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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 276, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605285

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Stephania kwangsiensis Lo (Menispermaceae) is a well-known Chinese herbal medicine, and its bulbous stems are used medicinally. The storage stem of S. kwangsiensis originated from the hypocotyls. To date, there are no reports on the growth and development of S. kwangsiensis storage stems. RESULTS: The bulbous stem of S. kwangsiensis, the starch diameter was larger at the stable expanding stage (S3T) than at the unexpanded stage (S1T) or the rapidly expanding stage (S2T) at the three different time points. We used ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and Illumina sequencing to identify key genes involved in bulbous stem development. A large number of differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Based on the differential expression profiles of the metabolites, alkaloids, lipids, and phenolic acids were the top three differentially expressed classes. Compared with S2T, significant changes in plant signal transduction and isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis pathways occurred at both the transcriptional and metabolic levels in S1T. In S2T compared with S3T, several metabolites involved in tyrosine metabolism were decreased. Temporal analysis of S1T to S3T indicated the downregulation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, including lignin biosynthesis. The annotation of key pathways showed an up-down trend for genes and metabolites involved in isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis, whereas phenylpropanoid biosynthesis was not completely consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Downregulation of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway may be the result of carbon flow into alkaloid synthesis and storage of lipids and starch during the development of S. kwangsiensis bulbous stems. A decrease in the number of metabolites involved in tyrosine metabolism may also lead to a decrease in the upstream substrates of phenylpropane biosynthesis. Downregulation of lignin synthesis during phenylpropanoid biosynthesis may loosen restrictions on bulbous stem expansion. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the metabolome and transcriptome profiles of S. kwangsiensis bulbous stems. These data provide guidance for the cultivation, breeding, and harvesting of S. kwangsiensis.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides , Plantas Medicinales , Stephania , Stephania/química , Stephania/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinales/metabolismo , Cromatografía Liquida/métodos , Lignina/metabolismo , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Fitomejoramiento , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Transcriptoma , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Almidón/metabolismo , Isoquinolinas/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo , Lípidos , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 272, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605293

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. are both original plants of 'Gan Cao' in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and G. uralensis is currently the mainstream variety of licorice and has a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine. Both of these species have shown some degree of tolerance to salinity, G. inflata exhibits higher salt tolerance than G. uralensis and can grow on saline meadow soils and crusty saline soils. However, the regulatory mechanism responsible for the differences in salt tolerance between different licorice species is unclear. Due to land area-related limitations, the excavation and cultivation of licorice varieties in saline-alkaline areas that both exhibit tolerance to salt and contain highly efficient active substances are needed. The systematic identification of the key genes and pathways associated with the differences in salt tolerance between these two licorice species will be beneficial for cultivating high-quality salt-tolerant licorice G. uralensis plant varieties and for the long-term development of the licorice industry. In this research, the differences in growth response indicators, ion accumulation, and transcription expression between the two licorice species were analyzed. RESULTS: This research included a comprehensive comparison of growth response indicators, including biomass, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and total flavonoids content, between two distinct licorice species and an analysis of their ion content and transcriptome expression. In contrast to the result found for G. uralensis, the salt treatment of G. inflata ensured the stable accumulation of biomass and total flavonoids at 0.5 d, 15 d, and 30 d and the restriction of Na+ to the roots while allowing for more K+ and Ca2+ accumulation. Notably, despite the increase in the Na+ concentration in the roots, the MDA concentration remained low. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the regulatory effects of growth and ion transport on the two licorice species were strongly correlated with the following pathways and relevant DEGs: the TCA cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the photosynthetic carbon fixation pathway involved in carbon metabolism; Casparian strip formation (lignin oxidation and translocation, suberin formation) in response to Na+; K+ and Ca2+ translocation, organic solute synthesis (arginine, polyamines, GABA) in response to osmotic stresses; and the biosynthesis of the nonenzymatic antioxidants carotenoids and flavonoids in response to antioxidant stress. Furthermore, the differential expression of the DEGs related to ABA signaling in hormone transduction and the regulation of transcription factors such as the HSF and GRAS families may be associated with the remarkable salt tolerance of G. inflata. CONCLUSION: Compared with G. uralensis, G. inflata exhibits greater salt tolerance, which is primarily attributable to factors related to carbon metabolism, endodermal barrier formation and development, K+ and Ca2+ transport, biosynthesis of carotenoids and flavonoids, and regulation of signal transduction pathways and salt-responsive transcription factors. The formation of the Casparian strip, especially the transport and oxidation of lignin precursors, is likely the primary reason for the markedly higher amount of Na+ in the roots of G. inflata than in those of G. uralensis. The tendency of G. inflata to maintain low MDA levels in its roots under such conditions is closely related to the biosynthesis of flavonoids and carotenoids and the maintenance of the osmotic balance in roots by the absorption of more K+ and Ca2+ to meet growth needs. These findings may provide new insights for developing and cultivating G. uralensis plant species selected for cultivation in saline environments or soils managed through agronomic practices that involve the use of water with a high salt content.


Asunto(s)
Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Glycyrrhiza , Glycyrrhiza/metabolismo , Tolerancia a la Sal/genética , Transcriptoma , Lignina/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Transporte Iónico , Carbono/metabolismo , Suelo , Factores de Transcripción/genética
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 284, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627650

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Lipids found in plant seeds are essential for controlling seed dormancy, dispersal, and defenses against biotic and abiotic stress. Additionally, these lipids provide nutrition and energy and are therefore important to the human diet as edible oils. Acer truncatum, which belongs to the Aceaceae family, is widely cultivated around the world for its ornamental value. Further because its seed oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs)- i.e. α-linolenic acid (ALA) and nervonic acid (NA)- and because it has been validated as a new food resource in China, the importance of A. truncatum has greatly risen. However, it remains unknown how UFAs are biosynthesized during the growth season, to what extent environmental factors impact their content, and what areas are potentially optimal for their production. RESULTS: In this study, transcriptome and metabolome of A. truncatum seeds at three representative developmental stages was used to find the accumulation patterns of all major FAs. Cumulatively, 966 metabolites and 87,343 unigenes were detected; the differential expressed unigenes and metabolites were compared between stages as follows: stage 1 vs. 2, stage 1 vs. 3, and stage 2 vs. 3 seeds, respectively. Moreover, 13 fatty acid desaturases (FADs) and 20 ß-ketoacyl-CoA synthases (KCSs) were identified, among which the expression level of FAD3 (Cluster-7222.41455) and KCS20 (Cluster-7222.40643) were consistent with the metabolic results of ALA and NA, respectively. Upon analysis of the geographical origin-affected diversity from 17 various locations, we found significant variation in phenotypes and UFA content. Notably, in this study we found that 7 bioclimatic variables showed considerable influence on FAs contents in A. truncatum seeds oil, suggesting their significance as critical environmental parameters. Ultimately, we developed a model for potentially ecological suitable regions in China. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between metabolome and transcriptome in A. truncatum at various developmental stages of seeds and a new strategy to enhance seed FA content, especially ALA and NA. This is particularly significant in meeting the increasing demands for high-quality edible oil for human consumption. The study offers a scientific basis for A. truncatum's novel utilization as a woody vegetable oil rather than an ornamental plant, potentially expanding its cultivation worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Acer , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Acer/genética , Acer/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/metabolismo , Semillas , Metaboloma , Aceites de Plantas/metabolismo
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 332, 2024 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664645

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. has been widely used as a traditional medicinal herb for a long history in China. It is highly susceptible to various dangerous diseases during the cultivation process. Downy mildew is the most serious leaf disease of A. carmichaelii, affecting plant growth and ultimately leading to a reduction in yield. To better understand the response mechanism of A. carmichaelii leaves subjected to downy mildew, the contents of endogenous plant hormones as well as transcriptome sequencing were analyzed at five different infected stages. RESULTS: The content of 3-indoleacetic acid, abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid has changed significantly in A. carmichaelii leaves with the development of downy mildew, and related synthetic genes such as 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase were also significant for disease responses. The transcriptomic data indicated that the differentially expressed genes were primarily associated with plant hormone signal transduction, plant-pathogen interaction, the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in plants, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Many of these genes also showed potential functions for resisting downy mildew. Through weighted gene co-expression network analysis, the hub genes and genes that have high connectivity to them were identified, which could participate in plant immune responses. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we elucidated the response and potential genes of A. carmichaelii to downy mildew, and observed the changes of endogenous hormones content at different infection stages, so as to contribute to the further screening and identification of genes involved in the defense of downy mildew.


Asunto(s)
Aconitum , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas , Transcriptoma , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/genética , Aconitum/genética , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/microbiología , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas
5.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 390, 2024 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649807

RESUMEN

Medicinal plants are rich sources for treating various diseases due their bioactive secondary metabolites. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is one of the medicinal plants traditionally used in human nutrition and medicine which contains an active substance, called diosgenin, with anticancer properties. Biosynthesis of this important anticancer compound in fenugreek can be enhanced using eliciting agents which involves in manipulation of metabolite and biochemical pathways stimulating defense responses. Methyl jasmonate elicitor was used to increase diosgenin biosynthesis in fenugreek plants. However, the molecular mechanism and gene expression profiles underlying diosgening accumulation remain unexplored. In the current study we performed an extensive analysis of publicly available RNA-sequencing datasets to elucidate the biosynthesis and expression profile of fenugreek plants treated with methyl jasmonate. For this purpose, seven read datasets of methyl jasmonate treated plants were obtained that were covering several post-treatment time points (6-120 h). Transcriptomics analysis revealed upregulation of several key genes involved in diosgenein biosynthetic pathway including Squalene synthase (SQS) as the first committed step in diosgenin biosynthesis as well as Squalene Epoxidase (SEP) and Cycloartenol Synthase (CAS) upon methyl jasmonate application. Bioinformatics analysis, including gene ontology enrichment and pathway analysis, further supported the involvement of these genes in diosgenin biosynthesis. The bioinformatics analysis led to a comprehensive validation, with expression profiling across three different fenugreek populations treated with the same methyl jasmonate application. Initially, key genes like SQS, SEP, and CAS showed upregulation, followed by later upregulation of Δ24, suggesting dynamic pathway regulation. Real-time PCR confirmed consistent upregulation of SQS and SEP, peaking at 72 h. Additionally, candidate genes Δ24 and SMT1 highlighted roles in directing metabolic flux towards diosgenin biosynthesis. This integrated approach validates the bioinformatics findings and elucidates fenugreek's molecular response to methyl jasmonate elicitation, offering insights for enhancing diosgenin yield. The assembled transcripts and gene expression profiles are deposited in the Zenodo open repository at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8155183 .


Asunto(s)
Vías Biosintéticas , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Oxilipinas , Terpenos , Transcriptoma , Trigonella , Trigonella/metabolismo , Trigonella/genética , Vías Biosintéticas/efectos de los fármacos , Vías Biosintéticas/genética , Terpenos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacología , Ciclopentanos/farmacología , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacología , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas/efectos de los fármacos
6.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(5): 122, 2024 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642121

RESUMEN

KEY MESSAGE: Extensive leaf transcriptome profiling and differential gene expression analysis of field grown and elicited shoot cultures of L. speciosa suggest that differential synthesis of CRA is mediated primarily by CYP and TS genes, showing functional diversity. Lagerstroemia speciosa L. is a tree species with medicinal and horticultural attributes. The pentacyclic triterpene, Corosolic acid (CRA) obtained from this species is widely used for the management of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The high mercantile value of the compound and limited availability of innate resources entail exploration of alternative sources for CRA production. Metabolic pathway engineering for enhanced bioproduction of plant secondary metabolites is an attractive proposition for which, candidate genes in the pathway need to be identified and characterized. Therefore, in the present investigation, we focused on the identification of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and oxidosqualene cyclases (OSC) genes and their differential expression during biosynthesis of CRA. The pattern of differential expression of these genes in the shoot cultures of L. speciosa, elicited with different epigenetic modifiers (azacytidine (AzaC), sodium butyrate (NaBu) and anacardic acid (AA)), was studied in comparison with field grown plant. Further, in vitro cultures with varying (low to high) concentrations of CRA were systematically assessed for the expression of CYP-TS and associated genes involved in CRA biosynthesis by transcriptome sequencing. The sequenced samples were de novo assembled into 180,290 transcripts of which, 92,983 transcripts were further annotated by UniProt. The results are collectively given in co-occurrence heat maps to identify the differentially expressed genes. The combined transcript and metabolite profiles along with RT-qPCR analysis resulted in the identification of CYP-TS genes with high sequence variation. Further, instances of concordant/discordant relation between CRA biosynthesis and CYP-TS gene expression were observed, indicating functional diversity in genes.


Asunto(s)
Lagerstroemia , Transcriptoma , Triterpenos , Transcriptoma/genética , Lagerstroemia/genética , Lagerstroemia/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático del Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático del Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica
7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 210: 108634, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642440

RESUMEN

Zhe-Maidong, a cultivar of Ophiopogon japonicus is a prominent traditional herbal medicine rich in saponins. This study explored the mechanism of saponin biosynthesis and its role in alleviating Cd-induced oxidative damage in the Zhe-Maidong cultivar using three experimental groups undergoing Cd stress. In the Cd-contaminated soil treatment, total saponins were 1.68 times higher than those in the control. The saponin content in the Cd-2 and Cd-3 treatments was approximately twice as high as that in the Cd-CK treatment. These findings revealed that Cd stress leads to total saponin accumulation. Metabolomic analysis identified the accumulated saponins, primarily several monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, and triterpenoids. The increased saponins exhibited an antioxidant ability to prevent the accumulation of Cd-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Subsequent saponin application experiments provided strong evidence that saponin played a crucial role in promoting superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and reducing ROS accumulation. Transcriptome analysis revealed vital genes for saponin synthesis under Cd stress, including SE, two SSs, and six CYP450s, positively correlated with differentially expressed metabolite (DEM) levels in the saponin metabolic pathway. Additionally, the TF-gene regulatory network demonstrated that bHLH1, bHLH3, mTERF, and AUX/IAA transcript factors are crucial regulators of hub genes involved in saponin synthesis. These findings significantly contribute to our understanding of the regulatory network of saponin synthesis and its role in reducing oxidative damage in O. japonicum when exposed to Cd stress.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio , Metaboloma , Ophiopogon , Estrés Oxidativo , Saponinas , Transcriptoma , Saponinas/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacología , Cadmio/toxicidad , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Metaboloma/efectos de los fármacos , Transcriptoma/efectos de los fármacos , Ophiopogon/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Antioxidantes/metabolismo
8.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(5): 125, 2024 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38647720

RESUMEN

KEY MESSAGE: The interaction network and pathway map uncover the potential crosstalk between sugar and hormone metabolisms as a possible reason for leaf senescence in P. ternata. Pinellia ternata, an environmentally sensitive medicinal plant, undergoes leaf senescence twice a year, affecting its development and yield. Understanding the potential mechanism that delays leaf senescence could theoretically decrease yield losses. In this study, a typical senescent population model was constructed, and an integrated analysis of transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles of P. ternata was conducted using two early leaf senescence populations and two stay-green populations. The result showed that two key gene modules were associated with leaf senescence which were mainly enriched in sugar and hormone signaling pathways, respectively. A network constructed by unigenes and metabolisms related to the obtained two pathways revealed that several compounds such as D-arabitol and 2MeScZR have a higher significance ranking. In addition, a total of 130 hub genes in this network were categorized into 3 classes based on connectivity. Among them, 34 hub genes were further analyzed through a pathway map, the potential crosstalk between sugar and hormone metabolisms might be an underlying reason of leaf senescence in P. ternata. These findings address the knowledge gap regarding leaf senescence in P. ternata, providing candidate germplasms for molecular breeding and laying theoretical basis for the realization of finely regulated cultivation in future.


Asunto(s)
Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Metabolómica , Pinellia , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas , Hojas de la Planta , Transcriptoma , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pinellia/genética , Pinellia/metabolismo , Pinellia/fisiología , Pinellia/crecimiento & desarrollo , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Senescencia de la Planta/genética , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Azúcares/metabolismo , Metaboloma/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Metabolismo de los Hidratos de Carbono/genética
9.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(5): 117, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622429

RESUMEN

KEY MESSAGE: We constructed a gene expression atlas and co-expression network for potatoes and identified several novel genes associated with various agronomic traits. This resource will accelerate potato genetics and genomics research. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the world's most crucial non-cereal food crop and ranks third in food production after wheat and rice. Despite the availability of several potato transcriptome datasets at public databases like NCBI SRA, an effort has yet to be put into developing a global transcriptome atlas and a co-expression network for potatoes. The objectives of our study were to construct a global expression atlas for potatoes using publicly available transcriptome datasets, identify housekeeping and tissue-specific genes, construct a global co-expression network and identify co-expression clusters, investigate the transcriptional complexity of genes involved in various essential biological processes related to agronomic traits, and provide a web server (StCoExpNet) to easily access the newly constructed expression atlas and co-expression network to investigate the expression and co-expression of genes of interest. In this study, we used data from 2299 publicly available potato transcriptome samples obtained from 15 different tissues to construct a global transcriptome atlas. We found that roughly 87% of the annotated genes exhibited detectable expression in at least one sample. Among these, we identified 281 genes with consistent and stable expression levels, indicating their role as housekeeping genes. Conversely, 308 genes exhibited marked tissue-specific expression patterns. We exemplarily linked some co-expression clusters to important agronomic traits of potatoes, such as self-incompatibility, anthocyanin biosynthesis, tuberization, and defense responses against multiple pathogens. The dataset compiled here constitutes a new resource (StCoExpNet), which can be accessed at https://stcoexpnet.julius-kuehn.de . This transcriptome atlas and the co-expression network will accelerate potato genetics and genomics research.


Asunto(s)
Solanum tuberosum , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Fenotipo , Transcriptoma/genética , Genómica
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 330: 118228, 2024 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643863

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy of the male genitourinary system and currently lacks effective treatment. Semen Impatientis, the dried ripe seed of Impatiens balsamina L., is described by the Chinese Pharmacopoeia as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and is used in clinical practice to treat tumors, abdominal masses, etc. In our previous study, the ethyl acetate extracts of Semen Impatientis (EAESI) was demonstrated to be the most effective extract against PCa among various extracts. However, the biological effects of EAESI against PCa in vivo and the specific antitumor mechanisms involved remain unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we aimed to investigate the antitumor effect of EAESI on PCa in vitro and in vivo by performing network pharmacology analysis, transcriptomic analysis, and experiments to explore and verify the underlying mechanisms involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antitumor effect of EAESI on PCa in vitro and in vivo was investigated via CCK-8, EdU, flow cytometry, and wound healing assays and xenograft tumor models. Network pharmacology analysis and transcriptomic analysis were employed to explore the underlying mechanism of EAESI against PCa. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and androgen receptor (AR) were confirmed to be the targets of EAESI against PCa by RT‒qPCR, western blotting, and rescue assays. In addition, the interaction between ATF3 and AR was assessed by coimmunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and nuclear-cytoplasmic separation assays. RESULTS: EAESI decreased cell viability, inhibited cell proliferation and migration, and induced apoptosis in AR+ and AR- PCa cells. Moreover, EAESI suppressed the growth of xenograft tumors in vivo. Network pharmacology analysis revealed that the hub targets of EAESI against PCa included AR, AKT1, TP53, and CCND1. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) was the most likely critical target of EAESI. EAESI downregulated AR expression and decreased the transcriptional activity of AR through ATF3 in AR+ PCa cells; and EAESI promoted the expression of ATF3 and exerted its antitumor effect via ATF3 in AR+ and AR- PCa cells. CONCLUSIONS: EAESI exerts good antitumor effects on PCa both in vitro and in vivo, and ATF3 and AR are the critical targets through which EAESI exerts antitumor effects on AR+ and AR- PCa cells.


Asunto(s)
Acetatos , Factor de Transcripción Activador 3 , Ratones Desnudos , Farmacología en Red , Neoplasias de la Próstata , Receptores Androgénicos , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto , Masculino , Animales , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Próstata/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Factor de Transcripción Activador 3/metabolismo , Factor de Transcripción Activador 3/genética , Receptores Androgénicos/metabolismo , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Acetatos/química , Línea Celular Tumoral , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/aislamiento & purificación , Ratones , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Transcriptoma/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Movimiento Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 267(Pt 2): 131515, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614165

RESUMEN

Pneumoconiosis' pathogenesis is still unclear and specific drugs for its treatment are lacking. Analysis of series transcriptome data often uses a single comparison method, and there are few reports on using such data to predict the treatment of pneumoconiosis with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Here, we proposed a new method for analyzing series transcriptomic data, series difference analysis (SDA), and applied it to pneumoconiosis. By comparison with 5 gene sets including existing pneumoconiosis-related genes and gene set functional enrichment analysis, we demonstrated that the new method was not inferior to two existing traditional analysis methods. Furthermore, based on the TCM-drug target interaction network, we predicted the TCM corresponding to the common pneumoconiosis-related genes obtained by multiple methods, and combined them with the high-frequency TCM for its treatment obtained through literature mining to form a new TCM formula for it. After feeding it to pneumoconiosis modeling mice for two months, compared with the untreated group, the coat color, mental state and tissue sections of the mice in the treated group were markedly improved, indicating that the new TCM formula has a certain efficacy. Our study provides new insights into method development for series transcriptomic data analysis and treatment of pneumoconiosis.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Medicina Tradicional China , Neumoconiosis , Transcriptoma , Neumoconiosis/genética , Neumoconiosis/terapia , Animales , Ratones , Medicina Tradicional China/métodos , Transcriptoma/efectos de los fármacos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(3): 717-727, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621875

RESUMEN

Transcriptome sequencing was employed to mine the simple sequence repeat(SSR) locus information of Saposhnikovia divaricata and design specific primers, which aimed to provide a basis for the research on the genetic diversity of S. divaricata germplasm resources. The seed purity, 1 000-seed weight, germination rate, and seed vigor were determined. MISA was used to obtain the SSR locus information from 12 606 unigene longer than 1 kb in the transcriptome database. Forty-three pairs of SSR primers designed in Primer 3 were used to analyze the polymorphism of 28 S. divaricata samples of different sources. The results showed that there were differences in the seed purity, 1 000-seed weight, germination rate, vigor, and seed length and width among S. divaricata samples of different sources. Particularly, the germination rate and seed vigor had significant differences, and HB-ZJK1, NMG-CF4, NMG-BT, NMG-HLE1, and NMG-CF2 had significantly higher 1 000-seed weight, germination rate, and seed vigor than the samples of other sources. Among the 86 233 unigene, 12 606(14.62%) unigene contained 15 958 SSR loci, with one SSR locus every 5 009 bp on average. The SSR loci were mainly single nucleotide and dinucleotide repeats, which were dominated by G/C and TC/AG, respectively. All the primers were screened by using 28 S. divaricata sample from different habitats, and the primers corresponding to the amplification products with clear bands and stable polymorphism were obtained. The clustering results of the biological characteristics and genetic diversity of the 28 S. divaricata samples were basically consistent, and the samples of the same origin(HB-AG1, HB-AG2, HB-ZJK1, and HB-ZJK2) generally gathered together and had close genetic relationship. The SSRs in S. divaricata transcriptome has high frequency, rich types, and high polymorphism, which provides candidate molecular markers for the germplasm identification, genetic map construction, and molecular-assisted breeding.


Asunto(s)
Apiaceae , Transcriptoma , Polimorfismo Genético , Repeticiones de Microsatélite/genética , Apiaceae/genética , Etiquetas de Secuencia Expresada
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(5): 1343-1352, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621982

RESUMEN

A research strategy combining transcriptome data mining and experimental verification was adopted to identify the marker genes characterizing the syndrome elements of phlegm, stasis, and deficiency in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head(SONFH). Firstly, the common differentially expressed gene sets of SONFH with the syndromes of phlegm-stasis obstructing collaterals, vessel obstruction, and liver-kidney deficiency were obtained from the clinical transcriptomic analysis of a previous study. The differential expression trend analysis and functional gene mining were then employed to predict the candidate marker gene sets representing phlegm, stasis, and deficiency. The whole blood samples from SONFH patients, whole blood samples from SONFH rats, and affected femoral head tissue samples were collected for qPCR, which aimed to determine the expression levels of the candidate marker genes mentioned above. Furthermore, the receiver operating characteristic curve(ROC) was established to objectively evaluate the syndrome differentiation effectiveness of the candidate marker genes mentioned above. The transcriptome data analysis results showed that the candidate marker genes for phlegm was ELOVL fatty acid elongase 6(ELOVL6), and those for stasis were ankyrin 1(ANK1), glycophorin A/B(GYPA/B), and Rh-associated glycoprotein(RHAG). The candidate marker genes for deficiency were solute carrier family 2 member 1(SLC2A1) and stomatin(STOM). The qPCR results showed that compared with that in the non-SONFH group, ELOVL6 had the lowest expression level in the peripheral blood of the SONFH patients with the syndrome of phlegm-stasis obstructing collaterals(P<0.05). Compared with that in the normal control group, ELOVL6 had the lowest expression level in the peripheral blood and affected femoral head tissue of SONFH rats modeled for 4 weeks(P<0.01), and it showed better syndrome differentiation effectiveness of rats modeled for 4 weeks(AUC=0.850, P=0.006) than at other modeling time points(8, 12, 16, and 21 weeks, AUC of 0.689, 0.766, 0.588, and 0.662, respectively). Compared with that in the non-SONFH group, the expression levels of ANK1, GYPA, and RHAG were the lowest in the peripheral blood of SONFH patients with the vessel obstruction syndrome(P<0.05). The expression levels of the three genes were the lowest in the peripheral blood and affected femoral head tissue of SONFH rats modeled for 12 weeks(P<0.05, P<0.01), and their syndrome differentiation effectiveness in the rats modeled for 12 weeks(GYPA: AUC=0.861, P=0.012; ANK1: AUC=0.855, P=0.006; RHAG: AUC=0.854, P=0.009) was superior to that for 4, 8, 16, and 21 weeks(GYPA: AUC=0.646, 0.573, 0.691, and 0.617, respectively; ANK: AUC1=0.630, 0.658, 0.657, and 0.585, respectively; RHAG: AUC=0.592, 0.511, 0.515, and 0.536, respectively). Compared with the non-SONFH group, both SLC2A1 and STOM had the lowest expression levels in the peripheral blood of patients with the syndrome of liver and kidney deficiency(P<0.05). Compared with the normal control group, their expression levels were the lowest in the peripheral blood and affected femoral head tissue of SONFH rats modeled for 21 weeks(P<0.05, except STOM in the peripheral blood of rats). Moreover, the syndrome differentiation effectiveness of SLC2A1 in the rats modeled for 21 weeks(AUC=0.806, P=0.009) was superior to that for 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks(AUC=0.520, 0.580, 0.741, 0.774, respectively), and STOM was meaningless in syndrome differentiation. In summary, the candidate marker gene for phlegm in SONFH is ELOVL6; the candidate marker genes for stasis are GYPA, RHAG, and ANK1; the candidate marker gene for deficiency is SLC2A1. The results help to reveal the biological connotations of phlegm, stasis, and deficiency in SONFH at the genetic level.


Asunto(s)
Experimentación Animal , Osteonecrosis , Enfermedades Vasculares , Humanos , Ratas , Animales , Transcriptoma , Cabeza Femoral , Síndrome , Esteroides/efectos adversos
14.
J Vis Exp ; (204)2024 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38465925

RESUMEN

Transcriptomics allows to obtain comprehensive insights into cellular programs and their responses to perturbations. Despite a significant decrease in the costs of library production and sequencing in the last decade, applying these technologies at the scale necessary for drug screening remains prohibitively expensive, obstructing the immense potential of these methods. Our study presents a cost-effective system for transcriptome-based drug screening, combining miniaturized perturbation cultures with mini-bulk transcriptomics. The optimized mini-bulk protocol provides informative biological signals at cost-effective sequencing depth, enabling extensive screening of known drugs and new molecules. Depending on the chosen treatment and incubation time, this protocol will result in sequencing libraries within approximately 2 days. Due to several stopping points within this protocol, the library preparation, as well as the sequencing, can be performed time-independently. Processing simultaneously a high number of samples is possible; measurement of up to 384 samples was tested without loss of data quality. There are also no known limitations to the number of conditions and/or drugs, despite considering variability in optimal drug incubation times.


Asunto(s)
Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Transcriptoma , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Biblioteca de Genes , Costos y Análisis de Costo
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5898, 2024 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467724

RESUMEN

Early-life adversity covers a range of physical, social and environmental stressors. Acute viral infections in early life are a major source of such adversity and have been associated with a broad spectrum of later-life effects outside the immune system or "off-target". These include an altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and metabolic reactions. Here, we used a murine post-natal day 14 (PND 14) Influenza A (H1N1) infection model and applied a semi-holistic approach including phenotypic measurements, gene expression arrays and diffusion neuroimaging techniques to investigate HPA axis dysregulation, energy metabolism and brain connectivity. By PND 56 the H1N1 infection had been resolved, and there was no residual gene expression signature of immune cell infiltration into the liver, adrenal gland or brain tissues examined nor of immune-related signalling. A resolved early-life H1N1 infection had sex-specific effects. We observed retarded growth of males and altered pre-stress (baseline) blood glucose and corticosterone levels at PND42 after the infection was resolved. Cerebral MRI scans identified reduced connectivity in the cortex, midbrain and cerebellum that were accompanied by tissue-specific gene expression signatures. Gene set enrichment analysis confirmed that these were tissue-specific changes with few common pathways. Early-life infection independently affected each of the systems and this was independent of HPA axis or immune perturbations.


Asunto(s)
Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana , Femenino , Masculino , Animales , Ratones , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisario/metabolismo , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Gripe Humana/genética , Gripe Humana/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Estrés Psicológico/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófiso-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Corticosterona
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473979

RESUMEN

Many Dendrobium species, which hold a high status and value in traditional Chinese medicine, grow on barks and rocks in the wild, often encountering harsh environments and facing droughts. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the shift in the photosynthetic pathway induced by drought remain unclear. To address this issue, three Dendrobium species with different photosynthetic pathways were selected for sequencing and transcriptome data analysis after drought treatment. The findings included 134.43 GB of sequencing data, with numerous Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) exhibiting different response mechanisms under drought stress. Gene Ontology (GO)-KEGG-based enrichment analysis of DEGs revealed that metabolic pathways contributed to drought tolerance and alterations in photosynthetic pathways. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase (PEPC) was subjected to phylogenetic tree construction, sequence alignment, and domain analysis. Under drought stress, variations were observed in the PEPC gene structure and expression among different Dendrobium species; the upregulation of Dc_gene2609 expression may be caused by dof-miR-384, which resulted in the shift from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, thereby improving drought tolerance in Dendrobium. This study revealed the expression patterns and roles of PEPC genes in enhancing plant drought tolerance and will provide an important basis for in-depth research on Dendrobium's adaptation mechanisms in arid environments.


Asunto(s)
Dendrobium , Sequías , Dendrobium/genética , Filogenia , Transcriptoma , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Fotosíntesis , Estrés Fisiológico/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 328: 118073, 2024 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513780

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal mushrooms belonging to the Lignosus spp., colloquially known as Tiger Milk mushrooms (TMMs), are used as traditional medicine by communities across various regions of China and Southeast Asia to enhance immunity and to treat various diseases. At present, three Lignosus species have been identified in Malaysia: L. rhinocerus, L. tigris, and L. cameronensis. Similarities in their macroscopic morphologies and the nearly indistinguishable appearance of their sclerotia often lead to interchangeability between them. Hence, substantiation of their traditional applications via identification of their individual bioactive properties is imperative in ensuring that they are safe for consumption. L. tigris was first identified in 2013. Thus far, studies on L. tigris cultivar sclerotia (Ligno TG-K) have shown that it possesses significant antioxidant activities and has greater antiproliferative action against selected cancer cells in vitro compared to its sister species, L. rhinocerus TM02®. Our previous genomics study also revealed significant genetic dissimilarities between them. Further omics investigations on Ligno TG-K hold immense potential in facilitating the identification of its bioactive compounds and their associated bioactivities. AIM OF STUDY: The overall aim of this study was to investigate the gene expression profile of Ligno TG-K via de novo RNA-seq and pathway analysis. We also aimed to identify highly expressed genes encoding compounds that contribute to its cytotoxic and antioxidant properties, as well as perform a comparative transcriptomics analysis between Ligno TG-K and its sister species, L. rhinocerus TM02®. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total RNA from fresh 3-month-old cultivated L. tigris sclerotia (Ligno TG-K) was extracted and analyzed via de novo RNA sequencing. Expressed genes were analyzed using InterPro and NCBI-Nr databases for domain identification and homology search. Functional categorization based on gene functions and pathways was performed using Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and Clusters of Orthologous Genes (COG) databases. Selected genes were subsequently subjected to phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Our transcriptomics analysis of Ligno TG-K revealed that 68.06% of its genes are expressed in the sclerotium; 80.38% of these were coding transcripts. Our analysis identified highly expressed transcripts encoding proteins with prospective medicinal properties. These included serine proteases (FPKM = 7356.68), deoxyribonucleases (FPKM = 3777.98), lectins (FPKM = 3690.87), and fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FPKM = 2337.84), all of which have known associations with anticancer activities. Transcripts linked to proteins with antioxidant activities, such as superoxide dismutase (FPKM = 1161.69) and catalase (FPKM = 1905.83), were also highly expressed. Results of our sequence alignments revealed that these genes and their orthologs can be found in other mushrooms. They exhibit significant sequence similarities, suggesting possible parallels in their anticancer and antioxidant bioactivities. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to provide a reference transcriptome profile of genes expressed in the sclerotia of L. tigris. The current study also presents distinct COG profiles of highly expressed genes in Ligno TG-K and L. rhinocerus TM02®, highlighting that any distinctions uncovered may be attributed to their interspecies variations and inherent characteristics that are unique to each species. Our findings suggest that Ligno TG-K contains bioactive compounds with prospective medicinal properties that warrant further investigations. CLASSIFICATION: Systems biology and omics.


Asunto(s)
Agaricales , Polyporaceae , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , RNA-Seq , Agaricales/genética , Filogenia , Estudios Prospectivos , Polyporaceae/genética
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 328: 118052, 2024 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518967

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cholic acid (CA) is one of the main active ingredients in Calculus Bovis, a traditional Chinese medicine, which helps to regulate the heart and liver meridians, clearing the heart, opening the mouth, cooling the liver and calming the wind. However, the molecular mechanism of its liver protective effect is still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: Growing attention has been directed towards traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), particularly Calculus Bovis, as a potential solution for liver protection. Despite this interest, a comprehensive understanding of its hepatoprotective mechanisms remains lacking. This research seeks to explore the potential protective properties of cholic acid (CA) against CCl4-induced acute liver injury (ALI) in mice, while also examining the mechanisms involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the experiment, a mouse model was employed to ALI using CCl4, and the potential therapeutic effects of orally administered CA at varying doses (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg) were assessed. The study employed a multi-faceted approach, integrating liver transcriptomics with serum metabolomics, and conducting thorough analyses of serum biochemical markers and liver histopathological sections. RESULTS: Oral CA administration markedly reduced the organ indices of the liver, spleen, and thymus in comparison with the model group. It also elevated the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum while diminishing the concentrations of ALT, AST, MDA, IL-6, and TNF-α. Moreover, CA ameliorated the pathological damage induced by CCl4. Integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses indicated that the hepatoprotective action of CA on ALI is mediated through the modulation of lipid metabolic pathways-specifically, metabolisms of glycerophospholipid, arachidonic acid, as well as linoleic acid-and by altering the expression of genes such as Ptgr1, PLpp1, Tbxas1, and Cyp2c37. CONCLUSIONS: The current investigation offers insights into the hepatoprotective mechanisms by which CA mitigates ALI caused by CCl4 exposure, thus supporting the further evaluation and development of CA-based therapeutics for ALI.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas , Transcriptoma , Ratones , Animales , Tetracloruro de Carbono/farmacología , Hígado , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/patología
19.
N Biotechnol ; 81: 57-68, 2024 Jul 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531507

RESUMEN

Novacetimonas hansenii SI1, previously known as Komagataeibacter hansenii, produces bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) with unique ability to stretch. The addition of vitamin C in the culture medium increases the porosity of the membranes and their stretchability making them highly moldable. To better understand the genetic background of this strain, we obtained its complete genome sequence using a hybrid sequencing and assembly strategy. We described the functional regions in the genome which are important for the synthesis of BNC and acetan-like II polymer. We next investigated the effect of 1% vitamin C supplementation on the global gene expression profile using RNA sequencing. Our transcriptomic readouts imply that vitamin C functions mainly as a reducing agent. We found that the changes in cellular redox status are balanced by strong repression of the sulfur assimilation pathway. Moreover, in the reduced conditions, glucose oxidation is decreased and alternative pathways for energy generation, such as acetate accumulation, are activated. The presence of vitamin C negatively influences acetan-like II polymer biosynthesis, which may explain the lowered yield and changed mechanical properties of BNC. The results of this study enrich the functional characteristics of the genomes of the efficient producers of the N. hansenii species. Improved understanding of the adaptation to the presence of vitamin C at the molecular level has important guiding significance for influencing the biosynthesis of BNC and its morphology.


Asunto(s)
Acetobacteraceae , Celulosa , Transcriptoma , Celulosa/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico , Suplementos Dietéticos
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542498

RESUMEN

Tea grey blight disease is one of the most destructive diseases that infects tea and is caused by the pathogen Pestalotiopsis theae (Sawada) Steyaert. L-theanine is a unique non-protein amino acid of the tea plant. Different concentrations of L-theanine exhibit significant inhibitory effects on the growth and sporulation ability of the pathogen causing tea grey blight disease. To understand the effect mechanism of L-theanine on P. theae, transcriptome profiling was performed on the pathogenic mycelium treated with three different concentrations of L-theanine: no L-theanine treatment (TH0), 20 mg/mL theanine treatment (TH2), and 40 mg/mL theanine treatment (TH4). The colony growths were significantly lower in the treatment with L-theanine than those without L-theanine. The strain cultured with a high concentration of L-theanine produced no spores or only a few spores. In total, 2344, 3263, and 1158 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected by RNA-sequencing in the three comparisons, Th2 vs. Th0, Th4 vs. Th0, and Th4 vs. Th2, respectively. All DEGs were categorized into 24 distinct clusters. According to GO analysis, low concentrations of L-theanine primarily affected molecular functions, while high concentrations of L-theanine predominantly affected biological processes including external encapsulating structure organization, cell wall organization or biogenesis, and cellular amino acid metabolic process. Based on KEGG, the DEGs of Th2 vs. Th0 were primarily involved in pentose and glucuronate interconversions, histidine metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism. The DEGs of Th4 vs. Th0 were mainly involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, amino sugar, and nucleotide sugar metabolism. This study indicated that L-theanine has a significant impact on the growth and sporulation of the pathogen of tea grey blight disease and mainly affects amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and cellular structure-related biosynthesis processes of pathogenic fungi. This work provides insights into the direct control effect of L-theanine on pathogenic growth and also reveals the molecular mechanisms of inhibition of L-theanine to P. theae.


Asunto(s)
Ascomicetos , Camellia sinensis , Transcriptoma , Glutamatos/farmacología , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Té/química
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