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1.
J Neurodev Disord ; 16(1): 14, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605323

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Deficits in executive function (EF) are consistently reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Tailored cognitive training tools, such as neurofeedback, focused on executive function enhancement might have a significant impact on the daily life functioning of individuals with ASD. We report the first real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI NF) study targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in ASD. METHODS: Thirteen individuals with autism without intellectual disability and seventeen neurotypical individuals completed a rt-fMRI working memory NF paradigm, consisting of subvocal backward recitation of self-generated numeric sequences. We performed a region-of-interest analysis of the DLPFC, whole-brain comparisons between groups and, DLPFC-based functional connectivity. RESULTS: The ASD and control groups were able to modulate DLPFC activity in 84% and 98% of the runs. Activity in the target region was persistently lower in the ASD group, particularly in runs without neurofeedback. Moreover, the ASD group showed lower activity in premotor/motor areas during pre-neurofeedback run than controls, but not in transfer runs, where it was seemingly balanced by higher connectivity between the DLPFC and the motor cortex. Group comparison in the transfer run also showed significant differences in DLPFC-based connectivity between groups, including higher connectivity with areas integrated into the multidemand network (MDN) and the visual cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Neurofeedback seems to induce a higher between-group similarity of the whole-brain activity levels (including the target ROI) which might be promoted by changes in connectivity between the DLPFC and both high and low-level areas, including motor, visual and MDN regions.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Neurorretroalimentación , Humanos , Función Ejecutiva , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Mapeo Encefálico
2.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 30(5): 2119-2128, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457325

RESUMEN

Children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often exhibit motor disorders. Dance Movement Therapy (DMT) has shown great potential for improving the motor control ability of children with ASD. However, traditional DMT methods often lack vividness and are difficult to implement effectively. To address this issue, we propose a Mixed Reality DMT approach, utilizing interactive virtual agents. This approach offers immersive training content and multi-sensory feedback. To improve the training performance of children with ASD, we introduce a novel training paradigm featuring a self-guided mode. This paradigm enables the rapid creation of a virtual twin agent of the child with ASD using a single photo to embody oneself, which can then guide oneself during training. We conducted an experiment with the participation of 24 children diagnosed with ASD (or ASD propensity), recording their training performance under various experimental conditions. Through expert rating, behavior coding of training sessions, and statistical analysis, our findings revealed that the use of the twin agent for self-guidance resulted in noticeable improvements in the training performance of children with ASD. These improvements were particularly evident in terms of enhancing movement quality and refining overall target-related responses. Our study holds clinical potential in the field of medical treatment and rehabilitation for children with ASD.


Asunto(s)
Realidad Aumentada , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Danzaterapia , Niño , Humanos , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Danzaterapia/métodos , Gráficos por Computador , Movimiento
3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2769, 2024 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553486

RESUMEN

Multiple neurological disorders are associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unclear whether GI distress itself can modify aspects of behavior. Here, we show that mice that experience repeated colitis have impaired active social engagement, as measured by interactions with a foreign mouse, even though signs of colitis were no longer present. We then tested the hypothesis that individuals with ASD harbor a microbiota that might differentially influence GI health by performing microbiota transplantation studies into male germfree animals, followed by induction of colitis. Animals that harbor a microbiota from ASD individuals have worsened gut phenotypes when compared to animals colonized with microbiotas from familial neurotypical (NT) controls. We identify the enrichment of Blautia species in all familial NT controls and observe an association between elevated abundance of Bacteroides uniformis and reductions in intestinal injury. Oral treatment with either of these microbes reduces colon injury in mice. Finally, provision of a Blautia isolate from a NT control ameliorates gut injury-associated active social engagement in mice. Collectively, our data demonstrate that past intestinal distress is associated with changes in active social behavior in mice that can be ameliorated by supplementation of members of the human microbiota.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Colitis , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales , Microbiota , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Animales , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Participación Social , Colitis/terapia , Suplementos Dietéticos
4.
Nurse Pract ; 49(3): 31-39, 2024 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386471

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The use of therapy or service dogs to assist children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasing in clinical settings. Research studies indicate that children with ASD display enhanced prosocial behavior and emotional regulation when canines are included in therapy. Despite increased application of animal-assisted therapy in clinical and inpatient settings, healthcare providers show limited understanding of best practices for its use and require a research-based approach to incorporate animals effectively into therapeutic plans of care for pediatric patients with ASD.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Asistida por Animales , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Humanos , Niño , Perros , Animales , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Personal de Salud
5.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 78(4): 810-816, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38284650

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Treatment of functional constipation (FC) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is challenging due to sensory and behavioral issues. We aimed to understand whether antegrade continence enemas (ACEs) are successful in the treatment of FC in children with ASD. METHODS: A single-institution retrospective review was performed in children diagnosed with ASD and FC who underwent appendicostomy or cecostomy placement from 2007 to 2019. Descriptive statistics regarding soiling and complications were calculated. RESULTS: There were 33 patients included, with a median age of 9.7 years at the time of ACE initiation. The average intelligence quotient was 63.6 (SD = 18.0, n = 12), the average behavioral adaptive score was 59.9 (SD = 11.1, n = 13), and the average total Child Behavioral Checklist score was 72.5 (SD = 7.1, n = 10). Soiling rates were significantly lower following ACE initiation (42.3% vs. 14.8%, p = 0.04). Behavioral issues only prevented 1 patient (3.0%) from proper ACE use. Eleven patients (36.6%) were able to transition to laxatives. There were significant improvements in patient-reported outcomes measures and quality of life. CONCLUSION: Placement of an appendicostomy or cecostomy for management of FC in children with severe ASD was successful in treating constipation and improving quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Incontinencia Fecal , Niño , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/complicaciones , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Estreñimiento/terapia , Estreñimiento/complicaciones , Cecostomía/efectos adversos , Enema/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Incontinencia Fecal/etiología , Incontinencia Fecal/terapia , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
Autism ; 28(3): 529-539, 2024 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37605941

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder requires a careful approach from professionals and a favorable clinical environment for dental care and assistance. This article aims To perform a literature review about oral health among people with autism spectrum disorder and dental management strategies for this group. An integrative literature review was carried out in three databases, associating the descriptors: (autism or autism spectrum disorder) with (oral health or oral diseases) and (dental care or dental services). After identification and screening steps, 32 articles were included in the study. The most prevalent subjects were oral health conditions, parents' understanding and practical attitudes about oral health, treatment and management strategies, and the use of technology. The principal barriers to dental care were the scarcity of specialized professionals, unpreparedness in the referral system, poor accessibility of the clinics, and lack of specific care protocols. The world literature on the subject is scarce, and there is still a need for investment and scientific production due to the incidence of autism in the world population and the maintenance of difficulties and barriers in offering quality health care to this group.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico , Humanos , Salud Bucal , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Personal de Salud , Padres
7.
Autism ; 28(4): 985-998, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37555286

RESUMEN

LAY ABSTRACT: Parents of autistic children often experience high levels of parenting stress, which can have negative mental and physical effects on both the parent and child. This study tested the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction in reducing parenting stress in parents of preschool-aged autistic children compared to a psychoeducation and support intervention. We assessed parenting stress before and after the interventions and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Both interventions significantly decreased parenting stress, but mindfulness-based stress reduction reduced stress more than did psychoeducation and support, with the strongest effect observed 1 year later. This suggests that the stress-reducing benefits of mindfulness-based stress reduction persist and may increase over time.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico , Atención Plena , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Responsabilidad Parental , Trastorno Autístico/terapia , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Padres
8.
Rehabilitacion (Madr) ; 58(1): 100820, 2024.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37913716

RESUMEN

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has varied characteristics with an impact at the social, communicative and sensorimotor (SM) level. An SM feature is postural control (PC) problems. There are various motor intervention strategies (MIS), but the benefit over LC is something that has been analyzed less extensively. The objective was to describe the MIS and its results on the PC of children and adolescents with ASD. A search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane was performed. A total of eight articles met the eligibility criteria. All MIS showed beneficial results on the improvement of PC. The MIS were of a varied nature (dance practice, personalized physical activity, video games, Tai Chi Chuan, Taekwondo and virtual reality). It is necessary to improve the designs and consider the risks of bias, since they limit the scope of the results.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Taichi Chuan , Niño , Humanos , Adolescente , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Equilibrio Postural , Ejercicio Físico
9.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 36(1): 124-132, 2024 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38054481

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the most common circadian rhythm disorder in adolescents, delayed sleep phase disorder. It explores the etiology, prevalence, clinical features, diagnostic tools and criteria, and treatment options to identify sleep disorders early in the course. This is important to help improve youths in terms of education and quality of life. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies indicate that delayed sleep wake phase disorder has a range of prevalence between 1% and 16%. It is often associated with neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder) as well as psychopathology (i.e. substance use, anxiety, and depression). It can present with a myriad of symptoms, such as insomnia, restless sleep, and poor daytime cognitive function, often seen in pediatric practice. Important diagnostic measures incorporate history-taking, sleep logs, actigraphy (i.e. Apple watches) and measurement of dim light melatonin onset. Treatments include improved sleep hygiene, chronotherapy, exogenous melatonin administration, and bright light therapy. SUMMARY: There are many environmental and genetic factors that can predispose an individual to circadian rhythm disorders. Delayed sleep phase disorder has detrimental effects on overall health, cognition, and behavior. It is important to screen for this disorder in routine pediatric clinic visits. The goal of early intervention is to prevent health and behavioral complications and treat adolescents using a multimodal approach, especially those with affective/neurodevelopmental conditions, who are prone to having delayed sleep wake phase disorder.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Melatonina , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia , Humanos , Adolescente , Niño , Melatonina/uso terapéutico , Ritmo Circadiano , Calidad de Vida , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/etiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Sueño , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/etiología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/terapia
10.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 23(1): 454, 2023 Dec 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38093223

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a high-prevalence neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by communicational, social, and behavioral challenges. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a group of practices and products that fall outside the realm of conventional medicine practiced worldwide. Traditional CAM is a health practice that comes from a particular culture, such as the use of Zamzam water and black seeds in Saudi Arabia. CAM comprises widely utilized practices in Saudi Arabia for children of various ages and adults. In many cases, CAM is used to treat ASD. The aim of this study is to investigate the perspectives of adults in Saudi Arabia toward CAM for treating ASD. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by distributing an online questionnaire to adults in different regions of Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: A total of 4,311 adults participated in this study; 66.8% were females and 33.2% were male. Half of the participants reported that they knew about ASD (54.7%). More than half of the participants indicated that CAM-including art therapy (69.0%), physical exercise (67.0%), and limiting the use of electronic (55.4%)-could help in ASD management. Around half of the respondents indicated a belief that traditional treatment cannot help in treating ASD (53.9%). Only 20.0% of the respondents thought that ASD could be entirely treated using CAM therapies. The most common source of knowledge about CAM was social media and the internet (58.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of participants in this study did not believe that ASD could be treated entirely using CAM. In addition, fewer than half of the participants believed that CAM therapies could improve different aspects of ASD, such as behavioral issues. The study highlighted the need for awareness among residents of Saudi Arabia regarding specific treatments for ASD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Terapias Complementarias , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Transversales , Arabia Saudita , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Orv Hetil ; 164(45): 1767-1777, 2023 Nov 12.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37952193

RESUMEN

Sensory food aversion, an early childhood eating disorder, is a serious, permanent form of picky eating, in which the infant or the child consistently and persistently refuses certain foods based on specific characteristics, following one or more previous aversive experiences. Biological (sensory processing disorder, taste sensitivity) and environmental factors contribute to its development. Due to limited diet, specific dietary deficiencies may occur but weight gain is usually normal. Behavioral problems, anxiety disorder, autism spectrum disorder are often associated. Diagnosis can usually be made based on a detailed history, but further assessment may include pediatric examination, nutritionist consultation, and psychologic and occupational therapy assessment. Treatment is based on parent education and support in order to minimize mealtime battles and anxiety and to think together about strategies for expanding the child's diet and to help them to accept new foods. As part of the interdisciplinary team, the pediatrician's role is to monitor appropriate growth and development, exclude dietary deficiencies or prescribe supplementation if necessary. In our article, the screening and treatment of sensory processing disorder as part of the assessment of eating problems are introduced as an example of good clinical practice at the Early Childhood Eating and Sleep Disorder Outpatient Clinic at the Heim Pál National Institute of Pediatrics. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(45): 1767-1777.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Lactante , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Dieta , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/terapia , Preferencias Alimentarias/psicología , Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología
12.
Mol Autism ; 14(1): 43, 2023 11 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37968722

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are predominantly neurodevelopmental and largely genetically determined. However, there are human data supporting the idea that fever can improve symptoms in some individuals, but those data are limited and there are almost no data to support this from animal models. We aimed to test the hypothesis that elevated body temperature would improve function in two animal models of ASD. METHODS: We used a 4 h whole-body hyperthermia (WBH) protocol and, separately, systemic inflammation induced by bacterial endotoxin (LPS) at 250 µg/kg, to dissociate temperature and inflammatory elements of fever in two ASD animal models: C58/J and Shank3B- mice. We used one- or two-way ANOVA and t-tests with normally distributed data and Kruskal-Wallis or Mann-Whitney with nonparametric data. Post hoc comparisons were made with a level of significance set at p < 0.05. For correlation analyses, data were adjusted by a linear regression model. RESULTS: Only LPS induced inflammatory signatures in the brain while only WBH produced fever-range hyperthermia. WBH reduced repetitive behaviours and improved social interaction in C58/J mice and significantly reduced compulsive grooming in Shank3B- mice. LPS significantly suppressed most activities over 5-48 h. LIMITATIONS: We show behavioural, cellular and molecular changes, but provide no specific mechanistic explanation for the observed behavioural improvements. CONCLUSIONS: The data are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that elevated body temperature can improve behavioural signs in 2 distinct ASD models. Given the developmental nature of ASD, evidence that symptoms may be improved by environmental perturbations indicates possibilities for improving function in these individuals. Since experimental hyperthermia in patients would carry significant risks, it is now essential to pursue molecular mechanisms through which hyperthermia might bring about the observed benefits.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Hipertermia Inducida , Humanos , Ratones , Animales , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Lipopolisacáridos/toxicidad , Temperatura , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Ratones Endogámicos , Encéfalo , Hipertermia Inducida/métodos
13.
Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care ; 53(11): 101478, 2023 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37996312

RESUMEN

Animal-assisted therapies have been increasingly used as part of treatment for a range of emotional-behavioral conditions and have more recently been incorporated into treatment for children with symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorder. Autism spectrum disorder affects one in 36 children and early interventions can be very effective. The aims of this paper are to: 1) provide background into animal-assisted therapies including a breakdown on the subtypes of therapies, 2) report broad summaries of research outcomes across various domains: social-emotional, physical, quality of life, behavioral skills, and adaptive skills, and 3) summarize key takeaways for pediatric practitioners when supporting families of youth with autism spectrum disorder who are interested in participating in animal-assisted therapy. This paper is not a systematic review or meta-analysis as several rigorous review studies have been published already. This paper is an overview of the background and research for pediatric practitioners when advising families on treatment options. Implications for future research are covered.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Asistida por Animales , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico , Adolescente , Animales , Humanos , Niño , Trastorno Autístico/terapia , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Calidad de Vida , Intervención Educativa Precoz
15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(9)2023 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37763703

RESUMEN

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that causes difficulty while socializing and communicating and the performance of stereotyped behavior. ASD is thought to have a variety of causes when accompanied by genetic disorders and environmental variables together, resulting in abnormalities in the brain. A steep rise in ASD has been seen regardless of the numerous behavioral and pharmaceutical therapeutic techniques. Therefore, using complementary and alternative therapies to treat autism could be very significant. Thus, this review is completely focused on non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions which include different diets, supplements, antioxidants, hormones, vitamins and minerals to manage ASD. Additionally, we also focus on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies, herbal remedies, camel milk and cannabiodiol. Additionally, we concentrate on how palatable phytonutrients provide a fresh glimmer of hope in this situation. Moreover, in addition to phytochemicals/nutraceuticals, it also focuses on various microbiomes, i.e., gut, oral, and vaginal. Therefore, the current comprehensive review opens a new avenue for managing autistic patients through non-pharmacological intervention.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico , Femenino , Humanos , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Vitaminas , Antioxidantes , Encéfalo
16.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 459, 2023 09 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37704945

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disability associated with deficiency in social interaction, unusual development of social communication, and restricted or repetitive behaviors, interests and activities. This study aimed to describe management of pediatric ASD in Cameroon, a resource-constrained Central Africa country. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted between December 2021 and May 2022 at the Pediatrics department of a reference hospital in the town of Douala. Data of interest of children with ASD were collected through eligible medical records and telephone discussions with their parents/guardians. RESULTS: Medical records of 145 children with ASD aged 2-15 years were included in the study, giving a hospital ASD prevalence of 3.7%. Time delay between parental concerns and hospital management was specified in 69 (47.58%) children, and among them 38 (55.07%) had a mean delay ± SD was less than five months. Children were mainly males (76%) and aged 4-5 years (37.93%), with mean age ± SD of 44.4 ± 22.2 months old. The main consultation reason was delayed language development (100%). Mean time delay between parental concerns and the first medical consultation was 18 months (range 1-60 month). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were found in 68.18% of children aged ≥ 6 years old. Neuropsychology (66.2%) was the most frequently used intervention. Some children were treated using traditional medicine. CONCLUSIONS: Management of pediatric ASD is strongly influenced by socioeconomic and cultural context. It is crucial to implement behavioral change campaigns in community, organize training sessions to medical staff on diagnosis and treatment of ASD, and provide specialized centers with skilled staff and equipped material.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Masculino , Humanos , Niño , Lactante , Preescolar , Femenino , Camerún/epidemiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/epidemiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Hospitales , Lenguaje
17.
PLoS One ; 18(9): e0291720, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37725597

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This paper aimed to evaluate the use of nonpharmacological interventions for the management of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The effects of acupuncture and behavioural therapy, two nonpharmalogical interventions, on social function in ASD patients are still controversial. This meta-analysis investigated the impact of these two treatments and compared their effects. METHODS: Seven electronic databases were systematically searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the use of acupuncture or behavioural therapy for ASD. A meta-analysis was carried out using Review Manager 5.4 software. Continuous data are reported as mean differences (MDs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). An assessment of methodological quality using the Cochrane risk-of-bias (ROB) tool for trials was carried out. The Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was applied to evaluate the quality (certainty) of evidence for results regarding social function indicators. RESULTS: Thirty RCTs on acupuncture and 36 on behavioural therapy were included. Compared with the control condition, body acupuncture (SMD: 0.76, 95% CI: [0.52, 1.01]; low certainty), modern acupuncture technology (SMD: 0.84, 95% CI: [0.32, 1.35]; low certainty), cognitive behavioural therapy (SMD: 0.42, 95% CI: [0.26, 0.58]; high certainty), the Denver model (SMD: 0.61, 95% CI: [0.23, 0.99]; moderate certainty) and social skills training (SMD: 0.56, 95% CI: [0.41, 0.71]; moderate certainty) improved social functioning. CONCLUSION: Behavioural therapies (such as CBT, the Denver model, social skills training), improved the social functioning of patients with ASD in the short and long term, as supported by high- and moderate-quality evidence. Acupuncture (including scalp acupuncture, body acupuncture and use of modern acupuncture technology) also improved social functioning, as supported by low- and very low-quality evidence. More high-quality evidence is needed to confirm the effect of acupoint catgut embedding and Early Intensive Behavioural Intervention (EIBI).


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Humanos , Adulto , Niño , Terapia Conductista , Puntos de Acupuntura , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia
18.
PLoS One ; 18(9): e0291168, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37703248

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Existing studies have unequivocally demonstrated that parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience various stressful daily life events and suffer from psychological distress. Mindfulness level is found to be an effective buffer between parents' appraisal of stress life events and psychological distress. However, the mechanism behind the function of mindfulness is unclear, and traditional mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) in experimental settings is not tailored to personal real-life needs. This study proposes to conduct a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to examine the effectiveness of MBI delivered by ecological momentary intervention (EMI) and assessed by ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in changing participants' cognitive appraisal of stressful life events and thus reducing the psychological distress of parents of children with ASD. METHOD: The proposed study will recruit 670 parents of children with ASD and randomly assign them to the intervention and control groups (335 in each group). Participants in the intervention group will install the EMI/A app on their smartphones. In the app, participants can receive practice prompts daily, browse and practice different mindfulness exercises in the intervention library at any time, talk to a virtual counselor (chatbot) when feeling stressed, complete EMA on the cognitive appraisal of life events, and receive the log of change of psychological status daily. Participants in the control group will only receive audio-based standardized mindfulness practice instructions three times per week. The effects of MBI will be assessed based on the EMA data, right after the intervention and at the 2-month follow-up. The primary outcome will be participants' psychological distress measured by the depression anxiety stress scale. The secondary outcomes will include participants' subjective well-being, measured by the satisfaction with life scale, and level of resilience, measured by the psychological empowerment scale. Multilevel structural equational modelling will be applied to examine the pathways of the relationship between daily life events, cognitive appraisal, and psychological distress. DISCUSSION: The potential benefit of the proposed study is to increase the psychological well-being of parents of children with ASD, and the method may extend to participants suffering from other psychological issues in the future. Trial registration: This trial has been registered on clinicaltrials.gov with the ID of NCT05746468.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Atención Plena , Distrés Psicológico , Humanos , Niño , Emociones , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Padres , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
19.
Distúrb. comun ; 35(2): 58624, 02/08/2023.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444770

RESUMEN

Introdução: O transtorno do espectro autista (TEA) é caracterizado por prejuízos persistentes na comunicação e interação social e por padrões restritos de interesses e de atividades. As manifestações do quadro são presentes em níveis variáveis entre indivíduos e podem ser evidenciadas à medida que as demandas sociais excedem o limite de suas habilidades. A hipótese é de que a exposição à atividade teatral geraria impactos na comunicação social. Objetivo: Comparar o desempenho em aspectos sociais e de linguagem antes e após realização de atividade teatral em um grupo de adolescentes com TEA. Método: Participaram do estudo12 indivíduos com diagnóstico multidisciplinar de TEA com média de 16,1 anos de idade, todos com comunicação predominantemente verbal, inseridos em atividade pedagógicas e/ou ocupacionais com frequência de participação na atividade teatral de pelo menos 75%. Foram avaliados pré e pós-atividade teatral os aspectos de compreensão verbal, realização de inferência e memória a partir do reconto de uma história e as respostas diante de um texto curto em formato de piada. Esses dados foram relacionados a variáveis de nível de inteligência e de habilidades adaptativas. Resultados: Houve relação entre desempenho em habilidades de linguagem e aspectos cognitivos e de habilidades adaptativas e essas relações mantiveram-se positivas pré e pós-atividade proposta. Conclusão: A hipótese inicial foi parcialmente confirmada e os resultados sugerem tendência de melhora da comunicação social nesse contexto. (AU)


Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent impairments in communication and social interaction and by restricted patterns of interests and activities. The condition ́smanifestations are present at different levels between individuals and can be evidenced as social demands exceed the limits of their abilities. The hypothesis is that exposure to theatrical activity would generate social communication impacts. Objective: To compare performance in social and language aspects before and after performing a theatrical activity in a group of adolescents with ASD. Method: Twelve individuals with a multidisciplinary diagnosis of ASD with an average age of 16.1 years participated in the study, all with predominantly verbal communication, engaged in educational and/or occupational activities and with at least 75% of frequency in theatrical activities. The aspects of verbal comprehension, inference and memory from the retelling of a story and the answers to a short text in a joke format were evaluated before and after the theatrical activity. These data were related to variables of level of intelligence and adaptive abilities. Results: There was a relationship between performance in language skills and cognitive aspects and adaptive skills and those relationships remained positive before and after the proposed activity. Conclusion: The initial hypothesis was partially confirmed and the results suggest a trend towards improvement in social communication in this context. (AU)


Introducción: El trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) se caracteriza por deficiencias persistentes en la comunicación y la interacción social y por patrones restringidos de intereses y actividades. Las manifestaciones de la condición están presentes en distintos niveles entre individuos y pueden evidenciarse a medida que las demandas sociales superan los límites de sus capacidades. La hipótesis es que la exposición a la actividad teatral generaría impactos en la comunicación social. Objetivo:Comparar el desempeño en aspectos sociales y lingüísticos antes y después de realizar una actividad teatral en un grupo de adolescentes con TEA. Método: Participaron del estudio doce personas con diagnóstico multidisciplinario de TEAcon una edad promedio de 16,1 años, todas con comunicación predominantemente verbal, dedicadas a actividades educativas y / u ocupacionales con una frecuencia de participación en la actividad teatral de al menos 75%. Se evaluaron los aspectos de comprensión verbal, inferencia y memoria a partir del recuento de una historia y las respuestas a un texto breve en formato de broma antes y después de la actividad teatral. Estos datos se relacionaron con variables de nivel de inteligencia y habilidades adaptativas. Resultados: Hubo una relación entre el desempeño en las habilidades del lenguaje y los aspectos cognitivos y las habilidades adaptativas y estas relaciones se mantuvieron positivas antes y después de la actividad propuesta. Conclusión: La hipótesis inicial fue parcialmente confirmada y los resultados sugieren una tendencia hacia la mejora de la comunicación social en este contexto. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Comunicación , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Desarrollo del Lenguaje , Arteterapia , Estudios Controlados Antes y Después , Interacción Social
20.
Psicothema ; 35(3): 259-270, 2023 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37493149

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Problems of behaviour, communication, and social interaction associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders can overwhelm parents. Disturbances in parents' psychological well-being (anxiety, depression) affect adherence to treatment, making it less effective. There is a need to investigate how to increase psychological wellbeing in parents of children with autism. METHOD: An 8-week brief training programme using the Mindfulness Parenting (MP) intervention was applied to fourteen parents (6 couples and two mothers). Participants were assigned to one of two groups, both groups received the same treatment but at two different time points. Measures of anxiety (SCAARED), parental stress (PSI-4), autism severity level (AIM) and mindfulness awareness (FFMQ), were assessed. RESULTS: Analysis indicates that MP training increased mindfulness awareness, increasing non-judgment and reactivity, and consequently, reduced anxiety (parental, general, social), improving parent-child interaction. This improvement did not influence parents' perception of the severity of the disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The small number of participants precludes generalisation of the results. More clinical trials are needed to demonstrate the usefulness of including these programmes in early intervention services, as well as profiles of parents who may potentially benefit from it.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Atención Plena , Femenino , Humanos , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Padres/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/terapia , Masculino
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