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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e247145, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648060

RESUMEN

Importance: Delayed meconium evacuation and delayed achievement of full enteral feeding among premature infants are associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes. Identifying a more effective and safer enema for meconium evacuation is imperative for improving neonatal care. Objective: To examine whether breast milk enemas can shorten the time to complete meconium evacuation and achievement of full enteral feeding for preterm infants. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, open-label, parallel-group, single-center clinical trial was conducted from September 1, 2019, to September 30, 2022, among 286 preterm infants with a gestational age of 23 to 30 weeks in the neonatal ward of the Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University in Shenyang. Interventions: Preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive either breast milk enemas or normal saline enemas 48 hours after birth. Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcomes were time to complete meconium evacuation and time to achieve full enteral feeding. Secondary outcomes were duration of hospitalization, weight at discharge, and duration of total parenteral nutrition. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were conducted. Results: In total, 286 preterm infants (mean [SD] gestational age, 198.8 [7.9] days; 166 boys [58.0%]) were eligible and included in this study. A total of 145 infants were randomized to the normal saline group, and 141 were randomized to the breast milk group. The time to achieve complete meconium evacuation was significantly shorter in the breast milk group than in the normal saline group (-2.2 days; 95% CI, -3.2 to -1.2 days). The time to achieve full enteral feeding was also significantly shorter in the breast milk group than in the normal saline group (-4.6 days; 95% CI, -8.0 to -1.2 days). The duration of total parenteral nutrition was significantly shorter in the breast milk group than in the normal saline group (-4.6 days; 95% CI, -8.6 to -1.0 days). There were no clinically notable differences in any other secondary or safety outcomes between the 2 groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial testing the effects of breast milk enema on meconium evacuation, breast milk reduced the time to achieve complete meconium evacuation and achieve full enteral feeding for preterm infants with a gestational age of 23 to 30 weeks. Subgroup analyses highlight the need for tailored interventions based on gestational age considerations. Trial Registration: isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN17847514.


Asunto(s)
Enema , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Meconio , Leche Humana , Humanos , Enema/métodos , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Masculino , China , Nutrición Enteral/métodos , Edad Gestacional
2.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613125

RESUMEN

Iron deficiency in the fetal and neonatal period (perinatal iron deficiency) bodes poorly for neurodevelopment. Given its common occurrence and the negative impact on brain development, a screening and treatment strategy that is focused on optimizing brain development in perinatal iron deficiency is necessary. Pediatric societies currently recommend a universal iron supplementation strategy for full-term and preterm infants that does not consider individual variation in body iron status and thus could lead to undertreatment or overtreatment. Moreover, the focus is on hematological normalcy and not optimal brain development. Several serum iron indices and hematological parameters in the perinatal period are associated with a risk of abnormal neurodevelopment, suggesting their potential use as biomarkers for screening and monitoring treatment in infants at risk for perinatal iron deficiency. A biomarker-based screening and treatment strategy that is focused on optimizing brain development will likely improve outcomes in perinatal iron deficiency.


Asunto(s)
Encefalopatías , Deficiencias de Hierro , Enfermedades Neuromusculares , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Niño , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Hierro , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo
3.
J Spec Pediatr Nurs ; 29(2): e12426, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615233

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The transition from hospital to home can be challenging for parents of prematurely born infants. The aim of this ethnographic study was to describe a multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral discharge conference for families with premature infants transitioning from a neonatal intensive care unit to municipal healthcare services. DESIGN AND METHODS: An ethnographically/anthropologically inspired qualitative design was adopted. We conducted four participant observations of multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral discharge conferences and 12 semistructured interviews with four neonatologists, four nurses, and four health visitors who had attended one of the conferences. Salient themes were generated by two-part analysis consisting of a thematic analysis followed by Turner's ritual analysis. RESULTS: This study illustrated how multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral discharge conferences improved the quality of care for premature infants and their families in their transition process which was perceived as complex. These conferences contributed to promoting a sense of coherence and continuity of care. The healthcare professionals experienced that this event may be characterized as a ritual, which created structures that promoted cross-sectoral cooperation and communication while increasing interdisciplinary knowledge sharing. Thus, the conferences triggered a sense that the participants were building bridges to unite healthcare sectors, ensuring a holistic and coordinated approach to meet the unique needs of the infants and their families. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study presented a unique holistic and family-centered approach to constructing multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral discharge conferences that seemed to underpin the quality of interdisciplinary and health-related knowledge sharing and establish a crucial starting point for early interventions, preventive measures, and health-promoting efforts. Hopefully, our findings will encourage others to rethink the discharge conference as a transitional ritual that may potentially bridge the gap between healthcare sectors. Specifically, our findings contribute to the mounting body of knowledge of family-centered care by showing how healthcare professionals may-in a meaningful and tangible manner-operate, develop, and implement this somewhat elusive theoretical foundation in their clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Sector de Atención de Salud , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Personal de Salud , Hospitales
4.
N Engl J Med ; 390(16): 1493-1504, 2024 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657245

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Most moderate-to-late-preterm infants need nutritional support until they are feeding exclusively on their mother's breast milk. Evidence to guide nutrition strategies for these infants is lacking. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, factorial, randomized trial involving infants born at 32 weeks 0 days' to 35 weeks 6 days' gestation who had intravenous access and whose mothers intended to breast-feed. Each infant was assigned to three interventions or their comparators: intravenous amino acid solution (parenteral nutrition) or dextrose solution until full feeding with milk was established; milk supplement given when maternal milk was insufficient or mother's breast milk exclusively with no supplementation; and taste and smell exposure before gastric-tube feeding or no taste and smell exposure. The primary outcome for the parenteral nutrition and the milk supplement interventions was the body-fat percentage at 4 months of corrected gestational age, and the primary outcome for the taste and smell intervention was the time to full enteral feeding (150 ml per kilogram of body weight per day or exclusive breast-feeding). RESULTS: A total of 532 infants (291 boys [55%]) were included in the trial. The mean (±SD) body-fat percentage at 4 months was similar among the infants who received parenteral nutrition and those who received dextrose solution (26.0±5.4% vs. 26.2±5.2%; adjusted mean difference, -0.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.32 to 0.92; P = 0.72) and among the infants who received milk supplement and those who received mother's breast milk exclusively (26.3±5.3% vs. 25.8±5.4%; adjusted mean difference, 0.65; 95% CI, -0.45 to 1.74; P = 0.25). The time to full enteral feeding was similar among the infants who were exposed to taste and smell and those who were not (5.8±1.5 vs. 5.7±1.9 days; P = 0.59). Secondary outcomes were similar across interventions. Serious adverse events occurred in one infant. CONCLUSIONS: This trial of routine nutrition interventions to support moderate-to-late-preterm infants until full nutrition with mother's breast milk was possible did not show any effects on the time to full enteral feeding or on body composition at 4 months of corrected gestational age. (Funded by the Health Research Council of New Zealand and others; DIAMOND Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12616001199404.).


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Nutrición Enteral , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Nutrición Parenteral , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Aminoácidos/administración & dosificación , Edad Gestacional , Glucosa/administración & dosificación , Leche Humana , Olfato , Gusto , Apoyo Nutricional , Soluciones para Nutrición Parenteral/uso terapéutico , Adiposidad
5.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e084704, 2024 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658011

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Various approaches are employed to expedite the passage of meconium in preterm infants within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), with glycerine enemas being the most frequently used. Due to the potential risk of high osmolality-induced harm to the intestinal mucosa, diluted glycerine enema solutions are commonly used in clinical practice. The challenge lies in the current lack of knowledge regarding the safest and most effective concentration of glycerine enema. This research aims to ascertain the safety of different concentrations of glycerine enema solution in preterm infants. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study protocol is for a single-centre, two-arm, parallel-group, double-blind and non-inferiority randomised controlled trial. Participants will be recruited from a NICU in a teriary class A hospital in China, and eligible infants will be randomly allocated to either the glycerine (mL): saline (mL) group in a 3:7 ratio or the 1:9 ratio group. The enema procedure will adhere to the standardised operational protocols. Primary outcomes encompass necrotising enterocolitis and rectal bleeding, while secondary outcomes encompass feeding parameters, meconium passage outcomes and splanchnic regional oxygen saturation. Analyses will compare the two trial arms based on an intention-to-treat allocation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This trial is approved by the ethics committee of the Medical Ethics Committee of West China Second University Hospital of Sichuan University. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR2300079199.


Asunto(s)
Enema , Glicerol , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Meconio , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , China , Método Doble Ciego , Enema/métodos , Enterocolitis Necrotizante/prevención & control , Glicerol/administración & dosificación , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
6.
J Neonatal Perinatal Med ; 17(2): 177-182, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427505

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Guidelines on when to screen for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia apply to infants born at 35 weeks or later of gestation. It is unknown whether infants born earlier would benefit from similar guidelines. Our objective was to examine hyperbilirubinemia screening and phototherapy prescription among early preterm infants during the first 6 days of life. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 193 infants born prior to 35 weeks of gestation who were admitted to a tertiary care NICU in Southeastern Ontario in 2018-2019. Information on total serum bilirubin (TSB) measurements over each 12-hour interval during the first six days of life and the treatment decision (no treatment, initiate, continue, or stop phototherapy) was extracted. We also examined what proportion of infants were prescribed phototherapy during each 12-hour interval. RESULTS: Of 1006 TSB measurements performed over the first 6 days of life, 605 were done to determine whether phototherapy should be initiated. Treatment was prescribed in 275 instances (45%). A higher proportion of infants born prior to 28 weeks of gestation required phototherapy in the first 12 hours of life (37%) compared to those born at 28-32 weeks (20%) and 33-34 weeks (5.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that TSB measurements are often poorly timed to detect treatment need in infants born prior to 35 weeks of gestation. This unnecessarily increases the risk of complications from phlebotomy and is an ineffective use of health care resources. There is a need to develop guidelines to optimize hyperbilirubinemia screening among early preterm infants.


Asunto(s)
Edad Gestacional , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Tamizaje Neonatal , Fototerapia , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Fototerapia/métodos , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/terapia , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/sangre , Tamizaje Neonatal/métodos , Femenino , Masculino , Ontario/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Bilirrubina/sangre , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
7.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 187, 2024 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493088

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is the leading cause of neonatal and child under-five mortality globally, both of which are highest regionally in sub-Saharan Africa. The skin barrier plays a critical role in neonatal health and increasing evidence supports the use of topical emollient therapy to promote postnatal growth and reduce hospital-acquired infections in preterm infants. The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends emollient therapy in preterm or low birthweight infants globally but calls for further research on impacts of emollient use, especially in Africa. Little is known about postnatal skincare practices and the tradition of oil massage across sub-Saharan Africa. Further documentation is necessary to understand the context for future emollient intervention trials. METHODS: 61 semi-structured interviews with mothers who just delivered preterm or term infants and 4 focus group discussions (32 participants) with physician and nurse providers of newborn care were conducted at Sally Mugabe Central Hospital (SMCH), in Harare, Zimbabwe. SMCH is the principal public-sector tertiary care hospital for newborn infants in the northern part of the country. Mothers and healthcare professionals were questioned about newborn care at the hospital, current neonatal skincare and bathing practices, and the community's receptivity to a future emollient therapy clinical trial. RESULTS: Postnatal skincare is centrally important to Zimbabwean communities and petroleum jelly application is nearly universal. The use of cooking oil and other natural oils on infants is also part of traditional customs. The primary needs and desires of mothers who have just given birth to preterm infants are having greater agency in their children's care and financial support in purchasing prescribed medications while at the hospital. Community receptivity to emollient therapy as a cost-effective treatment is high, particularly if mothers are trained to assist with the intervention. CONCLUSION: Emollient therapy will likely be well-received by communities in and around Harare because of its accordance with current skincare practices and perceptions; however, cultural norms and the experiences of new mothers who have given birth at a facility highlight challenges and considerations for future clinical trial execution. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT05461404.


Asunto(s)
Recien Nacido Prematuro , Nacimiento Prematuro , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Emolientes/uso terapéutico , Recién Nacido de muy Bajo Peso , Atención Posnatal , Zimbabwe
8.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Feb 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474827

RESUMEN

Vitamin D deficiency can escalate prematurity bone disease in preterm infants and negatively influence their immature immunology system. Infants born at 24 + 0/7 weeks to 32 + 6/7 weeks of gestation will be considered for inclusion. Cord or vein blood samples will be obtained within 48 h after birth for 25-hydroxyvitamin D level measurements. Parathyroid hormone and interleukin-6 levels will be measured. Infants will be randomized to the monitored group (i.e., an initial dose of 1000 IU/day and possible modification) or the controlled group (i.e., 250 IU/day or 500 IU/day dose, depending on weight). Supplementation will be monitored up to a postconceptional age of 35 weeks. The primary endpoint is the percentage of infants with deficient or suboptimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at 28 ± 2 days of age. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels will be measured at postconceptional age 35 ± 2 weeks. Secondary goals encompass assessing the occurrence of sepsis, osteopenia, hyperparathyroidism, and interleukin-6 concentration. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of monitored vitamin D supplementation in a group of preterm infants and ascertain if a high initial dosage of monitored vitamin D supplementation can decrease the occurrence of neonatal sepsis and metabolic bone disease.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Óseas Metabólicas , Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Enfermedades Óseas Metabólicas/epidemiología , Calcifediol , Suplementos Dietéticos , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Interleucina-6 , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Vitamina D , Vitaminas
9.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 27(3): 283-289, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547330

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For many decades, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation was tested in premature infants to achieve an intake equivalent to the average level in breast milk, but this approach has led to conflicting results in terms of development and health outcomes. Higher doses of DHA closer to fetal accumulation may be needed. RECENT FINDINGS: The efficacy of DHA supplementation for preterm infants at a dose equivalent to the estimated fetal accumulation rate is still under investigation, but this may be a promising approach, especially in conjunction with arachidonic acid supplementation. Current data suggest benefit for some outcomes, such as brain maturation, long-term cognitive function, and the prevention of retinopathy of prematurity. The possibility that supplementation with highly unsaturated oils increases the risk of neonatal morbidities should not be ruled out, but current meta-analyzes do not support a significant risk. SUMMARY: The published literature supports a DHA intake in preterm infants that is closer to the fetal accumulation rate than the average breast milk content. Supplementation with DHA at this level in combination with arachidonic acid is currently being investigated and appears promising.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Lactante , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Ácido Araquidónico , Leche Humana , Suplementos Dietéticos
10.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 171, 2024 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459481

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of early preventive calcium and phosphorus supplementation on metabolic bone disease in preterm infants. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 234 preterm infants with a gestational age < 32 weeks or birth weight < 1500 g who were hospitalized in the Neonatology Department of the Second Hospital of Shandong University from 01.2018 to 12.2020 was conducted. One hundred thirty-two premature infants hospitalized from 01.2018 to 06.2019 did not receive prophylactic calcium and phosphorus supplementation in the early postnatal period. These infants received calcium or phosphorus supplementation at the time of hypocalcaemia or hypophosphatemia diagnosis. One hundred two premature infants hospitalized from 07.2019 to 12.2020 received early preventive calcium and phosphorus supplementation after birth. The levels of serum calcium and phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcitonin, and parathyroid hormone at different time points and growth indicators at six months of age were compared between the two groups of infants. The number of cases of metabolic bone disease and fracture between the two groups was compared. RESULTS: 1) A total of 12 infants (5.13%) among the 234 preterm infants were diagnosed with metabolic bone disease, including 2 (1.96%) in the prophylactic supplementation group and 10 (7.58%) in the nonprophylactic supplementation group. Fractures occurred in 3 premature infants (25.0%) with metabolic bone disease, all of whom were in the group that did not receive prophylactic supplementation. 2) There was no significant difference in serum calcium and calcitonin levels between the two groups. The levels of serum phosphorus and 25 hydroxyvitamin D in the prophylactic supplementation group were higher than those in the nonprophylactic supplementation group (P < 0.05). In comparison, alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone levels were lower in the prophylactic supplementation group than in the nonprophylactic supplementation group (P < 0.05). Preterm infants in the prophylactic supplementation group had higher weight, length, head circumference, and bone density values than those in the nonprophylactic supplementation group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Preventive supplementation with calcium and phosphorus after birth can effectively improve calcium and phosphorus metabolism, and reduce the incidence of metabolic bone disease and fractures in premature infants. This can be further publicized and used clinically.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Óseas Metabólicas , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Calcio , Fósforo , Calcitonina , Fosfatasa Alcalina , Estudios Retrospectivos , Hormona Paratiroidea , Enfermedades Óseas Metabólicas/prevención & control , Suplementos Dietéticos , Recién Nacido de muy Bajo Peso
11.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 78(3): 471-487, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314925

RESUMEN

Various studies have shown that oropharyngeal colostrum application (OPCA) is beneficial to preterm neonates. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether OPCA reduces the incidence of culture-proven neonatal sepsis in preterm neonates. Randomized controlled trials comparing OPCA with placebo or standard care in preterm neonates were included. Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cumulated Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, and CENTRAL were searched for studies published up to June 15, 2023. We used the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool, version 2, for risk of bias assessment, the random-effects model (RevMan 5.4) for meta-analysis, and Gradepro software for assessing the certainty of evidence. Twenty-one studies involving 2393 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Four studies had a low risk of bias, whereas seven had a high risk. Oropharyngeal colostrum significantly reduced the incidence of culture-proven sepsis (18 studies, 1990 neonates, risk ratio [RR]: 0.78, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.65, 0.94), mortality (18 studies, 2117 neonates, RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.90), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) (17 studies, 1692 neonates, RR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.82), feeding intolerance episodes (four studies, 445 neonates, RR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.92), and the time to full enteral feeding (19 studies, 2142 neonates, mean difference: -2 to 21 days, 95% CI: -3.44, -0.99 days). There was no reduction in intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, neurodevelopmental abnormalities, hospital stay duration, time to full oral feeding, weight at discharge, pneumonia, and duration of antibiotic therapy. The certainty of the evidence was high for the outcomes of culture-positive sepsis and mortality, moderate for NEC, low for time to full enteral feeding, and very low for feeding intolerance. OPCA reduces culture-positive sepsis and mortality (high certainty), NEC (moderate certainty), and time to full enteral feeding (low certainty) in preterm neonates. However, scarcity of data from extremely premature infants limits the generalizability of these results to this population.


Asunto(s)
Enterocolitis Necrotizante , Sepsis Neonatal , Sepsis , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Sepsis Neonatal/prevención & control , Calostro , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Sepsis/prevención & control , Enterocolitis Necrotizante/prevención & control , Enterocolitis Necrotizante/epidemiología
12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(2)2024 Feb 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423547

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Hospital-based studies have demonstrated topical applications of sunflower seed oil (SSO) to skin of preterm infants can reduce nosocomial infections and improve survival. In South Asia, replacing traditional mustard with SSO might have similar benefits. METHODS: 340 communities in Sarlahi, Nepal were randomised to use mustard oil (MO) or SSO for community practice of daily newborn massage. Women were provided oil in late pregnancy and the first month post partum, and visited daily through the first week of life to encourage massage practice. A separate data collection team visited on days 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 to record vital status and assess serious bacterial infection. RESULTS: Between November 2010 and January 2017, we enrolled 39 479 pregnancies. 32 114 live births were analysed. Neonatal mortality rates (NMRs) were 31.8/1000 (520 deaths, 16 327 births) and 30.5/1000 (478 deaths, 15 676 births) in control and intervention, respectively (relative risk (RR)=0.95, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.08). Among preterm births, NMR was 90.4/1000 (229 deaths, 2533 births) and 79.2/1000 (188 deaths, 2373 births) in control and intervention, respectively (RR=0.88; 95% CI: 0.74, 1.05). Among preterm births <34 weeks, the RR was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.02). No statistically significant differences were observed in incidence of serious bacterial infection. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find any neonatal mortality or morbidity benefit of using SSO instead of MO as emollient therapy in the early neonatal period. Further studies examining whether very preterm babies may benefit are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT01177111).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas , Nacimiento Prematuro , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Mortalidad Infantil , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Morbilidad , Nepal/epidemiología , Aceite de Girasol
13.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297558, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381745

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The gastrointestinal microbiome in preterm infants exhibits significant influence on optimal outcomes-with dysbiosis shown to substantially increase the risk of the life-threatening necrotizing enterocolitis. Iron is a vital nutrient especially during the perinatal window of rapid hemoglobin production, tissue growth, and foundational neurodevelopment. However, excess colonic iron exhibits potent oxidation capacity and alters the gut microbiome-potentially facilitating the proliferation of pathological bacterial strains. Breastfed preterm infants routinely receive iron supplementation starting 14 days after delivery and are highly vulnerable to morbidities associated with gastrointestinal dysbiosis. Therefore, we set out to determine if routine iron supplementation alters the preterm gut microbiome. METHODS: After IRB approval, we collected stool specimens from 14 infants born <34 weeks gestation in the first, second, and fourth week of life to assess gut microbiome composition via 16S rRNA sequencing. RESULTS: We observed no significant differences in either phyla or key genera relative abundance between pre- and post-iron timepoints. We observed notable shifts in infant microbiome composition based on season of delivery. CONCLUSION: Though no obvious indication of iron-induced dysbiosis was observed in this unique study in the setting of prematurity, further investigation in a larger sample is warranted to fully understand iron's impact on the gastrointestinal milieu.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Disbiosis , Hierro , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Suplementos Dietéticos , Heces/microbiología
14.
Food Chem ; 443: 138546, 2024 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301557

RESUMEN

Preterm formulas are usually supplemented with medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) whereas breast milk contains more medium and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT). Different types of triacylglycerol (TAG) containing medium-chain fatty acids may influence lipid digestion. In this study, the digestive characteristics of breast milk and preterm formulas with different MCT contents were evaluated using a dynamic in vitro system simulating the gastrointestinal tract of preterm infants. The lipolysis products, including diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols (MAGs), free fatty acids, and undigested TAGs, were analyzed. Formulas with MCT addition has significantly (P < 0.05) lower lipolysis degree (LD, 69.35%-71.28%) than breast milk (76.93%). Higher amounts of C8:0 and C10:0 were released in the formulas with MCT addition. Breast milk released more C18:1n-9, C18:2n-6, and MAG containing C16:0, whereas formulas released more free C16:0. The Pearson correlation heatmap showed that the LD value was significantly and positively (P < 0.05) related to the MLCT and sn-2 C16:0 content.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Lactante , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Triglicéridos/química , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Leche Humana/química , Digestión
16.
Trials ; 25(1): 110, 2024 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331842

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preterm and term small for gestational age (SGA) babies are at high risk of experiencing malnutrition and impaired neurodevelopment. Standalone interventions have modest and sometimes inconsistent effects on growth and neurodevelopment in these babies. For greater impact, intervention may be needed in multiple domains-health, nutrition, and psychosocial care and support. Therefore, the combined effects of an integrated intervention package for preterm and term SGA on growth and neurodevelopment are worth investigating. METHODS: An individually randomized controlled trial is being conducted in urban and peri-urban low to middle-socioeconomic neighborhoods in South Delhi, India. Infants are randomized (1:1) into two strata of 1300 preterm and 1300 term SGA infants each to receive the intervention package or routine care. Infants will be followed until 12 months of age. Outcome data will be collected by an independent outcome ascertainment team at infant ages 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months and at 2, 6, and 12 months after delivery for mothers. DISCUSSION: The findings of this study will indicate whether providing an intervention that addresses factors known to limit growth and neurodevelopment can offer substantial benefits to preterm or term SGA infants. The results from this study will increase our understanding of growth and development and guide the design of public health programs in low- and middle-income settings for vulnerable infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been registered prospectively in Clinical Trial Registry - India # CTRI/2021/11/037881, Registered on 08 November 2021.


Asunto(s)
Recien Nacido Prematuro , Recién Nacido Pequeño para la Edad Gestacional , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Femenino , Niño , Humanos , Recien Nacido Prematuro/fisiología , Edad Gestacional , Estado Nutricional , Madres , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
17.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337690

RESUMEN

Iron supplementation is routinely recommended for breast-milk-fed preterm infants. However, the Canadian Pediatric Society recommends no additional iron supplementation for preterm infants fed primarily with iron-rich formula. Other pediatric societies don't provide specific guidance on supplemental iron for formula-fed preterm infants. This study investigated how feeding type influences iron status of very preterm infants at 4-6-months corrected age (CA). A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a population-based database on all very preterm infants (<31 weeks gestational age) born in Nova Scotia, Canada from 2005-2018. Information about feeding type, iron intake from formula, supplemental iron therapy and iron status at 4-6-months CA was extracted. Iron deficiency (ID) was defined as serum ferritin <20 and <12 µg/L at 4-and 6-months CA, respectively. Of 392 infants, 107 were "breast-milk-fed" (exclusively or partially) and 285 were "not breast-milk-fed" (exclusively fed with iron-rich formula) at 4-6-months CA. Total daily iron intake was higher in the non-breast-milk-fed group (2.6 mg/kg/day versus 2.0 mg/kg/day). Despite this, 36.8% of non-breast-milk-fed infants developed ID versus 20.6% of breast-milk-fed infants. ID is significantly more prevalent in non-breast-milk-fed infants than breast-milk-fed infants despite higher iron intake. This suggests the need to revisit recommendations for iron supplementation in non-breast-milk-fed preterm infants.


Asunto(s)
Recien Nacido Prematuro , Deficiencias de Hierro , Lactante , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Niño , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Leche Humana , Lactancia Materna , Hierro , Nueva Escocia , Fórmulas Infantiles
18.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337724

RESUMEN

Intestinal failure (IF) is characterized by a critical reduction in functional gut mass below the minimum needed for optimal growth in children. It requires parenteral nutrition (PN) and home-PN (HPN), which is challenging in terms of meeting nutritional needs according to age, growth velocity, clinical situation, and rapid changes in fluid and electrolyte requirements. Due to these complex requirements, age-adapted multi-chamber bags (MCBs) are important additions to the nutrition armamentarium. The launch of composite fish oil (FO)-containing intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) heralded the development of MCBs containing these ILEs in combination with a crystalline amino acid solution adapted for pediatric use. The safety and efficacy of lipid and amino acid components in this context have been widely documented in numerous published studies. This narrative manuscript includes a review of the articles published in PudMed, Embase, and Google Scholar up to June 2023 for the age groups of term infants to children and adolescents. Preterm infants with their highly specific demands are not included. It aims to offer an overview of the clinical experience regarding the use of a composite FO-based ILE and a developed specific amino acid solution.


Asunto(s)
Aceites de Pescado , Nutrición Parenteral en el Domicilio , Lactante , Humanos , Adolescente , Recién Nacido , Niño , Aceites de Pescado/química , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Emulsiones Grasas Intravenosas/química , Aminoácidos , Aceite de Soja/química
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(1)2024 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38256398

RESUMEN

Background and Objectives: Considering the fact that prematurity echoes in terms of motor development even up to the age of adolescence, through the presence of deficiencies, the importance of starting kinetotherapeutic treatment as soon as possible is highlighted, even in the absence of brain damage or obvious motor delays. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to analyze the factors that influence the level of motor development of premature babies up to 9 months and identify the motor development curve of premature babies according to the three stages of motor development: the position of symmetrical support on the elbows at 3 months, sitting with support at 6 months, and verticalization at 9 months. Materials and Methods: This prospective pilot study was conducted within a rehabilitation facility located in Targu Mureș, Romania, spanning a duration of 2 years from June 2021 to 2023. Results: The study involved a population of 78 children, all premature infants, selected from the patient pool of the rehabilitation facility, specifically chosen based on adherence to the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria outlined in the study protocol. Two physiotherapists specialized in child recovery were involved in the study, and one performed the assessments and the other applied the Bobath therapy. Conclusions: Early physiotherapy interventions can have a positive influence in terms of reducing differences in motor development between preterm and full-term infants. This study identified several factors that influence the motor development of premature infants. Among these, the most prominent biological factors were gestational age and birth weight.


Asunto(s)
Recien Nacido Prematuro , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Adolescente , Lactante , Niño , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Estudios Prospectivos , Peso al Nacer
20.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0294155, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38165958

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Premature birth is the leading cause of under-5 child mortality, accounting for 18%. More attention is needed for premature babies. Myths, misconceptions, and negative attitudes stigmatize premature births and slow prevention and care efforts. In Ethiopia, studies have been conducted on premature birth and its risk factors. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding the perceived causes of premature birth, caring aspects, and community challenges. This qualitative study aims to address these research gaps. METHODS: This interpretive Husserlian phenomenological study was conducted from January 1-30, 2022. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 32 participants for focus group discussions and 10 participants for in-depth interviews. Participants included women, grandmothers, grandfathers, men, traditional birth attendants, and traditional healers. Interview and focus group data were analyzed using NVivo 12 Plus software and a thematic content analysis approach. RESULTS: In this study, the participants recognized premature babies by physical features such as transparent and bloody bodies, small and weak bodies, a limited range of motion, and bizarre behaviors. They perceived the causes of premature birth to be being young, carrying heavily loaded materials, accidents, illnesses, sin, social influence, and witchcraft. Participants provide warmth to premature babies by wearing cotton wool, making skin-to-skin contact, exposing to sunlight, and wrapping them in clothes. They also feed them boiled alcohol, muk, and formula, as well as fresh cow milk and butter. They frequently bathe the babies, wash and change their clothes, limit visits, and provide physical protection. The main challenges that the women faced were difficulty feeding and bathing the babies, limited social participation, psychosocial and economic impact, spirituality, and husband negligence. CONCLUSIONS: The community has a gap in providing care for premature babies, and women with premature babies face many challenges. Therefore, we need to raise awareness of accurate information about the causes and care of premature babies, and we need to support women who have premature babies.


Asunto(s)
Nacimiento Prematuro , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Embarazo , Lactante , Niño , Humanos , Femenino , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Etiopía/epidemiología , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Investigación Cualitativa , Demografía
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