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1.
Clin. transl. oncol. (Print) ; 26(4): 825-835, Abr. 2024. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-VR-46

RESUMEN

Watch-and-wait has emerged as a new strategy for the management of rectal cancer when a complete clinical response is achieved after neoadjuvant therapy. In an attempt to standardize this new clinical approach, initiated by the Spanish Cooperative Group for the Treatment of Digestive Tumors (TTD), and with the participation of the Spanish Association of Coloproctology (AECP), the Spanish Society of Pathology (SEAP), the Spanish Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (SEED), the Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology (SEOR), and the Spanish Society of Medical Radiology (SERAM), we present herein a consensus on a watch-and-wait approach for the management of rectal cancer. We have focused on patient selection, the treatment schemes evaluated, the optimal timing for evaluating the clinical complete response, the oncologic outcomes after the implementation of this strategy, and a protocol for surveillance of these patients.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Terapia Neoadyuvante/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Quimioradioterapia/métodos
2.
Clin. transl. oncol. (Print) ; 26(4): 1012-1021, Abr. 2024. graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-VR-64

RESUMEN

Purpose: This study aimed to assess the impact of ypT stage and tumor regression grade (TRG) on the long-term prognosis of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) stage ypT1-4N0 after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 585 patients with histologically diagnosed middle-low LARC (cT3-4 or cN + by pelvic MRI) from 2014 to 2019. All patients underwent NCRT, followed by total mesorectal excision. Disease-free survival (DFS) rates were compared among patients with different ypT stages and TRGs by Kaplan–Meier survival analysis. The chi-square test was used to analyze the relationship between clinicopathological or therapeutic factors and ypT stage. Results: The median follow‐up was 35.8 months (range 2.8–71.8 months). The 3-year DFS was 79.5%. A better 3-year DFS was achieved in patients with a pathologic complete response (94.0% vs. 74.3%, p < 0.001) and those in the ypT0-2 (86.5% vs. 66.6%, p < 0.001), ypN0 (85.0% vs. 60.2%, p < 0.001), and TRG0 + 1 (83.1% vs. 73.0%, p = 0.004) subgroups. A total of 309 patients (52.8%) achieved stage ypT1-4N0 after surgery. Among these patients, the ypT1-2N0 subgroup achieved a significantly higher 3-year DFS than the ypT3-4N0 subgroup (85.4% vs. 72.8%, p = 0.018); in contrast, the 3-year DFS did not significantly differ between the TRG1 and TRG2 + 3 subgroups (79.9% vs. 81.1%, p = 0.833). In the ypT1-2N0 or ypT3-4N0 subgroup, different TRG had no significant effect on failure patterns. Conclusions: For LARC patients with a ypT1-4N0 status after NCRT, ypT stage may be a more effective predictor of long-term prognosis than TRG.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Pronóstico , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Resultado del Tratamiento , Neoplasias Colorrectales , Estudios Retrospectivos
3.
World J Surg Oncol ; 22(1): 103, 2024 Apr 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38637820

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Colorectal peritoneal metastases (CRPM) affects 15% of patients at initial colorectal cancer diagnosis. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) prior to cytoreductive surgery (CRS) has been demonstrated to be a safe and feasible option, however there is limited data describing its efficacy in advanced peritoneal disease. This study evaluated the effect of NAC on survival in patients with high volume CRPM undergoing CRS with or without HIPEC. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients who underwent CRS with or without HIPEC for CRPM from 2004 to 2019 at our institution was performed. The cohort was divided based on peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI) at surgery: Low Volume (PCI ≤ 16) and High Volume (PCI > 16). RESULTS: A total of 326 patients underwent CRS with HIPEC for CRPM. There were 39 patients (12%) with High Volume disease, and 15 of these (38%) received NAC. Patients with High Volume disease had significantly longer operating time, lower likelihood of complete macroscopic cytoreduction (CC-0 score), longer intensive care unit length of stay and longer hospital stay compared to Low Volume disease. In High Volume disease, the NAC group had a significantly shorter median survival of 14.4 months compared to 23.8 months in the non-NAC group (p = 0.046). CONCLUSION: Patients with High Volume CRPM achieved good median survival following CRS with HIPEC, which challenges the current PCI threshold for offering CRS. The use of NAC in this cohort did not increase perioperative morbidity but was associated with significantly shorter median survival compared to upfront surgery.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Hipertermia Inducida , Neoplasias Peritoneales , Humanos , Neoplasias Peritoneales/patología , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos de Citorreducción , Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Peritoneo/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tasa de Supervivencia , Terapia Combinada , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico
4.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299742, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635652

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Japan, preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical resection is the standard treatment for patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However, the risk of recurrence after surgical resection remains high. Although a randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of nivolumab, a fully human monoclonal anti-programmed death 1 antibody, as postoperative adjuvant therapy after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery established its superior efficacy as adjuvant therapy, the efficacy for patients who received preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy has not been demonstrated. This study aims to elucidate the efficacy and safety of nivolumab as postoperative adjuvant therapy for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel and cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil followed by surgical resection. METHODS: This study is a multi-institutional, single-arm, Phase II trial. We plan to recruit 130 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients, who have undergone preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel and cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil followed by surgical resection. If the patient did not have a pathological complete response, nivolumab is started as a postoperative adjuvant therapy within 4-16 weeks after surgery. The nivolumab dose is 480 mg/day every four weeks. Nivolumab is administered for up to 12 months. The primary endpoint is disease-free survival; the secondary endpoints are overall survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and incidence of adverse events. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge this study is the first trial establishing the efficacy of nivolumab as postoperative adjuvant therapy for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel and cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil followed by surgical resection. In Japan, preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery is a well-established standard treatment for resectable, locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, developing an effective postoperative adjuvant therapy has been essential for improving oncological outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Esófago , Humanos , Cisplatino/efectos adversos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirugía , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patología , Docetaxel/uso terapéutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Esófago/tratamiento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Esófago/etiología , Nivolumab/uso terapéutico , Taxoides/uso terapéutico , Resultado del Tratamiento , Fluorouracilo/efectos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Ensayos Clínicos Fase II como Asunto
5.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 67(6): 762-771, 2024 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479009

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In April 2023, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network endorsed neoadjuvant immunotherapy for select patients with nonmetastatic mismatch repair deficient colon cancer. Approximately 15% of incident colon cancers are mismatch repair deficient, resulting in a distinct molecular subtype with high microsatellite instability that is responsive to immune checkpoint inhibition. OBJECTIVE: To describe the existing evidence supporting neoadjuvant immunotherapy for mismatch repair deficient, microsatellite unstable nonmetastatic colon cancer. DATA SOURCES: A medical librarian performed PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science searches most recently on April 24, 2023. The PubMed search was re-run on September 26, 2023, to identify any additional studies published between April 24 and September 26, 2023. STUDY SELECTION: Two authors screened titles and abstracts in the published studies. The inclusion criteria were 1) English language, 2) adults with primary cancer of the colon, 3) nonmetastatic disease, 4) neoadjuvant immunotherapy, and 5) reporting on 10 or more cases. INTERVENTION: Neoadjuvant immunotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Safety (grade 3+ treatment-related adverse events) and efficacy (complete pathologic responses). RESULTS: From 7691 studies identified, 6370 were screened and 8 were included. Various agents, dosing regimens, and treatment durations were used, with durations of immunotherapy ranging from 1 to 16 cycles. Complete R0 resections were consistently achieved in 98% to 100% of resections. Of patients who received neoadjuvant immunotherapy and underwent resection, 50% to 91% had ypT0N0 pathology. The safety profiles were generally favorable, with grade 1 to 2 treatment-related adverse events (mostly immune-related) during immunotherapy reported in 22.2% to 70% of patients. Postoperative complications after neoadjuvant immunotherapy were reassuring, with no severe complications reported. LIMITATIONS: Small number of heterogeneous and uncontrolled studies precluding a meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant immune checkpoint inhibition is associated with high rates of pathologic complete responses in locally advanced colon cancer. The literature is limited, particularly for postoperative outcomes, and more studies are needed to understand the safety and positioning of these regimens in the neoadjuvant context.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Colon , Reparación de la Incompatibilidad de ADN , Inmunoterapia , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Humanos , Terapia Neoadyuvante/métodos , Neoplasias del Colon/terapia , Neoplasias del Colon/genética , Neoplasias del Colon/inmunología , Neoplasias del Colon/patología , Inmunoterapia/métodos , Reparación de la Incompatibilidad de ADN/genética , Inhibidores de Puntos de Control Inmunológico/uso terapéutico , Inestabilidad de Microsatélites
6.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e080239, 2024 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508617

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Neoadjuvant therapy has become a standard treatment for patients with stage II/III HER2 positive and triple negative breast cancer, and in well-selected patients with locally advanced and borderline resectable high risk, luminal B breast cancer. Side effects of neoadjuvant therapy, such as fatigue, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, anxiety, insomnia, vasomotor symptoms, gastrointestinal disturbance as well as a raft of immune-related adverse events, may impact treatment tolerance, long-term outcomes, and quality of life. Providing early supportive care prior to surgery (typically termed 'prehabilitation') may mitigate these side effects and improve quality of life.During our codesign of the intervention, consumers and healthcare professionals expressed desire for a programme that 'packaged' care, was easy to access, and was embedded in their care pathway. We hypothesise that a multimodal supportive care programme including exercise and complementary therapies, underpinned by behavioural change theory will improve self-efficacy, quality of life, readiness for surgery and any additional treatment for women with breast cancer. We seek to explore cardiometabolic, residual cancer burden and surgical outcomes, along with chemotherapy completion (relative dose intensity). This article describes the protocol for a feasibility study of a multimodal prehabilitation programme. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a prospective, mixed-method, feasibility study of a multi-modal programme in a hospital setting for 20-30 women with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Primary outcomes are recruitment rate, retention rate, adherence and acceptability. Secondary outcomes include patient reported outcome measures (PROMs), surgical outcomes, length of stay, satisfaction with surgery, chemotherapy completion rates, changes in metabolic markers and adverse events. Interviews and focus groups to understand the experience with prehabilitation and different factors that may affect feasibility of the intervention . The output of this study will be a codesigned, evidence-informed intervention assessed for feasibility and acceptability by women with breast cancer and the healthcare professionals that care for them. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study received ethics approval from the St Vincents Hospital HREC (HREC/2021/ETH12198). Trial results will be communicated to participants, healthcare professionals, and the public via publication and conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12622000584730.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Humanos , Femenino , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , Terapia por Ejercicio/métodos , Estudios de Factibilidad , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Calidad de Vida , Ejercicio Preoperatorio , Estudios Prospectivos , Instituciones Oncológicas
7.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 20(1): 281-284, 2024 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554334

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer (LAGC) who respond poorly to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (ChT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The database of a tertiary medical center (2009-2020) was retrospectively reviewed for patients with LAGC in whom the initial treatment strategy consisted of perioperative ChT and surgery. Those who were subsequently referred for postoperative CRT because of a poor pathologic primary-tumor response (ypT3-4, ypN2-3, R1 resection) were selected for the study. CRT consisted of 45 Gy in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy combined with capecitabine 825 mg/m2 twice daily on radiotherapy days or continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil 180 mg/m2/day. RESULTS: The cohort included 26 patients of median age 61 years with LAGC (clinical stage IIA-III) after surgery with D1-D2 lymphadenectomy. R0 resection was achieved in 15 (58%). The pathological stage was III in 69% (IIA-IVA). Treatment was well tolerated. During a median follow-up time of 39 months, recurrences were documented in 14 patients (54%): 11 distant and 3 locoregional. Median progression-free survival was 23 months, and median overall survival was 65 months. Estimated 5-year survival rates were 42 and 54%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This small retrospective study suggests that in patients with LAGC who show a poor pathologic response to neoadjuvant ChT, a good outcome relative to reference arms in randomized trials can still be achieved with the addition of postoperative CRT. Further studies of the benefit of a tailored adaptive treatment approach to LAGC based on the response to neoadjuvant ChT are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Recto , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Terapia Neoadyuvante/efectos adversos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Quimioterapia Adyuvante , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Quimioradioterapia/efectos adversos , Fluorouracilo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Neoplasias del Recto/patología
8.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 51(2): 177-192, 2024 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442285

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between pretreatment inflammatory and nutritional biomarkers in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy (nCRT). SAMPLE & SETTING: 213 patients with newly diagnosed stage II-III ESCC who received nCRT at an academic hospital in Taiwan. METHODS & VARIABLES: Electronic health record data were used. Records on inflammatory and nutritional biomarkers and clinical outcomes were extracted. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict treatment-related adverse events, Cox regression was used for survival outcomes, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine optimal cutoff values. RESULTS: There was a significant association between low prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and nCRT toxicities and survival. Advanced cancer stage, high platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and occurrence of pneumonia/infection were linked to survival outcomes. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: PNI shows promise in predicting prognosis, helps identify high-risk patients, and enables nurses to apply tailored interventions.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Esófago , Humanos , Terapia Neoadyuvante/efectos adversos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Biomarcadores , Pacientes
9.
Br J Cancer ; 130(7): 1109-1118, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341511

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: 13-15% of breast cancer/BC patients diagnosed as pathological complete response/pCR after neoadjuvant systemic therapy/NST suffer from recurrence. This study aims to estimate the rationality of organoid forming potential/OFP for more accurate evaluation of NST efficacy. METHODS: OFPs of post-NST residual disease/RD were checked and compared with clinical approaches to estimate the recurrence risk. The phenotypes of organoids were classified via HE staining and ER, PR, HER2, Ki67 and CD133 immuno-labeling. The active growing organoids were subjected to drug sensitivity tests. RESULTS: Of 62 post-NST BC specimens, 24 were classified as OFP-I with long-term active organoid growth, 19 as OFP-II with stable organoid growth within 3 weeks, and 19 as OFP-III without organoid formation. Residual tumors were overall correlated with OFP grades (P < 0.001), while 3 of the 18 patients (16.67%) pathologically diagnosed as tumor-free (ypT0N0M0) showed tumor derived-organoid formation. The disease-free survival/DFS of OFP-I cases was worse than other two groups (Log-rank P < 0.05). Organoids of OFP-I/-II groups well maintained the biological features of their parental tumors and were resistant to the drugs used in NST. CONCLUSIONS: The OFP would be a complementary parameter to improve the evaluation accuracy of NST efficacy of breast cancers.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Humanos , Femenino , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Receptor ErbB-2 , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico
10.
Int J Surg ; 110(4): 2071-2084, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320099

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The addition of immune checkpoint inhibitors to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in operable advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction (G/GEJ) cancer aroused wide interest. This study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant sintilimab, a programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) inhibitor, in combination with fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel (FLOT) chemotherapy for HER2-negative locally advanced G/GEJ cancer. METHODS: Eligible patients with clinical stage cT4 and/or cN+M0 G/GEJ cancer were enroled in this phase II study. Patients received neoadjuvant sintilimab (200 mg every 3 weeks) for three cycles plus FLOT (50 mg/m 2 docetaxel, 80 mg/m 2 oxaliplatin, 200 mg/m 2 calcium levofolinate, 2600 mg/m 2 5-fluorouracil every 2 weeks) for four cycles before surgery, followed by four cycles of adjuvant FLOT with same dosages after resection. The primary endpoint was the pathological complete response (pCR) rate. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were enroled between August 2019 and September 2021, with a median follow-up of 34.8 (95% CI, 32.8-42.9) months. Thirty-two (100%) patients received neoadjuvant therapy, and 29 underwent surgery with an R0 resection rate of 93.1%. The pCR (TRG0) was achieved in 5 (17.2%; 95% CI, 5.8-35.8%) patients, and the major pathological response was 55.2%. Twenty-three (79.3%) patients had T downstaging, 21 (72.4%) had N downstaging, and 19 (65.5%) had overall TNM downstaging. Six (20.7%) patients experienced recurrence. Patients achieving pCR showed better event-free survival (EFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) than non-pCR. The estimated 3-year EFS rate, 3-year DFS rate, and 3-year OS rate were 71.4% (95% CI, 57.2-89.2%), 78.8% (95% CI, 65.1-95.5%), and 70.9% (95% CI, 54.8-91.6%), respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 84.4% (95% CI, 68.3-93.1%) and 96.9% (95% CI, 84.3-99.5%), respectively. Twenty-five (86.2%) received adjuvant therapy. The main grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were lymphopenia (34.4%), neutropenia (28.1%), and leukopenia (15.6%). no patients died from TRAE. The LDH level exhibited a better predictive value to pathological responses than PD-L1 and MSI status. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated an encouraging efficacy and manageable safety profile of neoadjuvant sintilimab plus FLOT in HER2-negative locally advanced G/GEJ cancer, which suggested a potential therapeutic option for this population.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Docetaxel , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Unión Esofagogástrica , Fluorouracilo , Leucovorina , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patología , Unión Esofagogástrica/patología , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administración & dosificación , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Anciano , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/administración & dosificación , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/efectos adversos , Adenocarcinoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Adulto , Leucovorina/administración & dosificación , Leucovorina/efectos adversos , Leucovorina/uso terapéutico , Fluorouracilo/administración & dosificación , Docetaxel/administración & dosificación , Docetaxel/efectos adversos , Docetaxel/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patología , Oxaliplatino/administración & dosificación , Oxaliplatino/efectos adversos , Oxaliplatino/uso terapéutico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo
11.
Cancer Med ; 13(3): e6930, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327130

RESUMEN

AIM: We investigated the pathologic complete response rates (pCR) and survival outcomes of early breast cancer patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) over 14 years at a French comprehensive cancer center and reported pCR and survival outcomes by tumor subtypes and size. METHODS: From January 2005 to December 2018, 1150 patients receiving NAC were identified. Correlations between cT stage, breast tumor response, axillary lymph node response, pCR, surgery, and outcomes were assessed. pCR was defined as (ypT0/ypTis) and (ypN0/pN0sn). RESULTS: A pCR was reached in 31.7% (365/1150) of patients and was strongly associated with tumor subtypes, but not with tumor size (pretreatment cT category). Luminal-B Her2-negative and triple-negative (TN) subtypes, cN1 status, older age, and no-pCR had an independent negative prognostic value. Overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and metastasis-free survival (MFS) were not significantly different for cT0-1 compared to cT2 stages. In Cox-model adjusted on in-breast pCR and pN status, ypN1 had a strong negative impact (OS, RFS, and MFS: HR = 3.153, 4.677, and 6.133, respectively), higher than no in-breast pCR (HR = 2.369, 2.252, and 2.323). A negative impact of no pCR on OS was observed for cN0 patients and TN tumors (HR = 4.972) or HER2-positive tumors (HR = 11.706), as well as in Luminal-B Her2-negative tumors on MFS (HR = 2.223) and for Luminal-A on RFS (HR = 4.465) and MFS (HR = 4.185). CONCLUSION: Achievement of pCR, but not tumor size (pretreatment cT category), has an independent prognostic impact on survival. These results suggest potential NAC benefits in patients with small tumors (<2 cm), even in absence of clinically suspicious lymph nodes. Residual lymph node disease after NAC is the most powerful adverse prognostic factor.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Humanos , Femenino , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Pronóstico , Mama , Axila
12.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 34(4): 574-580, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242546

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The modeled CA-125 elimination constant K (KELIM) is a pragmatic early marker of tumor chemosensitivity in ovarian cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy before interval surgery. The primary objective of this study was to assess the prognostic value of KELIM regarding the feasibility of complete surgery, and secondary objectives were to assess the prognostic value of KELIM for the risk of a platinum resistant relapse, progression free survival, and overall survival. METHODS: The study was based on a retrospective cohort of 284 patients treated for an advanced serous high grade ovarian cancer, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages III-IV, with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by interval surgery, in a comprehensive cancer center. CA-125 concentrations at baseline and during neoadjuvant chemotherapy were collected. The KELIM predictive value regarding the tumor radiological response rate, likelihood of complete surgery, risk of subsequent platinum resistant relapse, progression free survival, and overall survival were assessed with univariate and multivariate tests. RESULTS: In 232 patients, KELIM was an independent and major predictor of the probability of complete surgery and survival. The final logistic regression model, including KELIM (odds ratio (OR) 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI)0.16 to 0.73, p=0.006) and complete surgery (no vs yes, OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.53, p<0.001), highlighted the complementary impact of chemosensitivity and surgical outcome relative to the complete surgery. In the multivariate analysis, KELIM and complete surgery were significantly associated with a lower risk of early relapse. In the case of an unfavorable KELIM, when surgical efforts allowed complete cytoreduction, median overall survival was similar to that reported in the case of a favorable KELIM (46.3 months (range 34.6-60.3) vs 46.5 months (range 40.6-68.7), respectively). CONCLUSION: Primary tumor chemosensitivity, assessed by the modeled CA-125 KELIM, calculated during neoadjuvant chemotherapy, is a major parameter to consider for decision making regarding interval surgery. Complementary to the RECIST score and laparoscopy, this non-invasive tool, available online, helps tailor the interval surgery strategy according to patient tumor chemosensitivity.


Asunto(s)
Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Ováricas , Humanos , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/tratamiento farmacológico , Carcinoma Epitelial de Ovario/cirugía , Neoplasias Ováricas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ováricas/cirugía , Neoplasias Ováricas/patología , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Antígeno Ca-125 , Recurrencia , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos de Citorreducción , Quimioterapia Adyuvante
13.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 31(4): 2391-2400, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38270826

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Normal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels (≤ 2.5 ng/ml) after resection of localized colorectal cancer or liver metastases are associated with improved survival, however, these trends are understudied for colorectal peritoneal metastases (CRPM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-institution study of patients with CRPM undergoing cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (CRS/HIPEC) with and without neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). CEA was measured before and after NACT and within 3 months after CRS/HIPEC. RESULTS: A total of 253 patients (mean age 55.3 years) with CRPM undergoing CRS/HIPEC had complete CEA data and 191 also underwent NACT with complete data. The median peritoneal carcinomatosis index score (PCI) of the overall cohort was 12 and 82.7% of patients had complete cytoreduction (CC0). In total, 64 (33.5%) patients had normal CEA levels after NACT with a median overall survival (OS) of 45.2 months compared with those with an elevated CEA (26.4 months, p = 0.004). Patients with normal CEA after NACT had a lower PCI found at the time of surgery than those with elevated CEA (10 versus 14, p < 0.001), 68 (26.9%) patients with an elevated preoperative CEA level experienced normalization after CRS/HIPEC, and 118 (46.6%) patients had elevated CEA after CRS/HIPEC. Patients who experienced normalization demonstrated similar OS to patients that had normal CEA levels pre- and post-surgery and improved OS compared with those with elevated postop CEA (median 41.9 versus 47 months versus 17.1 months, respectively, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Normal CEA levels after NACT and/or CRS/HIPEC are associated with improved survival for patients with CRPM. Patients that normalize CEA levels after surgery have similar survival to those with normal preoperative levels.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Hipertermia Inducida , Neoplasias Peritoneales , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos de Citorreducción , Antígeno Carcinoembrionario , Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología , Neoplasias Peritoneales/secundario , Estudios Retrospectivos , Terapia Combinada , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Tasa de Supervivencia
14.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 9(3): 205-217, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38237621

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In patients undergoing resection for pancreatic cancer, adjuvant modified fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) improves overall survival compared with alternative chemotherapy regimens. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX with the standard strategy of upfront surgery in patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: NORPACT-1 was a multicentre, randomised, phase 2 trial done in 12 hospitals in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, with a WHO performance status of 0 or 1, and had a resectable tumour of the pancreatic head radiologically strongly suspected to be pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Participants were randomly assigned (3:2 before October, 2018, and 1:1 after) to the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group or upfront surgery group. Patients in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group received four neoadjuvant cycles of FOLFIRINOX (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2, irinotecan 180 mg/m2, leucovorin 400 mg/m2, and fluorouracil 400 mg/m2 bolus then 2400 mg/m2 over 46 h on day 1 of each 14-day cycle), followed by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients in the upfront surgery group underwent surgery and then received adjuvant chemotherapy. Initially, adjuvant chemotherapy was gemcitabine plus capecitabine (gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 over 30 min on days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle and capecitabine 830 mg/m2 twice daily for 3 weeks with 1 week of rest in each 28-day cycle; four cycles in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group, six cycles in the upfront surgery group). A protocol amendment was subsequently made to permit use of adjuvant modified FOLFIRINOX (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2, irinotecan 150 mg/m2, leucovorin 400 mg/m2, and fluorouracil 2400 mg/m2 over 46 h on day 1 of each 14-day cycle; eight cycles in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group, 12 cycles in the upfront surgery group). Randomisation was performed with a computerised algorithm that stratified for each participating centre and used a concealed block size of two to six. Patients, investigators, and study team members were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was overall survival at 18 months. Analyses were done in the intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol populations. Safety was assessed in all patients who were randomly assigned and received at least one cycle of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02919787, and EudraCT, 2015-001635-21, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Feb 8, 2017, and April 21, 2021, 77 patients were randomly assigned to receive neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX and 63 to undergo upfront surgery. All patients were included in the ITT analysis. For the per-protocol analysis, 17 (22%) patients were excluded from the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group (ten did not receive neoadjuvant therapy, four did not have pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and three received another neoadjuvant regimen), and eight (13%) were excluded from the upfront surgery group (seven did not have pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and one did not undergo surgical exploration). 61 (79%) of 77 patients in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group received neoadjuvant therapy. The proportion of patients alive at 18 months by ITT was 60% (95% CI 49-71) in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group versus 73% (62-84) in the upfront surgery group (p=0·032), and median overall survival by ITT was 25·1 months (95% CI 17·2-34·9) versus 38·5 months (27·6-not reached; hazard ratio [HR] 1·52 [95% CI 1·00-2·33], log-rank p=0·050). The proportion of patients alive at 18 months in per-protocol analysis was 57% (95% CI 46-67) in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group versus 70% (55-83) in the upfront surgery group (p=0·14), and median overall survival in per-protocol population was 23·0 months (95% CI 16·2-34·9) versus 34·4 months (19·4-not reached; HR 1·46 [95% CI 0·99-2·17], log-rank p=0·058). In the safety population, 42 (58%) of 73 patients in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group and 19 (40%) of 47 patients in the upfront surgery group had at least one grade 3 or worse adverse event. 63 (82%) of 77 patients in the neoadjuvant group and 56 (89%) of 63 patients in the upfront surgery group had resection (p=0·24). One sudden death of unknown cause and one COVID-19-related death occurred after the first cycle of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX. Adjuvant chemotherapy was initiated in 51 (86%) of 59 patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group and 44 (90%) of 49 patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in the upfront surgery group (p=0·56). Adjuvant modified FOLFIRINOX was given to 13 (25%) patients in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group and 19 (43%) patients in the upfront surgery group. During adjuvant chemotherapy, neutropenia (11 [22%] patients in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group and five [11%] in the upfront surgery group) was the most common grade 3 or worse adverse event. INTERPRETATION: This phase 2 trial did not show a survival benefit from neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX in resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma compared with upfront surgery. Implementation of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX was challenging. Future trials on treatment sequencing in resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma should be biomarker driven. FUNDING: Norwegian Cancer Society, South Eastern Norwegian Health Authority, The Sjöberg Foundation, and Helsinki University Hospital Research Grants.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Irinotecán/uso terapéutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirugía , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patología , Oxaliplatino/uso terapéutico , Leucovorina/efectos adversos , Terapia Neoadyuvante/efectos adversos , Capecitabina , Gemcitabina , Adenocarcinoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/cirugía , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Fluorouracilo/efectos adversos , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamiento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirugía
15.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 24(3): 413-426, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38289042

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The Asian PEONY trial showed that add-on pertuzumab to trastuzumab and chemotherapy significantly improved pathological complete response in the neoadjuvant treatment of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) early breast cancer (EBC). This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of pertuzumab as an add-on therapy to trastuzumab and chemotherapy for neoadjuvant treatment of patients with HER2+ EBC in Singapore. METHODS: A six-state Markov model was developed from the Singapore healthcare system perspective, with a lifetime time horizon. Model outputs were: costs; life-years (LYs); quality-adjusted LYs (QALYs); incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Sensitivity/scenario analyses explored model uncertainties. RESULTS: The base case projected the addition of pertuzumab to be associated with improved outcomes by 0.277 LYs and 0.271 QALYs, increased costs by S$1,387, and an ICER of S$5,121/QALY. The ICER was most sensitive to the pCR rate, and the probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that add-on pertuzumab had an 81.3% probability of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of S$45,000/QALY gained. CONCLUSIONS: This model demonstrated that the long-term clinical impact of early pertuzumab use, particularly the avoidance of metastatic disease and thus avoidance of higher costs and mortality rates, make neoadjuvant pertuzumab a cost-effective option in the management of patients with HER2+ breast cancer in Singapore.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados , Biosimilares Farmacéuticos , Neoplasias de la Mama , Humanos , Femenino , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Análisis de Costo-Efectividad , Singapur , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Trastuzumab
16.
JAMA Oncol ; 10(1): 79-86, 2024 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37943566

RESUMEN

Importance: In March 2023, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network endorsed watch and wait for those with complete clinical response to total neoadjuvant therapy. Neoadjuvant therapy is highly efficacious, so this recommendation may have broad implications, but the current trends in organ preservation in the US are unknown. Objective: To describe organ preservation trends among patients with rectal cancer in the US from 2006 to 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, observational case series included adults (aged ≥18 years) with rectal adenocarcinoma managed with curative intent from 2006 to 2020 in the National Cancer Database. Exposure: The year of treatment was the primary exposure. The type of therapy was chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery (proctectomy, transanal local excision, no tumor resection). The timing of therapy was classified as neoadjuvant or adjuvant. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the absolute annual proportion of organ preservation after radical treatment, defined as chemotherapy and/or radiation without tumor resection, proctectomy, or transanal local excision. A secondary analysis examined complete pathologic responses among eligible patients. Results: Of the 175 545 patients included, the mean (SD) age was 63 (13) years, 39.7% were female, 17.4% had clinical stage I disease, 24.7% had stage IIA to IIC disease, 32.1% had stage IIIA to IIIC disease, and 25.7% had unknown stage. The absolute annual proportion of organ preservation increased by 9.8 percentage points (from 18.4% in 2006 to 28.2% in 2020; P < .001). From 2006 to 2020, the absolute rate of organ preservation increased by 13.0 percentage points for patients with stage IIA to IIC disease (19.5% to 32.5%), 12.9 percentage points for patients with stage IIIA to IIC disease (16.2% to 29.1%), and 10.1 percentage points for unknown stages (16.5% to 26.6%; all P < .001). Conversely, patients with stage I disease experienced a 6.1-percentage point absolute decline in organ preservation (from 26.4% in 2006 to 20.3% in 2020; P < .001). The annual rate of transanal local excisions decreased for all stages. In the subgroup of 80 607 eligible patients, the proportion of complete pathologic responses increased from 6.5% in 2006 to 18.8% in 2020 (P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This case series shows that rectal cancer is increasingly being managed medically, especially among patients whose treatment historically relied on proctectomy. Given the National Comprehensive Cancer Network endorsement of watch and wait, the increasing trends in organ preservation, and the nearly 3-fold increase in complete pathologic responses, international professional societies should urgently develop multidisciplinary core outcome sets and care quality indicators to ensure high-quality rectal cancer research and care delivery accounting for organ preservation.


Asunto(s)
Preservación de Órganos , Neoplasias del Recto , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Quimioradioterapia , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/patología , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Respuesta Patológica Completa , Neoplasias del Recto/cirugía , Neoplasias del Recto/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Espera Vigilante
17.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 30(1): 260-264, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37773687

RESUMEN

Objective: This research aims to assess the clinical efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in combination with modified radical mastectomy (MRM) for stage II-III breast cancer (BC) patients and its impact on serum tumor markers (STMs). Methods: The study included 119 stage II-III BC patients treated between June 2018 and June 2021. Among them, 55 cases underwent MRM (reference group), while 64 cases received NACT followed by MRM (research group). We compared intraoperative parameters (blood loss, operation time, hospital stay), clinical outcomes, the incidence of postoperative adverse events (AEs), changes in STMs (CA125, CA153, CEA), and one-year postoperative quality of life (QOL). Results: In comparison to the reference group, the research group exhibited significantly lower intraoperative blood loss, shorter operation times, reduced hospital stays, and higher rates of disease remission. Notably, the research group experienced a lower overall incidence of AEs, including skin flap necrosis, subscalp effusion, infection, and upper limb lymphedema. Postoperatively, all STMs in the research group exhibited statistically significant reductions and were lower than those in the reference group. Additionally, all QOL subscales demonstrated improvements and higher scores in the research group. Conclusions: NACT followed by MRM represents an effective approach for enhancing surgical outcomes and clinical efficacy in stage II-III BC patients. This combination therapy also reduces the risk of postoperative AEs and leads to favorable changes in STMs and postoperative QOL levels.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Humanos , Femenino , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , Mastectomía Radical Modificada , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Calidad de Vida , Biomarcadores de Tumor/uso terapéutico , Mastectomía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 31(2): 1336-1346, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37991581

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In this era of increasing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, methods for evaluating responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy are still diverse among institutions. Additionally, the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy remains unclear. Therefore, this retrospective study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of methods for assessing response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the need for adjuvant chemotherapy in treating patients with non-metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: The study identified 150 patients who underwent neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy followed by curative-intent pancreatectomy. The patients were stratified by biochemical response based on the normalization of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and by radiologic response based on size change at imaging. RESULTS: The patients were classified into the following three groups based on their response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and prognosis: biochemical responders (BR+), radiology-only responders (BR-/RR+), and non-responders (BR-/RR-). The 3-year overall survival rate was higher for BR+ (71.0%) than for BR-/RR+ (53.6%) or BR-/RR- (33.1%) (P < 0.001). Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy also was identified as a significant risk factor for recurrence in a comparison between BR-/RR+ and BR+ (hazard ratio [HR], 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-3.88; P = 0.011) and BR-/RR- (HR, 3.82; 95% CI 2.41-6.08; P < 0.001). Additionally, regardless of the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, patients who completed adjuvant chemotherapy had a significantly higher 3-year overall survival rate than those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: This response evaluation criterion for neoadjuvant chemotherapy is feasible and can significantly predict prognosis. Additionally, completion of adjuvant chemotherapy could be helpful to patients who undergo neoadjuvant chemotherapy regardless of their response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Radiología , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirugía , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Estudios Retrospectivos , Fluorouracilo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirugía , Pronóstico , Pancreatectomía/métodos
19.
Eur J Cancer ; 196: 113430, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37995598

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Upfront surgery followed by postoperative treatment is a commonly adopted treatment for resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (rPDAC). However, the risk of positive surgical margins, the poor recovery that often impairs postoperative treatments, and the risk of recurrence might limit the outcome of this strategy. This study evaluated the safety and the activity of liposomal irinotecan 50 mg/m2 + 5-fluorouracil 2400 mg/m2 + leucovorin 400 mg/m2 + oxaliplatin 60 mg/m2 (NALIRIFOX) in the perioperative treatment of patients with rPDAC. METHODS: Eligible patients had a rPDAC with < 180° interface with major veins' wall. Patients received 3 cycles before and 3 cycles after resection with NALIRIFOX, days 1 and 15 of a 28-day cycle. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients undergoing an R0 resection. RESULTS: 107 patients began preoperative treatment. Nine patients discontinued the treatment because of related or unrelated adverse events. Disease-control rate was 92.9%. 87 patients underwent surgical exploration, 11 had intraoperative evidence of metastatic disease, and 1 died for surgical complications. R0 resection rate was 65.3%. 49 patients completed the three postoperative cycles. The most common grade ≥ 3 adverse events were diarrhea and neutropenia. Median overall survival (OS) of ITT patients was 32.3 months (95% CI 27.8-44.3). Median disease-free and OS from surgery of resected patients were 19.3 (95% CI 12.6-34.1) and 40.3 months (95% CI 29-NA), respectively. CONCLUSION: Perioperative NALIRIFOX was manageable and active, and deserves further investigation in randomized trials comparing it with standard upfront surgery followed by adjuvant therapy.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirugía , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patología , Fluorouracilo , Irinotecán/efectos adversos , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Leucovorina , Terapia Neoadyuvante/efectos adversos
20.
Invest New Drugs ; 42(1): 1-13, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37971628

RESUMEN

Advances in immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have enabled more effective treatment for individuals with various types of solid tumors. Given the improved survival benefit and acceptable safety profile of ICIs in advanced gastric cancer, there is plenty of interest in the use of ICIs in the neoadjuvant setting with curative intent. Theoretically, immunoneoadjuvant with ICIs could boost the levels of endogenous tumor antigen present in the tumor to enhance T-cell priming and further enhance systemic immunity. This systemic immune response may improve the detection and elimination of the disseminated micrometastatic tumors beyond the resected tumor, which are sources of postsurgical relapse. Numerous clinical studies have begun to explore the application of ICIs in neoadjuvant treatment of gastric cancer. This article reviews the progress in the use of ICI monotherapy and in combination with alternative therapies for the treatment of gastric cancer to aid in the development of gastric cancer immunoneoadjuvant therapy and improve the overall therapeutic benefit.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de Puntos de Control Inmunológico/efectos adversos , Terapia Neoadyuvante
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