Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.938
Filtrar
Más filtros

Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
Health Expect ; 27(2): e14033, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556833

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Patient and public involvement (PPI) is essential for women's health research. Little is known about how women engage with humorous social media and behavioural health messaging targeting pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). This PPI aimed to understand how women engage with a humorous social media campaign encouraging PFMT. The study findings will influence the co-design of a digital intervention to support women's adherence to PFMT. METHODS: The Guidance for Reporting Involvement of Patients and the Public Version 2 short form was used to report the study's findings. The study examined public engagement with a humorous social media campaign encouraging PFMT in women. A healthcare professional and comedian ran the campaign following the national guidelines for engagement in PFMT. Instagram analytics gave insight into the demographics of the public who engaged, how they engaged and the most popular content. The behaviour change techniques (BCTs) used in the digital nudges that generated the highest levels of engagement were analysed using the Capability Opportunity Motivation Behaviour Change Wheel. RESULTS: The majority (96%) of the population showing the highest levels of engagement were women aged 35-44 years and were based in the United Kingdom (77%). The Instagram account saw an increase in engagement by 12% over the 3-month campaign, with 22,032 users seeing digital nudges and 2645 engaging with the digital nudges. The preferred way of engaging was using Likes (9723). The common themes in the digital nudges that generated the highest levels of engagement were BCTs associated with the 'social influences' theoretical domain framework that targeted the core behaviour opportunity. CONCLUSION: The study findings suggest humour may improve women's engagement with online PFMT programmes; however, more rigorous research is required to better understand diverse women's experiences of humorous online PFMT nudges. Future studies may use PFMT mobile apps instead of social media to capture true user engagement and adherence to PFMT more accurately. The insights gained from the study will be taken forward to co-design a digital behavioural intervention as part of a larger study. PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Members of the public were involved in the co-design of a digital health intervention that will be trialled as part of a larger research study. The public was involved using the social media platform Instagram. Public engagement with a humorous social media campaign to encourage women to engage with pelvic floor exercises was captured using Instagram analytics, for example, the timing of engagement.


Asunto(s)
Terapias Complementarias , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Diafragma Pélvico , Terapia por Ejercicio/métodos , Reino Unido
2.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0296247, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625871

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The role of Vitamin D in immune function is well reported with a growing evidence base linking low levels to poorer outcomes from infectious disease. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are prevalent worldwide with healthcare workers identified as a known at-risk group. Here we aim to investigate serum Vitamin D levels in a UK population of front line healthcare workers and to promote the occupational risk. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 639 volunteers was conducted to identify the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency amongst a population of front-line health care workers in the UK. Participant demographics and co-morbid factors were collected at the time of serum sampling for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Only 18.8% of the population had a normal vitamin D level greater than or equal to 75nmol/L. This is compared to Public Health England's (PHE) stipulated normal levels of 60% during winter. 81.2% had a level less than 75nmol/L, with 51.2% less than 50nmol/L and 6.6% less than 25nmol/L. For serum levels less than 25nmol/L, Asian ethnicity was more likely to have a vitamin D deficiency than non-asian (OR (95%CI): 3.81 (1.73-8.39), p = 0.001), whereas white ethnicity was less likely to have a vitamin D deficiency compared to non-white (OR (95%CI: 0.43 (0.20-0.83), p = 0.03). Other factors that contributed to a higher likelihood of lower-than-normal levels within this population included male sex, decreased age and not taking supplementation. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that our population of healthcare workers have higher rates of abnormal vitamin D levels in comparison with the general UK population reported prevalence. Furthermore, Asian ethnicity and age 30 years and below are more at risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency. This highlights an occupational risk factor for the healthcare community to consider.


Asunto(s)
Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Vitaminas , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Prevalencia
3.
Radiography (Lond) ; 30(3): 964-970, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657390

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Non-medical professionals in the United Kingdom (UK) have been granted prescribing rights to improve patient care quality and cost-effectiveness. There is limited evidence on how therapeutic radiographer prescribers have impacted medicine management or patient services. METHODS: An online survey was conducted amongst non-medical prescribing therapeutic radiographers in the UK between 2019 and 2022. The study teams initially analysed the individual data sets, subsequently combined, and secondary analysis was performed to provide a UK perspective, to understand the services provided and identify areas for improvement. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics from Microsoft Excel® and SPSS®. RESULTS: 74 non-medical prescribing therapeutic radiographers who were predominantly over 40 years old and in full-time work participated. The main job categories were consultant radiographers (n = 23, 31.1%) and advanced practice practitioners (n = 18, 24.3%). Many use their prescribing qualifications (87.5%, n = 62), issuing a mean of 15 independent and seven items by supplementary and prescribing per week. Most received assessment and diagnostic skills training before prescribing courses (91.6%, n = 67). Respondents prescribed from a median of six areas, with the highest being in GI (82%), skin (68%), infections (58%), urinary tract disorders (55%) and ear, nose, and oropharynx conditions (54%). CONCLUSION: This study presents the first report on therapeutic radiographers prescribing in the UK, offering insights into current practices and highlighting the success of non-medical prescribing. Therapeutic radiographers' roles continue to expand into advanced practice and medicine-prescribing responsibilities, contributing to holistic and patient-centred care. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The results are relevant for nations grappling with oncology workforce shortages and contemplating similar roles for therapeutic radiographers. The study can be a valuable resource for policymakers and healthcare organisations worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Radiografía , Humanos , Reino Unido , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Radiografía/estadística & datos numéricos , Prescripciones , Técnicos Medios en Salud
4.
Health Soc Care Deliv Res ; 12(9): 1-171, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662367

RESUMEN

Background: Nurses, midwives and paramedics are the largest collective group of clinical staff in the National Health Service and have some of the highest prevalence of psychological ill-health. Existing literature tends to be profession-specific and focused on individual interventions that place responsibility for good psychological health with nurses, midwives and paramedics themselves. Aim: To improve understanding of how, why and in what contexts nurses, midwives and paramedics experience work-related psychological ill-health; and determine which high-quality interventions can be implemented to minimise psychological ill-health in these professions. Methods: Realist synthesis methodology consistent with realist and meta-narrative evidence syntheses: evolving standards' reporting guidelines. Data sources: First round database searching in Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online Database ALL (via Ovid), cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature database (via EBSCO) and health management information consortium database (via Ovid), was undertaken between February and March 2021, followed by supplementary searching strategies (e.g. hand searching, expert solicitation of key papers). Reverse chronology screening was applied, aimed at retaining 30 relevant papers in each profession. Round two database searches (December 2021) targeted COVID-19-specific literature and literature reviews. No date limits were applied. Results: We built on seven key reports and included 75 papers in the first round (26 nursing, 26 midwifery, 23 paramedic) plus 44 expert solicitation papers, 29 literature reviews and 49 COVID-19 focused articles in the second round. Through the realist synthesis we surfaced 14 key tensions in the literature and identified five key findings, supported by 26 context mechanism and outcome configurations. The key findings identified the following: (1) interventions are fragmented, individual-focused and insufficiently recognise cumulative chronic stressors; (2) it is difficult to promote staff psychological wellness where there is a blame culture; (3) the needs of the system often override staff well-being at work ('serve and sacrifice'); (4) there are unintended personal costs of upholding and implementing values at work; and (5) it is challenging to design, identify and implement interventions to work optimally for diverse staff groups with diverse and interacting stressors. Conclusions: Our realist synthesis strongly suggests the need to improve the systemic working conditions and the working lives of nurses, midwives and paramedics to improve their psychological well-being. Individual, one-off psychological interventions are unlikely to succeed alone. Psychological ill-health is highly prevalent in these staff groups (and can be chronic and cumulative as well as acute) and should be anticipated and prepared for, indeed normalised and expected. Healthcare organisations need to (1) rebalance the working environment to enable healthcare professionals to recover and thrive; (2) invest in multi-level system approaches to promote staff psychological well-being; and use an organisational diagnostic framework, such as the NHS England and NHS Improvement Health and Wellbeing framework, to self-assess and implement a systems approach to staff well-being. Future work: Future research should implement, refine and evaluate systemic interventional strategies. Interventions and evaluations should be co-designed with front-line staff and staff experts by experience, and tailored where possible to local, organisational and workforce needs. Limitations: The literature was not equivalent in size and quality across the three professions and we did not carry out citation searches using hand searching and stakeholder/expert suggestions to augment our sample. Study registration: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42020172420. Available from: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42020172420. Funding: This award was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Health and Social Care Delivery Research programme (NIHR award ref: NIHR129528) and is published in full in Health and Social Care Delivery Research; Vol. 12, No. 9. See the NIHR Funding and Awards website for further award information.


The National Health Service needs healthy, motivated staff to provide high-quality patient care. Nurses, midwives and paramedics experience poor psychological health (e.g. stress/anxiety) because of pressured environments and the difficulties of healthcare work. This study planned to better understand the causes of poor psychological ill-health in nurses, midwives and paramedics and find which interventions might help and why. We analysed the literature using a method called 'realist review' to understand how interventions work (or not), why, and for who. We tested our findings with patients, the public, nurses, midwives and paramedics in our stakeholder group. We reviewed over 200 papers/reports and identified five main findings: (1) existing solutions (interventions) are disjointed, focus mainly on the individual (not the system) and do not recognise enduring stressors enough; (2) when there is a blame culture it is difficult to encourage staff psychological well-being; (3) the needs of the system often override staff psychological well-being at work; (4) upholding and implementing personal and professional values at work can have negative personal costs; and (5) it is difficult to design, identify and implement solutions that work well for staff groups in different circumstances with varied causes of poor psychological health. Healthcare organisations should consider: (1) changing (rebalancing) the working environment to help healthcare professionals rest, recover and thrive; (2) investing in multiple-level system (not just individual) approaches to staff psychological well-being; (3) continuing to reduce stigma; (4) ensuring the essential needs of staff are prioritised (rest-breaks/hydration/hot food) as building blocks for other solutions; (5) addressing the blame culture, assuming staff are doing their best in difficult conditions; (6) prioritising staff needs, as well as patient needs. We will provide guidance and recommendations to policy-makers and organisational leaders to improve work cultures that tackle psychological ill-health and suggest new areas for research.


Asunto(s)
Técnicos Medios en Salud , COVID-19 , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Técnicos Medios en Salud/psicología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Partería , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/psicología , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido , Paramédico
5.
Food Chem ; 448: 139059, 2024 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531295

RESUMEN

Plant-based (PB) food products have surged in popularity over the past decade. Available PB products in the UK market were extracted from NielsenIQ Brandbank and compared with animal-based (AB) counterparts in their nutrient contents and calculated Nutri-Scores. The amino acid contents of four beef products and their PB alternatives were analysed by LC-MS/MS. PB products consistently exhibited significantly higher fibre content across all food groups. Protein was significantly higher in AB products from all food groups except beef and ready meals. PB products were more likely to have higher Nutri-Scores compared to AB counterparts, albeit with greater score variability within each food group. Nutrient fortifications were primarily focused on dairy and ready meals; the most supplemented nutrient was vitamin B12 (found in 15% of all products). A higher proportion of EAAs in relation to total protein content was observed in all beef products.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Valor Nutritivo , Animales , Aminoácidos/análisis , Reino Unido , Bovinos , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
6.
Br J Anaesth ; 132(5): 1073-1081, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448267

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Regional anaesthesia plays an important role in perioperative care, but gaps in proficiency persist among consultants and specialists. This study aimed to assess confidence levels in performing Plan A blocks among this cohort and to examine the barriers and facilitators influencing regional anaesthesia education. METHODS: Utilising a mixed-methods design, we performed a quantitative survey to gauge self-reported confidence in performing Plan A blocks, coupled with qualitative interviews to explore the complexities of educational barriers and facilitators. UK consultant and specialist anaesthetists were included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 369 survey responses were analysed. Only 22% of survey respondents expressed confidence in performing all Plan A blocks. Specialists (odds ratio [OR] 0.391, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.179-0.855, P=0.016) and those in their roles for >10 yr (OR 0.551, 95% CI 0.327-0.927, P = 0.024) reported lower confidence levels. A purposive sample was selected for interviews, and data saturation was reached at 31 interviews. Peer-led learning emerged as the most effective learning modality for consultants and specialists. Barriers to regional anaesthesia education included apprehensions regarding complications, self-perceived incompetence, lack of continuing professional development time, insufficient support from the multidisciplinary team, and a lack of inclusivity within the regional anaesthesia community. Organisational culture had a substantial impact, with the presence of local regional anaesthesia champions emerging as a key facilitator. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights persistent perceived deficiencies in regional anaesthesia skills among consultants and specialists. We identified multiple barriers and facilitators, providing insights for targeted interventions aimed at improving regional anaesthesia education in this group.


Asunto(s)
Anestesia de Conducción , Anestesiología , Humanos , Consultores , Anestesia Local , Anestesiología/educación , Reino Unido
7.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e079435, 2024 02 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326255

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to conduct a follow-up of all broad-based training (BBT) trainees who participated in the original evaluation completed in 2017. The follow-up study explored the impact of BBT on career decisions, sustained benefits and unintended disadvantages of the programme, and views on the future of training. DESIGN: Scoping interviews informed the design of an online survey. The interview transcripts were analysed thematically. The survey was piloted with six volunteers and sent out to all former BBT trainees. Data from the survey were transferred to Excel and SPSS for analysis. The open-text comments on the survey were subject to a thematic content analysis. SETTING: Participants were working in general practice, paediatrics, psychiatry or medicine. PARTICIPANTS: Eight former BBT trainees participated in the scoping interviews. Interview participants were selected to ensure a diversity of current specialties and to represent all three BBT cohorts. All former BBT trainees were invited to complete the survey (n=118) and 70 replied. RESULTS: The benefits of BBT were sustained over time: participants were confident in their career decisions, took a holistic approach to care and capitalised on their experiences in other specialties in their current roles. A minority of trainees also experienced temporary challenges when they joined a specialty training programme after completing the BBT. Whatever their specialty, experience in core medicine, paediatrics, psychiatry and general practice was valued. Disadvantages were short-lived (catching up on transition specialty training) or affected a minority (impact on sense of belonging). CONCLUSIONS: The BBT programme supported the development of generalist doctors. Greater attention needs to be given to training secondary care doctors who take a holistic view of the patient and navigate their specialist care.


Asunto(s)
Medicina General , Médicos , Humanos , Niño , Estudios de Seguimiento , Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria , Reino Unido , Selección de Profesión
8.
Occup Environ Med ; 81(3): 159-162, 2024 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302418

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Lead exposure from discharged lead dust is a recognised risk at firing ranges. We report a lead poisoning outbreak among staff and their close contacts at a UK civilian indoor 24 m firing range. METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of data collected on all patients at risk of lead poisoning identified either by direct referral to the Clinical Toxicology clinicians at the West Midlands Poisons Unit, or via the Trace Elements Supra-Regional Assay Service Laboratory at Sandwell hospital. RESULTS: Eighty-seven patients were identified as having possible lead exposure, either at the firing range or via close contacts. Of these, 63 patients aged between 6 months and 78 years attended for blood lead concentration (BLC) testing. The highest BLC at presentation was 11.7 µmol/L (242 µg/dL). Only nine patients reported any symptoms at presentation. Fifteen patients received lead chelation therapy with oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (or succimer) 30 mg/kg/day or intravenous sodium calcium edetate (EDTA) 75 mg/kg/day, dependent on stock availability. DISCUSSION: This report highlights the need for vigilance of lead poisoning as an occupational hazard in the UK, including at recreational facilities such as indoor firing ranges. It emphasises the importance of regulation of lead exposure in the workplace, particularly given the vague symptoms of lead poisoning, and proposes re-appraisal of UK legislation. This report also highlights potential issues surrounding stock availability of rarely used antidotes for uncommon presentations in the event of an outbreak of poisoning.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación por Plomo , Plomo , Humanos , Lactante , Quelantes/efectos adversos , Intoxicación por Plomo/epidemiología , Intoxicación por Plomo/etiología , Succímero/efectos adversos , Brotes de Enfermedades , Reino Unido/epidemiología
9.
Br J Nutr ; 131(9): 1608-1618, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38220216

RESUMEN

Observational evidence linking dietary n-3 PUFA intake and health outcomes is limited by a lack of robust validation of dietary intake using blood n-3 PUFA levels and potential confounding by fish oil supplement (FOS) use. We investigated the relationship between oily fish intake, FOS use and plasma n-3 PUFA levels in 121 650 UK Biobank (UKBB) participants. Ordinal logistic regression models, adjusted for clinical and lifestyle factors, were used to quantify the contribution of dietary oily fish intake and FOS use to plasma n-3 PUFA levels (measured by NMR spectroscopy). Oily fish intake and FOS use were reported by 38 % and 31 % of participants, respectively. Increasing oily fish intake was associated with a higher likelihood of FOS use (P < 0·001). Oily fish intake ≥ twice a week was the strongest predictor of high total n-3 PUFA (OR 6·7 (95 % CI 6·3, 7·1)) and DHA levels (6·6 (6·3, 7·1). FOS use was an independent predictor of high plasma n-3 PUFA levels (2·0 (2·0, 2·1)) with a similar OR to that associated with eating oily fish < once a week (1·9 (1·8, 2·0)). FOS use was associated with plasma n-3 PUFA levels that were similar to individuals in the next highest oily fish intake category. In conclusion, FOS use is more common in frequent fish consumers and modifies the relationship between oily fish intake and plasma n-3 PUFA levels in UKBB participants. If unaccounted for, FOS use may confound the relationship between dietary n-3 PUFA intake, blood levels of n-3 PUFAs and health outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3 , Aceites de Pescado , Peces , Humanos , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/sangre , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/administración & dosificación , Reino Unido , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Dieta , Adulto , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Alimentos Marinos , Animales , Biobanco del Reino Unido
10.
Br J Radiol ; 97(1153): 21-30, 2024 Jan 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38263828

RESUMEN

Many different malignancies occur in children, but overall, cancer in childhood is rare. Survival rates have improved appreciably and are higher compared with most adult tumour types. Treatment schedules evolve as a result of clinical trials and are typically complex and multi-modality, with radiotherapy an integral component of many. Risk stratification in paediatric oncology is increasingly refined, resulting in a more personalized use of radiation. Every available modality of radiation delivery: simple and advanced photon techniques, proton beam therapy, molecular radiotherapy, and brachytherapy, have their place in the treatment of children's cancers. Radiotherapy is rarely the sole treatment. As local therapy, it is often given before or after surgery, so the involvement of the surgeon is critically important, particularly when brachytherapy is used. Systemic treatment is the standard of care for most paediatric tumour types, concomitant administration of chemotherapy is typical, and immunotherapy has an increasing role. Delivery of radiotherapy is not done by clinical or radiation oncologists alone; play specialists and anaesthetists are required, together with mould room staff, to ensure compliance and immobilization. The support of clinical radiologists is needed to ensure the correct interpretation of imaging for target volume delineation. Physicists and dosimetrists ensure the optimal dose distribution, minimizing exposure of organs at risk. Paediatric oncology doctors, nurses, and a range of allied health professionals are needed for the holistic wrap-around care of the child and family. Radiographers are essential at every step of the way. With increasing complexity comes a need for greater centralization of services.


Asunto(s)
Braquiterapia , Neoplasias , Oncología por Radiación , Adulto , Humanos , Niño , Oncología Médica , Reino Unido
11.
BMJ Open ; 14(1): e077978, 2024 01 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199640

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To present the psychometric properties of the living with long-term condition (LwLTCs) scale in an English-speaking population of people with different LTCs. DESIGN: An observational and cross-sectional study, with retest was conducted. Psychometric properties including feasibility, internal consistency, confirmatory factor analysis, reproducibility and content validity were tested. SETTING: The study took place across the UK via primary care surgeries and voluntary organisations, between December 2021 and June 2022. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 577 patients living with different LTCs, as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, chronic heart failure, Parkinson's disease, chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Inclusion criteria included: (a) having been diagnosed with one or more of the conditions; (b) being able to read, understand and answer written questionnaires; (c) being fluent in English and (d) being able to provide written informed consent. Patients were involved in the design and pilot study of the scale. RESULTS: A total sample of 577 people with an age range of 37-97 years (98±9.65) were recruited. Internal consistency of the total 26-item LwLTCs scale score was excellent (ordinal alpha=0.90) but confirmatory factor analysis showed better fit indices (Normed Fit Index=0.96; standardised root mean square residual=0.051; Goodness of Fit Index=0.98) for a 20-item LwLTCs scale. CONCLUSIONS: A shorter version of the LwLTCs scale, with just 20 items and with excellent psychometric properties, is recommended. Having a short scale is key when considering the implementation of the scale in clinical practice to develop person-centred pathways and more comprehensive care plans.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Proyectos Piloto , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Reino Unido
12.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 306, 2024 01 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38279079

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People with long-term chronic conditions often struggle to access and navigate complex health and social services. Social prescription (SP) interventions, a patient-centred approach, help individuals identify their holistic needs and increase access to non-clinical resources, thus leading to improved health and well-being. This review explores existing SP interventions for people with long-term chronic conditions and identifies the opportunities and challenges of implementing them in primary healthcare settings. METHODS: This rapid review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis guidelines and searched relevant articles in three databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science) by using subject headings and keywords combined with Boolean operators. The search encompassed articles published between January 2010 and June 2023. Two authors independently conducted study screening and data abstraction using predefined criteria. A descriptive synthesis process using content analysis was performed to summarise the literature. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included, with all but one conducted in the United Kingdom, and revealed that social prescribers help guide patients with long-term chronic conditions to various local initiatives related to health and social needs. Effective implementation of SP interventions relies on building strong relationships between social prescribers and patients, characterised by trust, empathy, and effective communication. A holistic approach to addressing the unmet needs of people with long-term chronic conditions, digital technology utilisation, competent social prescribers, collaborative healthcare partnerships, clinical leadership, and access to local resources are all vital components of successful SP intervention. However, the implementation of SP interventions faces numerous challenges, including accessibility and utilisation barriers, communication gaps, staffing issues, an unsupportive work environment, inadequate training, lack of awareness, time management struggles, coordination and collaboration difficulties, and resource constraints. CONCLUSION: The present review emphasises the importance of addressing the holistic needs of people with long-term chronic conditions through collaboration and coordination, training of social prescribers, community connections, availability of local resources, and primary care leadership to ensure successful interventions, ultimately leading to improved patient health and well-being outcomes. This study calls for the need to develop or utilise appropriate tools that can capture people's holistic needs, as well as an implementation framework to guide future contextual SP interventions.


Asunto(s)
Servicio Social , Humanos , Reino Unido
13.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 59(3): 455-465, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36912993

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This paper asks whether the separation of mental health from its wider social context during the UK benefits assessment processes is a contributing factor to widely recognised systemic difficulties, including intrinsically damaging effects and relatively ineffective welfare-to-work outcomes. METHODS: Drawing on multiple sources of evidence, we ask whether placing mental health-specifically a biomedical conceptualisation of mental illness or condition as a discrete agent-at the core of the benefits eligibility assessment process presents obstacles to (i) accurately understanding a claimant's lived experience of distress (ii) meaningfully establishing the specific ways it affects their capacity for work, and (iii) identifying the multifaceted range of barriers (and related support needs) that a person may have in relation to moving into employment. RESULTS: We suggest that a more holistic assessment of work capacity, a different kind of conversation that considers not only the (fluctuating) effects of psychological distress but also the range of personal, social and economic circumstances that affect a person's capacity to gain and sustain employment, would offer a less distressing and ultimately more productive approach to understanding work capability. CONCLUSION: Such a shift would reduce the need to focus on a state of medicalised incapacity and open up space in encounters for more a more empowering focus on capacity, capabilities, aspirations, and what types of work are (or might be) possible, given the right kinds of contextualised and personalised support.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Salud Mental , Humanos , Bienestar Social , Empleo/psicología , Reino Unido
14.
Women Birth ; 37(1): 128-136, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37567851

RESUMEN

PROBLEM: Knowing how to help staff thrive and remain in practice in maternity services. BACKGROUND: A chronic shortage of staff in maternity services in the United Kingdom and high levels of stress and burnout in midwifery and medical staff. PURPOSE: To understand how to support and enhance the wellbeing of staff in a small UK maternity service. METHODS: An appreciative inquiry using interviews with n = 39 maternity staff and n = 4 group discussions exploring meaningful experiences, values and factors that helped their wellbeing. RESULTS: Staff members were highly motivated, managing a complex melee of emotions and responsibilities including challenges to professional confidence, mental health, family situation, and conflict between work-life roles. Despite staff shortages, a demanding workload, professional and personal turmoil, and the pandemic participants still found meaning in their work and relationships. DISCUSSION: A 'whole person' approach provided insight into the multiple stressors and emotional demands staff faced. It also revealed staff resourcefulness in managing their professional and personal roles. They invested in relationships with women but were also aware of their limits - the need to be self-caring, employ strategies to switch-off, set boundaries or keep a protective distance. CONCLUSION: Staff wellbeing initiatives, and research into wellbeing, would benefit from adopting a holistic approach that incorporates home and family with work. Research on emotion regulation strategies could provide insights into managing roles, responsibilities, and the emotional demands of working in maternity services. Emotion regulation strategies could be included in midwifery and obstetric training.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Partería , Humanos , Embarazo , Femenino , Emociones , Reino Unido
15.
Sociol Health Illn ; 46(2): 236-256, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37578651

RESUMEN

Males accounted for half the United Kingdom population in 2021 yet they fail to be prioritised in health and social policies. As examining the health of males and females collectively falls short in accounting for the complexities associated with gendered health outcomes, male health should be considered as a separate policy issue. The island of Ireland has two jurisdictions, the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (NI); however, only the former has implemented a men's health policy. As well as a policy vacuum within NI, few studies have comprehensively examined male health. To address this shortcoming, a narrative review of males' physical and mental health trends in NI is presented to determine the need for a men's health policy. A collation of secondary administrative data and survey data was conducted. The narrative review highlights the importance of utilising a holistic framework to understand men's health. Key findings include high male suicide rates and young males being more likely to report certain mental health problems. The study concludes that a male health policy is needed. To achieve this, a Health Impact Pyramid was developed, and it illustrates practical steps that can be taken to support decision-makers, service providers and individual males.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Salud del Hombre , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Reino Unido , Salud Mental
16.
Women Birth ; 37(1): 15-50, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37648619

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom (UK), a critical shortage of midwives puts pressure on the already overworked midwives working in maternity services. Considering the challenges that midwives in the UK face, this rapid review was conducted to inform a larger-scale initiative to improve the working conditions of midwives in an acute NHS Trust in the Midlands area of the UK. OBJECTIVE: To describe midwives' perceptions and experiences of positive practice environments. METHODS: A search strategy to identify literature about midwives' perceptions and experiences of positive practice environments was conducted in Medline, CINAHL Plus and Embase databases. Literature screening was conducted independently in two steps using an eligibility tool. The articles' quality assessment was conducted using the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool. Data were extracted using the Job Quality framework and managed using NVivo12. RESULTS: Seventy articles were included in this review. Midwives' working conditions can be improved in all seven areas of the Job Quality framework. Most articles in the review reported the negative aspects of midwives' working environments, making it challenging for the team to define a positive practice environment for midwives. Despite this, authors discuss that a positive practice environment is at least sustained by ensuring midwives' ability to provide care; providing good employment conditions; developing respectful organisations; and increasing team resources, such as those that improve team resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Midwives' working conditions are universally challenging. Failure to address the situation will compromise recruitment and retention, increasing the shortage of midwives. Provision of safe and respectful care appears to be directly linked to midwives' safe and respectful working conditions.


Asunto(s)
Partería , Enfermeras Obstetrices , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Reino Unido , Investigación Cualitativa
17.
Vet Rec ; 194(3): e3602, 2024 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38044333

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The popularity of alpacas in the UK is increasing, with the British Alpaca Society (BAS) estimating that there are currently 45,000 registered alpacas and a further 15,000 unregistered alpacas. This research set about to investigate what husbandry procedures are currently undertaken on alpacas in the UK. METHODS: An online survey of 47 questions was created using Jisc and was available for 4.5 months. RESULTS: All 116 holdings implemented shearing and foot trimming (100.0%), and most vaccinated against clostridial disease (95.7%) and supplemented with vitamin D (91.4%). There was no obvious pattern in vitamin D dosing. A significant positive association was found between the size of the holding and whether injectable or oral vitamin D was used (p = 0.034), with smaller holdings preferring oral vitamin D products. LIMITATIONS: The survey was distributed online, including via the BAS e-Newsletter. The percentage of BAS-registered alpacas was not clarified, so it is unknown if the data are skewed by this. CONCLUSION: Although owners are ensuring that routine interventions are implemented, variation in responses implies there is no current standard protocol. This highlights that these differences may be due to logistical choices, training or varied advice, which may be due to the lack of published literature.


Asunto(s)
Camélidos del Nuevo Mundo , Animales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vitamina D/uso terapéutico , Vacunación/veterinaria , Reino Unido
18.
Midwifery ; 129: 103893, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38056098

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore midwives' knowledge and understanding of the law and practice of consent in the post-Montgomery world. DESIGN: Cross-sectional online survey. Descriptive statistical analysis of midwives' survey responses. SETTINGS: Social media: Instagram, Facebook and Twitter. Survey distribution was via the UCL Opinio survey platform. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 402 midwives, surveyed over a four month period between 2nd March and 2nd July 2021. MEASUREMENTS: Knowledge of legal consent, 'sureness' of meeting current legal requirements and competence to gain consent. FINDINGS: 91% of participants acknowledged correctly that consent must be voluntary. 91% reported that women must be informed of all the risks associated with their care, although 26% reported that women should be informed of some of the risks associated with their care. Most participants were 'sure' that their discussions of consent meet current legal requirements (91%). 21% rated their competence to gain consent as 'excellent', 71% rated themselves as 'very good', whilst 1% rated their competence as 'poor'. Deficiencies in fundamental knowledge of consent were noted in some participants rating themselves highest in 'sureness' of meeting legal requirements and competence to consent. KEY CONCLUSIONS: Fundamental gaps in midwives' knowledge of legal consent were identified. Participants demonstrated uncertainty regarding the extent of risk disclosure and discussion of alternative care options. Participants generally rated themselves highly in their consenting practices, despite lacking in basic knowledge of legal consent, revealing a discrepancy between midwives' self-perceptions and their actual knowledge. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The overconfidence displayed by some participants is concerning for clinical midwifery practice. Professional education and guidance for midwives on legal consent in keeping with Montgomery is urgently required to ensure that midwives are legally compliant in their consenting practices.


Asunto(s)
Partería , Enfermeras Obstetrices , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Enfermeras Obstetrices/educación , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido , Consentimiento Informado
19.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 74: 103847, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38007848

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The construction and performance of professional identity is significant to broader socio-cultural understandings of who 'professionals' are and what they do. Importantly, it is also implicated in the development and enactment of policy, regulation, education, and professional practice. Professional identity is linked to self-esteem, self-efficacy, professional value, confidence and success. The salience of this in relation to midwifery practice is highly significant; aspects of autonomy, confidence, competence, responsibility, and accountability are all implicated in the provision of safe and effective care. AIM: To explore how student midwives are constructed in the discourses of policy, professionalism, and learning, to provide new perspectives to inform, policy, education, and practice. METHODS: An adapted critical discourse analysis of the United Kingdom (UK) Nursing and Midwifery Council's 2009 Standards for pre-registration midwifery education, using a three-step process: exploring discourse at the level of (1) discursive practice (2) linguistic features of the text, and (3) social practice. FINDINGS/ DISCUSSION: The discourses that relate to midwifery education and practice emerge within socio-political and historical contexts. Constructions of identity are articulated through a rule-bound framework which includes competence, confidence and 'good health and good character'. There is a requirement for midwives to 'be' responsible, accountable, autonomous, professional, competent, and confident. Regulatory power is reinforced through medico-legal discourses, with the status of midwifery discursively presented as inferior to medicine. CONCLUSION: According to the Standards, midwives must be a lot of things in their role and function. The Standards' discourses are authoritative, legislative and controlling, creating an ideology about professional status and agency which constructs an 'imaginary autonomy'; becoming a midwife is more automatic (with the perception of control), than agentic. All of which has significance for the social practice of midwifery. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: 'How are midwives made? Discursive constructions of student midwives' professional identities: a discourse analysis.


Asunto(s)
Partería , Enfermeras Obstetrices , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Partería/educación , Competencia Profesional , Reino Unido , Profesionalismo , Estudiantes
20.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 38(3): 521-529, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38011002

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Phototherapy is used to treat atopic dermatitis (AD). Evidence for its efficacy, impact on quality of life, cost-effectiveness and short- and long-term safety with real-life usage is weak. OBJECTIVES: We established a taskforce to examine how phototherapy is currently being used as a treatment for AD across the United Kingdom and Europe to inform our understanding and guide future research into management of patients with AD using UV-based phototherapies. METHODS: An anonymous electronic multiple-response survey exploring phototherapy prescribing practices and experience of phototherapy modalities was developed by the study authors and sent to members of phototherapy networks from the United Kingdom and Europe. Responses were received between February and July 2021. RESULTS: About 144 respondents from 27 European countries completed the survey. NBUVB was the most widely used [n = 138 (96%)]. Home-based NBUVB was available in 8/27 countries (25/144 respondents, 17%). Oral psoralen-UVA (PUVA) was more widely available than bath PUVA (n = 106, 74% vs. n = 60, 42%) and used mainly in adult patients. 49/144 (34%) of respondents had access to UVA1. Phototherapy would be considered instead of systemic treatment in 96% of adults and 82% of children for NBUVB, versus 40% of adults and 3% of children for PUVA. Starting doses, standard dosing increments, length of treatment courses, lifetime limits for treatments and thresholds for performing annual skin assessments varied between responders. CONCLUSIONS: NBUVB was the most widely used phototherapy for AD in adult and paediatric patients, while PUVA and UVA1 were less used. Prescribing practices varied considerably, highlighting the lack of consensus practice in many different aspects of phototherapy for the treatment of AD in children and adults. This indicates that further studies are required to determine optimal phototherapeutic regimens for AD and informs our understanding of parameters that should be included in future high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCT) of phototherapy.


Asunto(s)
Dermatitis Atópica , Terapia Ultravioleta , Adulto , Humanos , Niño , Dermatitis Atópica/terapia , Fototerapia , Europa (Continente) , Reino Unido
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA