcomas treated with neoadjuvant radiation therapy, 46% of patients in the supplemented group experienced wound healing complications compared to 39% in the non-supplemented group (p=0.68). BCAA supplementation was found to be protective with regards to decreasing muscle wasting with no difference in psoas index measurements throughout the study period compared to a 20% muscle loss in the historical cohort (p=0.02). Conclusion: In our limited sample size, there was no difference in wound healing complications between sarcoma patients who received postoperative BCAA supplementation compared to a historical cohort who were not supplemented. Patients who did not receive supplementation had a significant decline in post-operative psoas index following operative sarcoma removal. Level of Evidence: III.


Asunto(s)
Sarcoma , Neoplasias de los Tejidos Blandos , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Factores de Riesgo , Radioterapia Adyuvante/efectos adversos , Sarcoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Sarcoma/cirugía , Sarcoma/radioterapia , Neoplasias de los Tejidos Blandos/cirugía , Suplementos Dietéticos , Estudios Retrospectivos
14.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 1318, 2022 Dec 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526987

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Large-scale trials have shown that hypofractionated adjuvant breast radiotherapy was as effective in terms of survival and local control as conventional fractionated radiotherapy, and acute toxicity was reduced with hypofractionated radiotherapy. However, there is a lack of data about the toxicity of breast with regional nodal irradiation (RNI). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of fractionation on radiation-related acute skin toxicity in patients receiving RNI in addition to whole-breast or chest wall irradiation, using real-life data. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicenter cohort study with systematic computerized data collection integrated into Mosaiq®. Three comprehensive cancer centers used a standardized form to prospectively collect patient characteristics, treatment characteristics and toxicity. RESULTS: Between November 2016 and January 2022, 1727 patients were assessed; 1419 (82.2%) and 308 (17.8%) patients respectively received conventional fractionated and hypofractionated radiation therapy. Overall, the incidence of acute grade 2 or higher dermatitis was 28.4% (490 patients). Incidence was lower with hypofractionated than with conventional fractioned radiation therapy (odds ratio (OR) 0.34 [0.29;0.41]). Two prognostic factors were found to increase the risk of acute dermatitis, namely 3D (vs IMRT) and breast irradiation (vs chest wall). CONCLUSION: Using real-life data from unselected patients with regional nodal irradiation, our findings confirm the decreased risk of dermatitis previously reported with hypofractionated radiation therapy in clinical trials. Expansion of systematic data collection systems to include additional centers as well as dosimetric data is warranted to further evaluate the short- and long-term effects of fractionation in real life.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Dermatitis , Traumatismos por Radiación , Radioterapia de Intensidad Modulada , Humanos , Femenino , Neoplasias de la Mama/complicaciones , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Hipofraccionamiento de la Dosis de Radiación , Traumatismos por Radiación/epidemiología , Traumatismos por Radiación/etiología , Dermatitis/complicaciones , Radioterapia Adyuvante/efectos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidad Modulada/efectos adversos
15.
J Surg Res ; 279: 393-397, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835032

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: De-escalation of breast cancer treatment aims to reduce patient and financial toxicity without compromising outcomes. Level I evidence and National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines support omission of adjuvant radiation in patients aged >70 y with hormone-sensitive, pT1N0M0 invasive breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy. We evaluated radiation use in patients eligible for guideline concordant omission of radiation. METHODS: Subgroup analysis of patients eligible for radiation omission from two pooled randomized controlled trials, which included stage 0-III breast cancer patients undergoing breast conserving surgery, was performed to evaluate factors associated with radiation use. RESULTS: Of 631 patients, 47 (7.4%) met radiation omission criteria and were treated by 14 surgeons at eight institutions. The mean age was 75.3 (standard deviation + 4.4) y. Majority of patients identified as White (n = 46; 97.9%) and non-Hispanic (n = 44; 93.6%). The mean tumor size was 1.0 cm; 37 patients (88.1%) had ductal, 4 patients (9.5%) had lobular, and 17 patients (40.5%) had low-grade disease. Among patients eligible for radiation omission, 34 (72.3%) patients received adjuvant radiation. Those who received radiation were significantly younger than those who did not (74 y, interquartile range = 4 y, versus 78 y, interquartile range = 11 y, P = 0.03). There was no difference in radiation use based on size (P = 0.4), histology (P = 0.5), grade (P = 0.7), race (P = 1), ethnicity (P = 0.6), institution (P = 0.1), gender of the surgeon (P = 0.7), or surgeon (P = 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Fewer than 10% of patients undergoing breast conservation met criteria for radiation omission. Nearly three-quarters received radiation therapy with younger age being a driver of radiation use, suggesting ample opportunity for de-escalation, particularly among younger eligible patients.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Carcinoma in Situ , Anciano , Neoplasias de la Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , Carcinoma in Situ/cirugía , Tratamiento Conservador , Femenino , Hormonas , Humanos , Mastectomía Segmentaria , Radioterapia Adyuvante
16.
Breast ; 65: 77-83, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35870419

RESUMEN

AIM: Validation of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores as prognostic factors of acute coronary events (ACE) development in breast cancer patients are demanded. We investigated prognostic impact of CAC on ACE development with cardiac exposure to radiation. METHODS: We evaluated breast cancer patients with (n = 511) or without (n = 600) adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) between 2005 and 2013. CAC Agatston scores were analyzed using a deep-learning-based algorithm. Individual mean heart dose (MHD) was calculated, and no RT was categorized as 0 Gy. The primary endpoint was the development of ACE following breast surgery. RESULTS: In the RT and no-RT cohorts, 11.2% and 3.7% exhibited CAC >0, respectively. Over a 9.3-year follow-up period, the 10-year ACE rate was 0.7%. In the multivariate analysis, the CAC score was a significant risk factor for ACE (CAC >0 vs CAC = 0, 10-year 6.2% vs 0.2%, P < 0.001). In the subgroup with CAC >0, the 10-year ACE rates were 0%, 3.7%, and 13.7% for patients receiving mean heart doses of 0 Gy, 0-3 Gy, and >3 Gy, respectively (P = 0.133). Although CAC score was not predictive for non-ACE heart disease risk (P > 0.05), the 10-year non-ACE heart disease rates were 1.7%, 5.7%, and 7.1% for patients with CAC = 0 receiving MHD of 0 Gy, 0-3 Gy, and >3 Gy, respectively (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The CAC score was a significant predictor of ACE in patients with breast cancer. Although further studies are required, CAC score screening on simulation CT in patients undergoing breast RT can help identify those with high risk for ACE on a per-patient basis.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Cardiopatías , Neoplasias de la Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , Calcio , Vasos Coronarios/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Humanos , Radioterapia Adyuvante/efectos adversos , Factores de Riesgo
17.
Radiat Oncol ; 17(1): 118, 2022 Jul 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799270

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon malignancy with high recurrent rate and poor prognosis. This study investigates the recurrent patterns of postoperative GBC, with the aim to guide the adjuvant treatments, including the radiotherapy. METHODS: Retrospectively analyzed the 109 GBC patients who underwent surgery in our institution from January 2013 to 2018. Clinical follow-up revealed 54 recurrent cases, of which 40 had detailed locations of recurrence. The sites of recurrence were recorded and divided into the tumor bed, corresponding lymphatic drainage area, intrahepatic recurrence, and the other distant metastasis. RESULTS: The median follow-up time is 34 months (IQR: 11-64). The median disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 48.8 months and 53.7 months, respectively. Through univariate analysis, risk factors for DFS and OS include tumor markers (CA199 and CEA), hepatic invasion, perineural invasion, lymphovascular invasion, TNM staging and tumor differentiation. Through multivariate analysis, risk factors for DFS include hepatic invasion and TNM staging, and for OS is TNM staging only. Of the 40 cases with specific recurrent sites, 29 patients (29/40, 72.5%) had recurrence in the potential target volume of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT), which include tumor bed and corresponding lymphatic drainage area. The common recurrent lymph node groups included abdominal para-aortic lymph node (No.16, 15/29), hepatoduodenal ligament lymph node (No.12, 8/29), retro-pancreatic head lymph node (No.13, 7/29) and celiac axis lymph node (No.9, 4/29). Twenty cases with recurrences inside the potential PORT target volume were accompanied by distant metastasis. Another 11 cases had distant metastasis alone, so totally 31 cases developed distant metastasis (31/40, 77.5%), including 18 cases with hepatic metastasis. CONCLUSION: The recurrence and metastasis rates are high in GBC and adjuvant therapy is needed. Up to 75% of the recurrent cases occurred in the potential target volume of postoperative radiotherapy, suggesting that postoperative radiotherapy has the possible value of improving local-regional control. The potential target volume of radiotherapy should include the tumor bed, No.8, No.9, No.11, No.12, No.13, No.14, No. 16a2, No. 16b1 lymph node groups.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Vesícula Biliar , Neoplasias de la Vesícula Biliar/radioterapia , Neoplasias de la Vesícula Biliar/cirugía , Humanos , Escisión del Ganglio Linfático , Metástasis Linfática , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/patología , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Pronóstico , Radioterapia Adyuvante , Estudios Retrospectivos
18.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 29(9): 5582-5590, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35583688

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The mainstay of treatment of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) is surgery followed by adjuvant radioactive iodine therapy. Postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) is rarely used. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to report our experience of patients with WDTC who were selected to receive PORT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After Institutional Review Board approval, patients who received PORT were identified from a departmental database of 6259 patients with WDTC treated with primary surgery from 1986 to 2015. We carried out propensity matching to compare outcomes with a cohort of patients who did not receive PORT. The main outcome of interest was central neck recurrence-free probability (CNRFP), while secondary outcomes were lateral neck recurrence-free probability (LNRFP), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: From 6259 patients, 32 (0.5%) patients with a median age of 65.2 years received PORT. Tall-cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma was the most common pathology (45%). Patients who received PORT had no difference in CNRFP compared with patients treated without PORT (10-year CNRFP 88% vs. 73%; p = 0.18). Furthermore, patients who received PORT had superior LNRFP (10-year LNRFP 100% vs. 62%; p = 0.001) compared with the no-PORT cohort. Despite this, patients who received PORT had similar DSS (71% PORT vs. 75% no-PORT) and OS (65% PORT vs. 58% no-PORT group) as the no-PORT cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that select patients who received PORT had improved locoregional recurrence-free probability; however, this did not translate into improved DSS and OS. At our institution, we recommend the use of PORT only in highly selected patients with locally advanced primary tumors who are deemed to have a high risk of central neck recurrence for which salvage surgery would result in unacceptable risk to the airway.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Tiroides , Anciano , Humanos , Radioisótopos de Yodo/uso terapéutico , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/patología , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/cirugía , Radioterapia Adyuvante , Estudios Retrospectivos , Cáncer Papilar Tiroideo , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/patología , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/radioterapia , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/cirugía
19.
Surgery ; 172(1): 31-40, 2022 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489980

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Timely completion of adjuvant radiation after breast conservation therapy is associated with decreased mortality and increased disease-free survival. Few data exist comparing timely completion between hypofractionated radiation and traditional radiation at a national level or across racial and socioeconomic cohorts. METHODS: A retrospective review of the National Cancer Database (2012-2016) on patients undergoing breast conservation therapy for early-stage breast cancer, specifically T1 or T2, N0, M0 patients, was performed. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to compare timely completion of hypofractionated radiation (within 5 weeks of initiation) and traditional radiation (within 7 weeks) across patient, tumor, and facility characteristics. RESULTS: In total, 210,816 patients met criteria, with 59.4% receiving traditional radiation (n = 125,140) and 40.6% receiving hypofractionated radiation (n = 85,676). Overall, 82.8% of patients achieved timely completion of radiation. Among hypofractionated radiation patients, 94.5% of patients achieved timely completion, whereas only 74.8% of traditional radiation patients achieved timely completion (P < .0001). Regarding race/ethnicity, all groups benefited substantially in timely completion of hypofractionated radiation over traditional radiation. However, both treatment cohorts demonstrated that Black (odds ratio (hypofractionated radiation) = 0.842, odds ratio (traditional radiation) = 0.821) and Hispanic (odds ratio (hypofractionated radiation) = 0.917, odds ratio (traditional radiation) = 0.907) patients had lower odds of timely completion compared to White patients (P < .0001). Lower high school graduation rate, median income for patients' ZIP code, and Medicaid were also associated with lower odds of timely completion for both hypofractionated radiation and traditional radiation (both P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Timely completion of radiation therapy in breast conservation therapy is greater for patients receiving hypofractionated radiation than traditional radiation across racial and socioeconomic cohorts. Disparities in timely completion were substantially reduced with hypofractionated radiation utilization. However, there are treatment disparities across racial and socioeconomic cohorts that persist in both treatment groups.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Femenino , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Humanos , Mastectomía Segmentaria , Hipofraccionamiento de la Dosis de Radiación , Radioterapia Adyuvante , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(4): 5586-5597, 2022 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35050587

RESUMEN

It is vital to remove residual tumor cells after resection to avoid the recurrence and metastasis of osteosarcoma. In this study, a mineral nanomedicine, europium-doped calcium fluoride (CaF2:Eu) nanoparticles (NPs), is developed to enhance the efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy (i.e., surgical resection followed by radiotherapy) for tumor cell growth and metastasis of osteosarcoma. In vitro studies show that CaF2:Eu NPs (200 µg/mL) exert osteosarcoma cell (143B)-selective toxicity and migration-inhibiting effects at a Eu dopant amount of 2.95 atomic weight percentage. These effects are further enhanced under X-ray irradiation (6 MeV, 4 Gy). Furthermore, in vivo tests show that intraosseous injection of CaF2:Eu NPs and X-ray irradiation have satisfactory therapeutic efficacy in controlling primary tumor size and inhibiting primary tumor metastasis. Overall, our results suggest that CaF2:Eu NPs with their osteosarcoma cell (143B)-selective toxicity and migration-inhibiting effects combined with radiotherapy might be nanomedicines for treating osteosarcoma after tumor resection.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Fluoruro de Calcio/uso terapéutico , Europio/uso terapéutico , Nanopartículas del Metal/uso terapéutico , Osteosarcoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/toxicidad , Fluoruro de Calcio/química , Fluoruro de Calcio/toxicidad , Línea Celular Tumoral , Movimiento Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Terapia Combinada , Europio/química , Europio/toxicidad , Puntos de Control de la Fase G2 del Ciclo Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Nanopartículas del Metal/toxicidad , Ratones , Radioterapia Adyuvante
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