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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 16(8): 6937-6953, 2024 Apr 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643461

RESUMEN

AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of VC on SIMI in rats. METHODS: In this study, the survival rate of high dose VC for SIMI was evaluated within 7 days. Rats were randomly assigned to three groups: Sham group, CLP group, and high dose VC (500 mg/kg i.v.) group. The animals in each group were treated with drugs for 1 day, 3 days or 5 days, respectively. Echocardiography, myocardial enzymes and HE were used to detect cardiac function. IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α) in serum were measured using ELISA kits. Western blot was used to detect proteins related to apoptosis, inflammation, autophagy, MAPK, NF-κB and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. RESULTS: High dose VC improved the survival rate of SIMI within 7 days. Echocardiography, HE staining and myocardial enzymes showed that high-dose VC relieved SIMI in rats in a time-dependent manner. And compared with CLP group, high-dose VC decreased the expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins, while increased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein. And compared with CLP group, high dose VC decreased phosphorylation levels of Erk1/2, P38, JNK, NF-κB and IKK α/ß in SIMI rats. High dose VC increased the expression of the protein Beclin-1 and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, whereas decreased the expression of P62 in SIMI rats. Finally, high dose VC attenuated phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and mTOR compared with the CLP group. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that high dose VC has a good protective effect on SIMI after continuous treatment, which may be mediated by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammatory, and promoting autophagy through regulating MAPK, NF-κB and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis , Autofagia , FN-kappa B , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Sepsis , Transducción de Señal , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR , Animales , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratas , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Autofagia/efectos de los fármacos , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Masculino , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas/metabolismo , Sepsis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sepsis/complicaciones , Sepsis/metabolismo , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/administración & dosificación , Miocardio/metabolismo , Miocardio/patología
2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 133: 112086, 2024 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642441

RESUMEN

Myocardial injury (MI) signifies a pathological aspect of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as coronary artery disease, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and myocarditis. Macrostemonoside T (MST) has been isolated from Allium macrostemon Bunge (AMB), a key traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for treating chest stuffiness and pains. Although MST has demonstrated considerable antioxidant activity in vitro, its protective effect against MI remains unexplored. To investigate MST's effects in both in vivo and in vitro models of isoproterenol (ISO)-induced MI and elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. This study established an ISO-induced MI model in rats and assessed H9c2 cytotoxicity to examine MST's impact on MI. Various assays, including histopathological staining, TUNEL staining, immunohistochemical staining, DCFH-DA staining, JC-1 staining, ELISA technique, and Western blot (WB), were utilized to explore the potential molecular mechanisms of MI protection. In vivo experiments demonstrated that ISO caused myocardial fiber disorders, elevated cardiac enzyme levels, and apoptosis. However, pretreatment with MST significantly mitigated these detrimental changes. In vitro experiments revealed that MST boosted antioxidant enzyme levels and suppressed malondialdehyde (MDA) production in H9c2 cells. Concurrently, MST inhibited ISO-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitigated the decline in mitochondrial membrane potential, thereby reducing the apoptosis rate. Moreover, pretreatment with MST elevated the expression levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt, and p-mTOR, indicating activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and consequent protection against MI. MST attenuated ISO-induced MI in rats by impeding apoptosis through activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. This study presents potential avenues for the development of precursor drugs for CVDs.


Asunto(s)
Allium , Apoptosis , Isoproterenol , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Transducción de Señal , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR , Animales , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Allium/química , Ratas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Masculino , Línea Celular , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas/metabolismo , Infarto del Miocardio/inducido químicamente , Infarto del Miocardio/tratamiento farmacológico , Infarto del Miocardio/prevención & control , Miocitos Cardíacos/efectos de los fármacos , Miocitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miocitos Cardíacos/patología , Saponinas/farmacología , Saponinas/uso terapéutico , Cardiotónicos/farmacología , Cardiotónicos/uso terapéutico , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo
3.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 49(4): 384-390, 2024 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649206

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To observe the effects on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), α-synaptic nucleoprotein (α-syn), sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) and gasdermin-D (GSDMD) in the substantia nigra of midbrain after electroacupuncture (EA) at "Fengfu"(GV16), "Taichong" (LR3) and "Zusanli" (ST36) in rats of Parkinson's disease (PD), so as to explore the mechanism of EA in treatment of PD. METHODS: SD rats were randomly divided into control, model and EA groups, with 10 rats in each group. The PD model was established by injecting rotenone into the neck and back, lasting 28 days. In the EA group, EA was applied to GV16, LR3 and ST36, 30 min each time, once daily, consecutively for 28 days. The open-field test was adopted to detect the total distance of autonomic movement of rats, and the pole climbing test was used to detect the body coordination ability of rats. In the substania nigra of midbrain, the positive expression of TH was determined using immunohistochemistry, the mRNA expression levels of α - syn, Sirt3, NLRP3 and GSDMD were detected by quantitative real-time fluorescence PCR, and the protein expression levels of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC) and cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (Caspase)-1 were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the total distance of autonomous movement was decreased (P<0.01) in the model group, and the score of pole climbing experiment was increased (P<0.01);in the midbrain substantia nigra the positive expression of TH was decreased (P<0.01);the mRNA expression level of Sirt3 was decreased (P<0.01), and those of α-syn, NLRP3 and GSDMD were increased (P<0.01);while the protein expression levels of NLRP3, ASC and Caspase-1 were increased (P<0.01). When compared with the model group, the total distance of autonomous movement in open field experiment was increased (P<0.01) in the EA group and the score of pole climbing experiment was lower (P<0.05);in the midbrain substantia nigra the positive expression of TH was increased (P<0.01);the mRNA expression level of Sirt3 in the midbrain substantia nigra was increased (P<0.01), and those of α-syn, NLRP3 and GSDMD were reduced (P<0.01);while the protein expression levels of NLRP3, ASC and Caspase-1 decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: EA at "GV16" "LR3" and "ST36" can repair the neuronal injury, clear the abnormal accumulation of α-syn in the substania nigra of midbrain, and ameliorate mitochondrial damage in PD rats, which may be obtained by regulating Sirt3/NLRP3/GSDMD signaling pathway, so as to delay the occurrence and development of Parkinson's disease.


Asunto(s)
Electroacupuntura , Proteína con Dominio Pirina 3 de la Familia NLR , Enfermedad de Parkinson , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Transducción de Señal , Sirtuina 3 , Sirtuinas , Sustancia Negra , Animales , Ratas , Puntos de Acupuntura , Mesencéfalo/metabolismo , Proteína con Dominio Pirina 3 de la Familia NLR/metabolismo , Proteína con Dominio Pirina 3 de la Familia NLR/genética , Enfermedad de Parkinson/metabolismo , Enfermedad de Parkinson/terapia , Enfermedad de Parkinson/genética , Sirtuina 3/metabolismo , Sirtuina 3/genética , Sustancia Negra/metabolismo
4.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 49(4): 358-366, 2024 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649203

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Fenglong" (ST40) and "Zusanli" (ST36) of different intensities and durations on rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) based on the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)-activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)-C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) signaling pathway, so as to explore its mechanism underlying improvement of NAFLD. METHODS: SD rats were randomly divided into normal diet group, high-fat model group, sham EA group, strong stimulation EA (SEA) group, and weak stimulation EA (WEA) group, with 15 rats in each group. Each group was further divided into 2, 3, and 4-week subgroups. NAFLD rat model was established by feeding a high-fat diet. After successful modeling, rats in the SEA and WEA groups received EA at bilateral ST40 and ST36 with dense and sparse waves (4 Hz/20 Hz) at current intensities of 4 mA (SEA group) and 2 mA (WEA group), lasting for 20 minutes, once a day, 5 days a week with 2 days of rest. The sham EA group only had the EA apparatus connected without electricity. Different duration subgroups were intervened for 2, 3, and 4 weeks. After the intervention, the contents of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in rats were detected by an automatic biochemical analyzer;liver morphological changes were observed by Oil Red O staining;real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of PERK, ATF4, and CHOP mRNAs and proteins in the rat liver tissue. RESULTS: In the high-fat model group, there was a significant accumulation of red lipid droplets in the liver cells, which was reduced significantly in the SEA group at the 4th week. Compared with the normal diet group with the same treatment duration, the contents of serum ALT, AST, and the expression of PERK, ATF4, and CHOP mRNAs and proteins in the liver tissue were elevated (P<0.01) in the high-fat model group . Compared with the high-fat model group with the same treatment duration, the contents of serum ALT, AST, and the expression of PERK, ATF4, CHOP mRNAs and proteins in the liver tissue were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05) in the SEA and WEA groups. Compared with the sham EA group with the same treatment duration, the contents of serum ALT, AST, and the expression of PERK, ATF4, and CHOP mRNAs were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05) in the SEA and WEA groups, the expression of PERK, ATF4, and CHOP proteins in the liver tissue was decreased (P<0.01) in the SEA group at the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th week, the expression of PERK and CHOP proteins at the 2nd, 3rd, 4th week and ATF4 protein at 2nd week in the liver tissue were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05) in the WEA group. Compared with the SEA group with the same treatment duration, the contents of serum ALT, AST, and the expression of PERK, ATF4, and CHOP mRNAs and proteins in the liver tissue were elevated (P<0.05, P<0.01) in the WEA group. Compared with the 2-week time point within the groups, the contents of serum ALT, AST, and the expression of PERK, ATF4, and CHOP mRNAs and PERK proteins in the liver tissue were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05) in the SEA and WEA groups at 3rd and 4th week, the expression of ATF4 proteins in the liver tissue was decreased (P<0.01) in the SEA group at 3rd and 4th week, and the expression of CHOP proteins in the liver tissue was decreased (P<0.01) in the SEA group at 4th week and in the WEA group at 3rd and 4th week. Compared with the 3-week time point within the groups, the contents of serum ALT, AST, and the expression of PERK, ATF4, and CHOP mRNAs were significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01) in the SEA and WEA groups at 4th week, the expression of PERK and CHOP proteins in the liver tissue was decreased (P<0.01) in the SEA and WEA groups at 4th week, and the expression of ATF4 protein in the liver tissue was decreased (P<0.05) in the SEA group at 4th week. CONCLUSIONS: EA at ST40 and ST36 can significantly improve liver function in NAFLD rats, and its mechanism of action may involve inhibiting PERK expression thereby targeting the downstream ATF4/CHOP signaling pathway to suppress endoplasmic reticulum stress, exerting a liver protective effect;the optimal effect was observed with EA intensity of 4 mA for 4 weeks.


Asunto(s)
Factor de Transcripción Activador 4 , Puntos de Acupuntura , Electroacupuntura , Hígado , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Transducción de Señal , Factor de Transcripción CHOP , eIF-2 Quinasa , Animales , Ratas , Factor de Transcripción Activador 4/metabolismo , Factor de Transcripción Activador 4/genética , eIF-2 Quinasa/metabolismo , eIF-2 Quinasa/genética , Hígado/metabolismo , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/metabolismo , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/terapia , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/genética , Factor de Transcripción CHOP/metabolismo , Factor de Transcripción CHOP/genética
5.
Acta Cir Bras ; 39: e391524, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629649

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-related complication. Eucommia is effective in the treatment of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, but the specific effects and possible mechanisms of Eucommia granules (EG) in PE remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of EG in PE rats. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups (n = 6): the control group, the model group, the low-dose group, the medium-dose group, and the high-dose group of EG. The PE model was established by subcutaneous injection of levonitroarginine methyl ester. Saline was given to the blank and model groups, and the Eucommia granules were given by gavage to the remaining groups. Blood pressure and urinary protein were detected. The body length and weight of the pups and the weight of the placenta were recorded. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), placental growth factor (PIGF), and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFIt-1) were measured in the placenta. Pathological changes were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Wnt/ß-catenin pathway-related protein expression was detected using Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with the model group, the PE rats treated with EG had lower blood pressure and urinary protein. The length and weight of the pups and placental weight were increased. Inflammation and necrosis in the placental tissue was improved. SOD level increased, MDA content and sFIt-1/PIGF ratio decreased, and Wnt/ß-catenin pathway-related protein expression level increased. Moreover, the results of EG on PE rats increased with higher doses of EG. CONCLUSIONS: EG may activate the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway and inhibit oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular endothelial injury in PE rats, thereby improving the perinatal prognosis of preeclamptic rats. EG may inhibit oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular endothelial injury through activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway in preeclampsia rats, thereby improving perinatal outcomes in PE rats.


Asunto(s)
Preeclampsia , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Humanos , Ratas , Femenino , Embarazo , Animales , Preeclampsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Preeclampsia/metabolismo , Preeclampsia/patología , Placenta , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Factor de Crecimiento Placentario/metabolismo , Factor de Crecimiento Placentario/farmacología , Factor de Crecimiento Placentario/uso terapéutico , Estrés Oxidativo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/metabolismo , Inflamación/patología , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
6.
Acta Cir Bras ; 39: e392124, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629652

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of curcumin supplementation on abdominal surgical wound healing in rats using clinical, histological, and hematological parameters. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: the curcumin group, and the control group. The curcumin group received, in addition to water and standard feed, curcumin via gavage at the dose of 200 mg/kg for seven days preceding and seven days following surgery. The control group received only water and standard feed. Both groups underwent median laparotomy and left colotomy. On the eighth postoperative day, the groups were euthanized, and the left colon was resected for histological analysis. RESULTS: In the preoperative evaluation, there was a significant decrease in the mean C-reactive protein levels in the curcumin group (0.06) compared to the control group (0.112) (p = 0.0001). In the postoperative wound healing assessment, a significant decrease was observed in inflammatory infiltrate (p = 0.0006) and blood vessel count (p = 0.0002) in the curcumin group compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Curcumin supplementation was able to significantly reduce inflammatory parameters in both pre-and post-operative phases of abdominal surgical wounds in rats.


Asunto(s)
Curcumina , Herida Quirúrgica , Ratas , Animales , Curcumina/farmacología , Ratas Wistar , Herida Quirúrgica/tratamiento farmacológico , Cicatrización de Heridas , Agua/farmacología , Suplementos Dietéticos
7.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(6): 164, 2024 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630373

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) control the toxic effects of aflatoxins, which are not yet fully understood. Radiolabeled aflatoxin B1 (AFB13H) was administered by gavage to Wistar rats fed with aflatoxin (AflDiet) and aflatoxin supplemented with active dehydrated yeast Y904 (AflDiet + Yeast). The distribution of AFB13H and its metabolites were analyzed at 24, 48 and 72 h by tracking back of the radioactivity. No significant differences were observed between the AflDiet and AflDiet + Yeast groups in terms of the distribution of labeled aflatoxin. At 72 h, for the AflDiet group the radiolabeled aflatoxin was distributed as following: feces (79.5%), carcass (10.5%), urine (1.7%), and intestine (7.4%); in the AflDiet + Yeast the following distribution was observed: feces (76%), carcass (15%), urine (2.9%), and intestine (4.9%). These values were below 1% in other organs. These findings indicate that even after 72 h considerable amounts of aflatoxins remains in the intestines, which may play a significant role in the distribution and metabolism of aflatoxins and its metabolites over time. The presence of yeast may not significantly affect this process. Furthermore, histopathological examination of hepatic tissues showed that the presence of active yeast reduced the severity of liver damage caused by aflatoxins, indicating that yeasts control aflatoxin damage through biochemical mechanisms. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of yeasts against aflatoxin toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Aflatoxinas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Ratas , Animales , Ratas Wistar , Aflatoxinas/toxicidad , Suplementos Dietéticos , Heces
8.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301621, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630691

RESUMEN

Diabetes mellitus adversely affects the contractile ability of the small intestine. However, there is a paucity of studies investigating the impact of garlic oil on small intestinal motility. This study aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of garlic oil on type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Thirty-six adult female Wistar rats (n = 36) were divided into four groups: control, non-diabetic rats supplemented with garlic oil, diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated with garlic oil. The rats were anesthetized using pentobarbitone (40 mg/kg BW); various motility parameters and oxidative markers were determined in small intestinal segments. Measurements were taken for naso-anal length, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose level (FBG), and plasma insulin level. Compared to the control group, the diabetic rats exhibited a reduction in the average force of contraction and motility index in all small intestinal segments. Furthermore, the rats exhibited a reduction in the average duration of muscle contraction only in the jejunum. The rats also exhibited hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, significant oxidative stress, and obesity. This was proven by changes in motility parameters, fasting blood glucose levels, HOMA-IR values, intestinal MDA levels, and waist circumference. The non-diabetic rats supplemented with garlic oil also exhibited a decrease in the average force of contraction and motility index in all small intestinal segments, despite having consistently higher Lee index and waist circumference values. However, the diabetic rats treated with garlic oil demonstrated improved small intestinal motility in nearly all small intestinal segments and a reduction in oxidative stress. In conclusion, rats with diabetes mellitus experienced a decrease in small intestinal motility, which is primarily driven by oxidative stress. Normal rats administered with garlic oil supplements exhibited similar effects. In contrast, garlic oil treatment in diabetic rats led to enhanced small intestinal motility and a notable anti-hyperglycemic effect, which can be attributed to the potent antioxidant properties of garlic oil.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos Alílicos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Ajo , Sulfuros , Ratas , Femenino , Animales , Ratas Wistar , Glucemia , Estrés Oxidativo
9.
J Mol Neurosci ; 74(2): 44, 2024 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630337

RESUMEN

Plants are a valuable source of information for pharmacological research and new drug discovery. The present study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of the leaves of the medicinal plant Sterculia setigera. In vitro, the effect of Sterculia setigera leaves dry hydroethanolic extract (SSE) was tested on cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) survival when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), using the viability probe fluorescein diacetate (FDA), a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay, an immunocytochemical staining against Gap 43, and the quantification of the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, necrosis, or oxidative stress. In vivo, the effect of intraperitoneal (ip) injection of SSE was assessed on the developing brain of 8-day-old Wistar rats exposed to ethanol neurotoxicity by measuring caspase-3 activity on cerebellum homogenates, the expression of some genes in tissue extracts, the thickness of cerebellar cortical layers and motor coordination. In vitro, SSE protected CGN against H2O2 and 6-OHDA-induced cell death at a dose of 10 µg/mL, inhibited the expression of genes Casp3 and Bad, and upregulated the expression of Cat and Gpx7. In vivo, SSE significantly blocked the deleterious effect of ethanol by reducing the activity of caspase-3, inhibiting the expression of Bax and Tp53, preventing the reduction of the thickness of the internal granule cell layer of the cerebellar cortex, and restoring motor functions. Sterculia setigera exerts neuroactive functions as claimed by traditional medicine and should be a good candidate for the development of a neuroprotective treatment against neurodegenerative diseases.


Asunto(s)
Muerte Celular , Etanol , Neuronas , Fármacos Neuroprotectores , Extractos Vegetales , Hojas de la Planta , Sterculia , Animales , Ratas , Caspasa 3/metabolismo , Etanol/administración & dosificación , Etanol/química , Etanol/toxicidad , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/toxicidad , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/administración & dosificación , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/farmacología , Oxidopamina/toxicidad , Ratas Wistar , Sterculia/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Plantas Medicinales/química , Neuronas/citología , Neuronas/efectos de los fármacos , Neuronas/enzimología , Neuronas/patología , Lactato Deshidrogenasas/metabolismo , Proteína GAP-43/análisis , Apoptosis/genética , Estrés Oxidativo/genética , Cerebelo/citología , Cerebelo/efectos de los fármacos , Cerebelo/patología , Cerebelo/fisiología , Masculino , Femenino , Células Cultivadas , Muerte Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Fitoquímicos/administración & dosificación , Fitoquímicos/análisis , Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Antioxidantes/análisis , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Espectrometría de Masa por Ionización de Electrospray , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Cromatografía Líquida con Espectrometría de Masas , Metabolismo Secundario
10.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 44(1): 36, 2024 Apr 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38637346

RESUMEN

Surgical brain injury (SBI), induced by neurosurgical procedures or instruments, has not attracted adequate attention. The pathophysiological process of SBI remains sparse compared to that of other central nervous system diseases thus far. Therefore, novel and effective therapies for SBI are urgently needed. In this study, we found that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were present in the circulation and brain tissues of rats after SBI, which promoted neuroinflammation, cerebral edema, neuronal cell death, and aggravated neurological dysfunction. Inhibition of NETs formation by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) inhibitor or disruption of NETs with deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) attenuated SBI-induced damages and improved the recovery of neurological function. We show that SBI triggered the activation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING), and that inhibition of the cGAS-STING pathway could be beneficial. It is worth noting that DNase I markedly suppressed the activation of cGAS-STING, which was reversed by the cGAS product cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGMP-AMP, cGAMP). Furthermore, the neuroprotective effect of DNase I in SBI was also abolished by cGAMP. NETs may participate in the pathophysiological regulation of SBI by acting through the cGAS-STING pathway. We also found that high-dose vitamin C administration could effectively inhibit the formation of NETs post-SBI. Thus, targeting NETs may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for SBI treatment, and high-dose vitamin C intervention may be a promising translational therapy with an excellent safety profile and low cost.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Encefálicas , Trampas Extracelulares , Animales , Ratas , Encéfalo , Lesiones Encefálicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Ácido Ascórbico , Desoxirribonucleasa I/farmacología
11.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(1): 29-39, 2024 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615163

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a common neuropathic pain. Voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv) has been confirmed to be involved in the occurrence and development of TN, but the specific mechanism is still unclear. MicroRNA may be involved in neuropathic pain by regulating the expression of Kv channels and neuronal excitability in trigeminal ganglion (TG). This study aims to explore the relationship between Kv1.1 and miR-21-5p in TG with a TN model, evaluate whether miR-21-5p has a regulatory effect on Kv1.1, and to provide a new target and experimental basis for the treatment of TN. METHODS: A total of 48 SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: 1) a sham group (n=12), the rats were only sutured at the surgical incision without nerve ligation; 2) a sham+agomir NC group (n=6), the sham rats were microinjected with agomir NC through stereotactic brain injection in the surgical side of TG; 3) a sham+miR-21-5p agomir group (n=6), the sham rats were microinjected with miR-21-5p agomir via stereotactic brain injection in the surgical side of TG; 4) a TN group (n=12), a TN rat model was constructed using the chronic constriction injury of the distal infraorbital nerve (dIoN-CCI) method with chromium intestinal thread; 5) a TN+antagonist NC group (n=6), TN rats were microinjected with antagonist NC through stereotactic brain injection method in the surgical side of TG; 6) a TN+miR-21-5p antagonist group (n=6), TN rats were microinjected with miR-21-5p antagonist through stereotactic brain injection in the surgical side of TG. The change of mechanical pain threshold in rats of each group after surgery was detected. The expressions of Kv1.1 and miR-21-5p in the operative TG of rats were detected by Western blotting and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Dual luciferase reporter genes were used to determine whether there was a target relationship between Kv1.1 and miR-21-5p and whether miR-21-5p directly affected the 3'-UTR terminal of KCNA1. The effect of brain stereotaxic injection was evaluated by immunofluorescence assay, and then the analogue of miR-21-5p (agomir) and agomir NC were injected into the TG of rats in the sham group by brain stereotaxic apparatus to overexpress miR-21-5p. The miR-21-5p inhibitor (antagomir) and antagomir NC were injected into TG of rats in the TN group to inhibit the expression of miR-21-5p. The behavioral changes of rats before and after administration were observed, and the expression changes of miR-21-5p and Kv1.1 in TG of rats after intervention were detected. RESULTS: Compared with the baseline pain threshold, the facial mechanical pain threshold of rats in the TN group was significantly decreased from the 5th to 15th day after the surgery (P<0.05), and the facial mechanical pain threshold of rats in the sham group was stable at the normal level, which proved that the dIoN-CCI model was successfully constructed. Compared with the sham group, the expression of Kv1.1 mRNA and protein in TG of the TN group was down-regulated (both P<0.05), and the expression of miR-21-5p was up-regulated (P<0.05). The results of dual luciferase report showed that the luciferase activity of rno-miR-21-5p mimics and KCNA1 WT transfected with 6 nmol/L or 20 nmol/L were significantly decreased compared with those transfected with mimic NC and wild-type KCNA1 WT, respectively (P<0.001). Compared with low dose rno-miR-21-5p mimics (6 nmol/L) co-transfection group, the relative activity of luciferase in the high dose rno-miR-21-5p mimics (20 nmol/L) cotransfection group was significantly decreased (P<0.001). The results of immunofluorescence showed that drugs were accurately injected into TG through stereotaxic brain. After the expression of miR-21-5p in the TN group, the mechanical pain threshold and the expression of Kv1.1 mRNA and protein in TG were increased. After overexpression of miR-21-5p in the sham group, the mechanical pain threshold and the expression of Kv1.1 mRNA and protein in TG were decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Both Kv1.1 and miR-21-5p are involved in TN and miR-21-5p can regulate Kv1.1 expression by binding to the 3'-UTR of KCNA1.


Asunto(s)
Canal de Potasio Kv.1.1 , MicroARNs , Neuralgia , Neuralgia del Trigémino , Animales , Ratas , Antagomirs , Regulación hacia Abajo , Luciferasas , MicroARNs/genética , Neuralgia/genética , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , ARN Mensajero , Neuralgia del Trigémino/genética , Canal de Potasio Kv.1.1/genética
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(15): e37473, 2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608120

RESUMEN

Chronic renal failure (CRF) causes a reduction in glomerular filtration rate and damage to renal parenchyma. Fushengong decoction (FSGD) showed improvement in renal function in CRF rats. This study aims to analyze the differentially expressed proteins in CRF patients treated with Western medicine alone or in combination with FSGD. Sixty patients with CRF recruited from Yongchuan Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital affiliated to Chongqing Medical University were randomly assigned into control (treated with Western medicine alone) and observation groups (received additional FSGD treatment thrice daily for 8 weeks). The clinical efficacy and changes in serum Bun, serum creatinine, Cystatin C, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1) before and after treatment were observed. We employed isotope relative labeling absolute quantification labeling and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify differentially expressed proteins and carried out bioinformatics Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses. Patients in the observation group showed greater clinical improvement and lower levels of serum Bun, serum creatinine, Cyc-c, and TGF-ß1 than the control group. We identified 32 differentially up-regulated and 52 down-regulated proteins in the observation group. These proteins are involved in the blood coagulation system, protein serine/threonine kinase activity, and TGF-ß, which are closely related to the pathogenesis of CRF. Protein-protein-interaction network analysis indicated that candidate proteins fibronectin 1, fibrinogen alpha chain, vitronectin, and Serpin Family C Member 1 were in the key nodes. This study provided an experimental basis suggesting that FSGD combined with Western medicine could significantly improve renal function and renal fibrosis of CRF patients, which may be through the regulation of fibronectin 1, fibrinogen alpha chain, vitronectin, Serpin Family C Member 1, TGF-ß, and the complement coagulation pathway (see Graphical abstract S1, Supplemental Digital Content, http://links.lww.com/MD/L947).


Asunto(s)
Fallo Renal Crónico , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Serpinas , Animales , Humanos , Ratas , Creatinina , Proteínas de la Matriz Extracelular , Fibrinógeno , Fibronectinas , Fallo Renal Crónico/tratamiento farmacológico , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1 , Vitronectina
13.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 44(4): 433-440, 2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621731

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To explore the effect mechanism of moxibustion with wheat-grain size cone at "Zusanli" (ST 36) on vascular injury and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemia through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway. METHODS: Forty healthy male SD rats with SPF grade were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a moxibustion group, and an inhibitor group, with 10 rats in each one. The hyperlipidemia model was established by feeding a high-fat diet for 8 weeks in rats of the model group, the moxibustion group and the inhibitor group. The moxibustion with wheat-grain size cone was delivered at bilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36) of each rat in the moxibustion group and the inhibitor group, with 3 cones on each acupoint in each intervention, once daily for 4 weeks. In the inhibitor group, before each intervention with moxibustion, rapamycin solution was injected intraperitoneally, 2.0 mg/kg. After modeling and intervention, using ELISA, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the serum of rats were determined. After intervention, with HE staining and oil red O staining adopted, the abdominal aortic morphology and peripheral lipid deposition were observed. Separately, using WST-1, TBA and micro-plate method, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the serum were detected. The protein expression of mTOR, HIF-1α and VEGF in abdominal aorta were measured by Western blot method. RESULTS: Compared with those in the normal group, the levels of TC, TG and LDL-C increased (P<0.01) and HDL-C decreased (P<0.01) in the serum of the rats in the model group, the moxibustion group and the inhibitor group after model establishment. When compared with the normal group after intervention, in the model group, the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C and MDA increased (P<0.01), HDL-C level, SOD activity and NO level were reduced (P<0.01); the cell structure of the abdominal arota was abnormal, the peripheral lipids deposited seriously; and the protein expression of mTOR, HIF-1α and VEGF of abdominal aorta was elevated (P<0.01, P<0.05). In comparison with the model group, the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C and MDA were reduced (P<0.01), HDL-C levels, SOD activities and NO levels elevated (P<0.01, P<0.05), as well as the protein expression of mTOR, HIF-1α and VEGF of abdominal aorta (P<0.01, P<0.05) in the moxibustion group and the inhibitor group; besides, the vascular structure was ameliorated and the lipid deposition reduced in the moxibustion group, while, the vascular structure was still abnormal and the lipid deposition declined in the inhibitor group. When compared with the inhibitor group, the serum SOD activity and NO level increased (P<0.05) and MDA decreased (P<0.05); and the protein expression of mTOR, HIF-1α and VEGF of abdominal aorta was elevated (P<0.01, P<0.05) in the moxibustion group. CONCLUSIONS: The vascular injury due to hyperlipidemia is repaired by moxibustion with wheat-grain size cone at "Zusanli" (ST 36) through ameliorating oxidative stress, which is associated potentially with the modulation of mTOR/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway.


Asunto(s)
Hiperlipidemias , Moxibustión , Lesiones del Sistema Vascular , Ratas , Masculino , Animales , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/genética , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Triticum , LDL-Colesterol , Moxibustión/métodos , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Transducción de Señal , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/genética , Triglicéridos , Superóxido Dismutasa/genética , Mamíferos
14.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 44(4): 441-448, 2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621732

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) with "intestinal disease prescription" on the intestinal mucosal barrier and NLRP3 inflammasome in rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute ulcerative colitis (UC), and explore the underlying mechanism of EA with "intestinal disease prescription" for the treatment of UC. METHODS: Thirty-two healthy male SPF-grade SD rats were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group, a medication group, and an EA group, with 8 rats in each group. Except for the blank group, the UC model was established by administering 5% DSS solution for 7 days. After modeling, the rats in the medication group were treated with mesalazine suspension (200 mg/kg) by gavage, while the rats in the EA group were treated with acupuncture at bilateral "Tianshu" (ST 25), "Shangjuxu" (ST 37) and "Zhongwan" (CV 12), with the ipsilateral "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37) connected to the electrodes of the EA instrument, using disperse-dense wave, with a frequency of 10 Hz/50 Hz, and each intervention lasted for 20 minutes. Both interventions were performed once daily for 3 days. The general conditions of rats were observed daily. After intervention, the disease activity index (DAI) score was calculated; colon tissue morphology was observed using HE staining; serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-18, IL-1ß) were measured by ELISA; protein expression of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), and Caspase-1 in colon tissues was detected by Western blot; positive expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Occludin in colon tissues was examined by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Compared with the blank group, the rats in the model group exhibited poor general conditions, slow body weight gain, shortened colon length (P<0.01), increased DAI score and spleen index (P<0.01), elevated serum IL-18 and IL-1ß levels, and increased protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase-1 in colon tissues (P<0.01), along with decreased positive expression of ZO-1 and Occludin in colon tissues (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the rats in the medication group and the EA group exhibited improved general conditions, accelerated body weight gain, increased colon length (P<0.05), reduced DAI scores and spleen indexes (P<0.05), decreased serum IL-18 and IL-1ß levels, and lower protein expression of NLRP3, ASC and Caspase-1 in colon tissues (P<0.05), as well as increased positive expression of ZO-1 and Occludin in colon tissues (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the above indexes between the medication group and the EA group (P>0.05). Compared with the blank group, the rats in the model group exhibited disrupted colon mucosal morphology, disordered gland arrangement, and atrophy of crypts, along with significant inflammatory cell infiltration. Compared with the model group, the rats in both the medication group and the EA group showed relatively intact colon mucosal morphology, with restored and improved gland and crypt structures, and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration. CONCLUSIONS: EA with "intestinal disease prescription" has a significant therapeutic effect on DSS-induced UC, possibly by regulating the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and proteins related to the intestinal mucosal barrier, thereby alleviating symptoms of ulcerative colitis.


Asunto(s)
Colitis Ulcerosa , Electroacupuntura , Ratas , Masculino , Animales , Colitis Ulcerosa/inducido químicamente , Colitis Ulcerosa/terapia , Inflamasomas/efectos adversos , Interleucina-18 , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Proteína con Dominio Pirina 3 de la Familia NLR/genética , Ocludina , Peso Corporal , Caspasas/efectos adversos
15.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 44(4): 449-454, 2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621733

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To observe the effects of moxibustion on intestinal barrier function and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) signaling pathway in obese rats and explore the mechanism of moxibustion in the intervention of obesity. METHODS: Fifty-five Wistar rats of SPF grade were randomly divided into a normal group (10 rats) and a modeling group (45 rats). In the modeling group, the obesity model was established by feeding high-fat diet. Thirty successfully-modeled rats were randomized into a model group, a moxibustion group, and a placebo-control group, with 10 rats in each one. In the moxibustion group, moxibustion was applied at the site 3 cm to 5 cm far from the surface of "Zhongwan" (CV 12), with the temperature maintained at (46±1 ) ℃. In the placebo-control group, moxibustion was applied at the site 8 cm to 10 cm far from "Zhongwan" (CV 12), with the temperature maintained at (38±1) ℃. The intervention was delivered once daily for 8 weeks in the above two groups. The body mass and food intake of the rats were observed before and after intervention in each group. Using ELISA methool, the levels of serum triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were detected and the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated. HE staining was used to observe the morphology of colon tissue. The mRNA expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), Occludin, Claudin-1, TLR4 and NF-κB p65 in the colon tissue was detected by quantitative real-time PCR; and the protein expression of ZO-1, Occludin, Claudin-1, TLR4 and NF-κB p65 was detected by Western blot in the rats of each group. RESULTS: Compared with the normal group, the body mass, food intake, the level of HOMA-IR, and the serum levels of TC, TG and LPS were increased in the rats of the model group (P<0.01); those indexes in the moxibustion group were all reduced when compared with the model group and the placebo-control group respectively (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the normal group, a large number of epithelial cells in the mucosa of colon tissue was damaged, shed, and the inflammatory cells were infiltrated obviously in the interstitium in the rats of the model group. When compared with the model group, in the moxibustion group, the damage of the colon tissue was recovered to various degrees and there were few infiltrated inflammatory cells in the interstitium, while, the epithelial injury of the colon tissue was slightly recovered and the infiltrated inflammatory cells in the interstitium were still seen in the placebo-control group. The mRNA and protein expressions of ZO-1, Occludin and Caudin-1 were decreased in the model group compared with those in the normal group (P<0.01). When compared with the model group and the placebo-control group, the mRNA and protein expressions of these indexes were increased in the moxibustion group (P<0.01, P<0.05). In the model group, the mRNA and protein expressions of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 were increased when compared with those in the normal group (P<0.01), and the mRNA and protein expressions of these indexes were reduced in the moxibustion group when compared with those in the model group and the placebo-control group (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Moxibustion can reduce the body mass and food intake, regulate the blood lipid and improve insulin resistance in the rats of obesity. It may be related to alleviating inflammatory response through improving intestinal barrier function and modulating the intestinal TLR4/NF-κB p65 signaling pathway.


Asunto(s)
Resistencia a la Insulina , Moxibustión , Ratas , Animales , FN-kappa B/genética , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Ratas Wistar , Receptor Toll-Like 4/genética , Lipopolisacáridos/metabolismo , Funcion de la Barrera Intestinal , Ocludina/metabolismo , Claudina-1/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Obesidad/genética , Obesidad/terapia , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(3): 754-762, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621879

RESUMEN

This study aims to explore the mechanism of Linggui Zhugan Decoction(LGZGD) in inhibiting Angiotensin Ⅱ(AngⅡ)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by regulating sigma-1 receptor(Sig1R). The model of H9c2 cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by AngⅡ in vitro was established by preparing LGZGD-containing serum and blank serum. H9c2 cells were divided into normal group, AngⅡ model group, 20% normal rat serum group(20% NSC), and 20% LGZGD-containing serum group. After the cells were incubated with AngⅡ(1 µmol·L~(-1)) or AngⅡ with serum for 72 h, the surface area of cardiomyocytes was detected by phalloidine staining, and the activities of Na~+-K~+-ATPase and Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATPase were detected by micromethod. The mitochondrial Ca~(2+) levels were detected by flow cytometry, and the expression levels of atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP), brain natriuretic peptide(BNP), Sig1R, and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 2(IP_3R_2) were detected by Western blot. The expression of Sig1R was down-regulated by transfecting specific siRNA for investigating the efficacy of LGZGD-containing serum on cardiomyocyte surface area, Na~+-K~+-ATPase activity, Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATPase activity, mitochondrial Ca~(2+), as well as ANP, BNP, and IP_3R_2 protein expressions. The results showed that compared with the normal group, AngⅡ could significantly increase the surface area of cardiomyocytes and the expression of ANP and BNP(P<0.01), and it could decrease the activities of Na~+-K~+-ATPase and Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATPase, the concentration of mitochondrial Ca~(2+), and the expression of Sig1R(P<0.01). In addition, IP_3R_2 protein expression was significantly increased(P<0.01). LGZGD-containing serum could significantly decrease the surface area of cardiomyocytes and the expression of ANP and BNP(P<0.05, P<0.01), and it could increase the activities of Na~+-K~+-ATPase and Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATPase, the concentration of mitochondrial Ca~(2+ )(P<0.01), and the expression of Sig1R(P<0.05). In addition, IP_3R_2 protein expression was significantly decreased(P<0.05). However, after Sig1R was down-regulated, the effects of LGZGD-containing serum were reversed(P<0.01). These results indicated that the LGZGD-containing serum could inhibit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by AngⅡ, and its pharmacological effect was related to regulating Sig1R, promoting mitochondrial Ca~(2+ )inflow, restoring ATP synthesis, and protecting mitochondrial function.


Asunto(s)
Miocitos Cardíacos , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio , Ratas , Animales , Células Cultivadas , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/genética , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/metabolismo , Factor Natriurético Atrial/genética , Factor Natriurético Atrial/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/efectos adversos , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Péptido Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Hipertrofia/metabolismo , Cardiomegalia/inducido químicamente , Cardiomegalia/tratamiento farmacológico , Cardiomegalia/genética
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(3): 770-778, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621881

RESUMEN

This paper aims to study the therapeutic effect of Massa Medicata Fermentata on hyperlipidemia model rats and investigate its mechanism of hypolipidemic effect with the help of non-targeted metabolomics. The mixed hyperlipidemia model rats were constructed by giving high-fat chow. After successful modeling, the rats were divided into the model group, pravastatin sodium group(4.4 mg·kg~(-1)), lipotropic group(0.1 g·kg~(-1)), high-dose group(2.4 g·kg~(-1)), medium-dose group(1.2 g·kg~(-1)), and low-dose group(0.6 g·kg~(-1)) of Massa Medicata Fermentata, and they were administered for four weeks once daily. An equal volume of ultrapure water was given to the blank group and model group. Serum lipid level and liver hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining were used as indicators to estimate the intervention effect of Massa Medicata Fermentata on mixed hyperlipidemia, and the changes in metabolites in plasma of mixed hyperlipidemia model rats were analyzed by non-targeted metabolomics. The mechanism of the hypolipidemic effect of Massa Medicata Fermentata was analyzed through metabolite pathway enrichment. The results showed that compared with the model group, the Massa Medicata Fermentata administration group, especially the high-dose group, could significantly reduce the content of total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-c)(P<0.05 or P<0.01), and liver HE staining revealed that the number of adipocytes in the high-dose group was reduced to some extent. The potential biomarkers obtained by non-targeted metabolomics screening included glycerol 3-phosphate, sphingomyelin, sphingosine 1-phosphate, and deoxyuridine, which were mainly involved in the sphingolipid metabolism process, glycerophospholipid metabolism process, glycerol ester metabolism pathway, and pyrimidine metabolism pathway, totaling four possible metabolic pathways related to lipid metabolism. This study provides a reference for an in-depth investigation of the hypolipidemic mechanism of Massa Medicata Fermentata, which is of great significance for further promoting the clinical application of Massa Medicata Fermentata and increasing the indications.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Hiperlipidemias , Ratas , Animales , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Hígado , Hiperlipidemias/tratamiento farmacológico , Metabolómica , Colesterol , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(3): 809-818, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621885

RESUMEN

Scutellariae Radix extract is one of the important components in Shuganning Injection. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) method was established for simultaneously determining five components in Shuganning Injection and Scutellariae Radix extract in bile, urine, and feces of rats, so as to reveal the difference in the excretion process of Shuganning Injection and Scutellariae Radix extract in rats and explore the law of the excretion process of the five components in vivo before and after the compatibility of Scutellariae Radix. Rats were injected with Shuganning Injection and Scutellariae Radix extract(4.2 mL·kg~(-1)), respectively, and the excretion of baicalin, baicalein, oroxylin A, oroxylin A-7-O-ß-D-glucuronide, and scutellarin in bile, urine, and feces of rats in 24 h was observed. The results showed that except for baicalin, the other four index components were excreted as prototype components in a high proportion after intravenous injection of Shuganning Injection and Scutellariae Radix extract in rats, respectively. The excretion of each component was relatively high in urine and less in feces and bile. After the compatibility of Scutellariae Radix extract, the accumulative excretion of five index components in rats all decreased. Among them, the cumulative excretion of baicalein in bile, urine, and feces significantly decreased by 26.67%, 48.11%, and 31.01%. The cumulative excretion of baicalin in bile, urine, and feces decreased significantly by 70.69%, 19.43%, and 31.22%. The result showed that the five index components in Scutellariae Radix extract were mainly excreted by the kidneys, and other components in Shuganning Injection delayed the excretion process and prolonged the residence time. This study is of great significance for elucidating the compatibility rationality of Shuganning Injection.


Asunto(s)
Bilis , Scutellaria baicalensis , Ratas , Animales , Cromatografía Liquida , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Flavonoides , Heces , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(3): 763-769, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621880

RESUMEN

This study aims to investigate the effect of Erchen Decoction(ECD) on liver mitochondrial function in mice with a high-fat diet and its possible mechanism. A total of sixty C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a normal group, high-fat group, ECD group, mTORC1 activator(MHY) group, ECD+MHY group, and polyene phosphatidyl choline(PPC) group, with 10 rats in each group. The normal group was given a normal diet, and the other groups were fed a high-fat diet for 20 weeks. At the 17th week, the ECD group and ECD+MHY group were given ECD(8.7 g·kg~(-1)) daily, and the PPC group was given PPC(0.18 g·kg~(-1)) daily, while the remaining groups were given normal saline(0.01 mL·g~(-1)) daily for four weeks. In the 19th week, the MHY group and ECD+MHY group were injected intraperitoneally with MHY(5 mg·kg~(-1)) every other day for two weeks. During the experiment, the general conditions of the mice were observed. The contents of triglyceride(TG) and total cholesterol(TC) in serum were measured. Morphological changes in liver tissue were examined through HE and oil red O staining. The content of adenosine triphosphate(ATP) was determined using chemiluminescence, and mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed using a fluorescence probe(JC-1). Western blot was performed to detect the expression of rapamycin target protein complex 1(mTOR1), ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1(S6K), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1(SREBP1), and caveolin 1(CAV1). RESULTS:: revealed that compared with the normal group, the mice in the high-fat group exhibited significant increases in body weight and abdominal circumference(P<0.01). Additionally, there were significant increases in TG and TC levels(P<0.01). HE and oil red O staining showed that the boundaries of hepatic lobules were unclear; hepatocytes were enlarged, round, and irregularly arranged, with obvious lipid droplet deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. The liver ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential decreased significantly(P<0.01). The expression of p-mTOR, p-S6K, and n-SREBP1 increased significantly(P<0.01), while the expression of CAV1 decreased significantly(P<0.01). Compared with the high-fat group, the body weight and TG content of mice in the ECD group and PPC group decreased significantly(P<0.05). Improvements were observed in hepatocyte morphology, lipid deposition, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Furthermore, there were significant increases in ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential(P<0.05 or P<0.01). The expression of p-mTOR, p-S6K, and n-SREBP1 decreased significantly in the ECD group(P<0.01), while CAV1 expression increased significantly(P<0.01). However, the indices mentioned above did not show improvement in the MHY group. When the ECD+MHY group was compared with the MHY group, there were significant reductions in body weight and TG contents(P<0.05). The morphological changes of hepatocytes, lipid deposition, and inflammatory cell infiltration were recovered. Moreover, there were significant increases in liver ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential(P<0.05 or P<0.05). The expression of p-mTOR, p-S6K, and n-SREBP1 decreased significantly(P<0.01), while CAV1 expression increased significantly(P<0.01). In conclusion, ECD can improve mitochondrial function by regulating the mTORC1/SREBP1/CAV1 pathway. This mechanism may be involved in the resolution of phlegm syndrome and the regulation of lipid metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos Azo , Dieta Alta en Grasa , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Ratones , Ratas , Animales , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Diana Mecanicista del Complejo 1 de la Rapamicina/metabolismo , Diana Mecanicista del Complejo 1 de la Rapamicina/farmacología , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Caveolina 1/farmacología , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Hígado , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/metabolismo , Triglicéridos/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Adenosina Trifosfato/farmacología
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(3): 798-808, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621884

RESUMEN

This study employed network pharmacology to investigate the effect of Guizhi Gancao Decoction(GGD) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury(MI/RI) in rats and decipher the underlying mechanism. Firstly, the chemical components and targets of GGD against MI/RI were searched against the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP), SwissTargetPrediction, and available articles. STRING and Cytoscape 3.7.2 were used to establish the protein-protein interaction(PPI) network for the common targets, and then Gene Ontology(GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were carried out for the core targets. The "drug-active component-target-pathway" network was built. Furthermore, molecular docking between key active components and targets was conducted in AutoDock Vina. Finally, the rat model of MI/RI was established, and the myocardial infarction area was measured. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) were employed to detect cardiomyocyte pathology and ultrastructural changes. Western blot was employed to determine the expression of related proteins in the myocardial tissue. A total of 75 chemical components of GGD were screened out, corresponding to 318 targets. The PPI network revealed 46 core targets such as tumor protein p53(TP53), serine/threonine kinase 1(AKT1), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3(STAT3), non-receptor tyrosine kinase(SRC), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1(MAPK1), MAPK3, and tumor necrosis factor(TNF). According to GO and KEGG enrichment analyses, the core targets mainly affected the cell proliferation and migration, signal transduction, apoptosis, and transcription, involving advanced glycation end products-receptor(AGE-RAGE), MAPK and other signaling pathways in cancers and diabetes complications. The molecular docking results showed that the core components of GGD, such as licochalcone A,(+)-catechin, and cinnamaldehyde, had strong binding activities with the core target proteins, such as MAPK1 and MAPK3. The results of animal experiments showed that compared with the model group, GGD significantly increase superoxide dismutase, decreased malondialdehyde, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase-MB, and reduced the area of myocardial infarction. HE staining and TEM results showed that GGD pretreatment restored the structure of cardiomyocytes and alleviated the pathological changes and ultrastructural damage of mitochondria in the model group. In addition, GGD significantly down-regulated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 and up-regulate that of extracellular regulated kinases 1/2 in the myocardial tissue. The results suggested that GGD may exert the anti-MI/RI effect by regulating the MAPK signaling pathway via the synergistic effects of Cinnamomi Ramulus and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Glycyrrhiza , Infarto del Miocardio , Daño por Reperfusión Miocárdica , Animales , Ratas , Farmacología en Red , Daño por Reperfusión Miocárdica/tratamiento farmacológico , Daño por Reperfusión Miocárdica/genética , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Infarto del Miocardio/tratamiento farmacológico , Infarto del Miocardio/genética , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología
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