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1.
Innate Immun ; 26(8): 716-732, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703050

RESUMEN

The sensitivity of pigs to deoxynivalenol (DON) might be influenced by systemic inflammation (SI) which impacts liver. Besides following acute-phase proteins, our aim was to investigate both the hepatic fractional albumin (ALB) synthesis rate (FSR) and the ALB concentration as indicators of ALB metabolism in presence and absence of SI induced by LPS via pre- or post-hepatic venous route. Each infusion group was pre-conditioned either with a control diet (CON, 0.12 mg DON/kg diet) or with a DON-contaminated diet (DON, 4.59 mg DON/kg diet) for 4 wk. A depression of ALB FSR was observed 195 min after LPS challenge, independent of feeding group or LPS application route, which was not paralleled by a down-regulated ALB mRNA expression but by a reduced availability of free cysteine. The drop in ALB FSR only partly explained the plasma ALB concentrations which were more depressed in the DON-pre-exposed groups, suggesting that ALB levels are influenced by further mechanisms. The abundances of haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, pig major acute-phase protein, fibrinogen and LPS-binding protein mRNA were up-regulated upon LPS stimulation but not accompanied by increases in the plasma concentrations of these proteins, pointing at an imbalance between synthesis and consumption.


Asunto(s)
Reacción de Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Albúminas/metabolismo , Inflamación/metabolismo , Hígado/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/administración & dosificación , Tricotecenos/administración & dosificación , Administración Oral , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Proteína C-Reactiva/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Lipopolisacáridos/inmunología , Micotoxinas/efectos adversos , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Porcinos , Tricotecenos/efectos adversos
2.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944242

RESUMEN

Mycotoxin deactivators are a widely used strategy to abrogate negative effects of mycotoxin-contaminated feed. It has not been adequately evaluated whether these deactivators may detoxify bacterial toxins in the intestinal lumen and subsequently lower the inflammatory response in chickens. The present objective was to study the effect of a multicomponent mycotoxin deactivator (B), containing a bentonite and a bacterial strain capable to enzymatically biotransform trichothecenes especially deoxynivalenol (DON), when supplemented to a DON-contaminated feed in combination with an oral lipopolysaccharide challenge on visceral organ size, expression of innate immune genes and mucosal permeability in the small intestine as well as on the cecal bacterial composition and metabolites in broiler chickens. Eighty 1-d-old male chickens were randomly allotted to four treatment groups in two replicate batches (n = 10/treatment/replicate): 1) basal diet without DON (CON), 2) CON diet supplemented with B (2.5 mg B/kg feed) (CON-B), 3) CON diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed (DON), and 4) DON diet supplemented with 2.5 mg B/kg feed (DON-B). In half of the chickens per treatment, effects were assessed under nonchallenge conditions, whereas in the other half of birds, to increase their intestinal bacterial toxin load, effects were tested after an oral challenge with 1 mg LPS/kg BW from Escherichia coli O55:B5 on the day before sampling. DON reduced (P < 0.05) the weight of bursa fabricii and thymus. DON increased the expression level of intestinal alkaline phosphatase at the duodenal mucosa (P = 0.027) but did not modify jejunal gene expression and mucosal permeability. The LPS challenge decreased the jejunal MUC2 expression but increased ZO1 and IL6 expression compared to the unchallenged animals (P < 0.05). DON × B interactions indicated lower expression of IL10 in duodenum and NFKB in jejunum with the B diet but higher expression with the DON-B diet (P = 0.050). Furthermore, the B lowered jejunal expression of NFKB and IL6 but only in LPS-challenged chickens (P < 0.05). Alterations in the cecal microbiota composition and VFA profile were likely associated with alterations in host physiology in the small intestine caused by DON, B, and LPS. According to the present data, B appeared to have potential to detoxify antigens other than DON in the intestinal lumen of chickens, whereby the toxin load may limit the efficacy of B to modify the intestinal and systemic response as indicated by interactions of DON, B, and LPS.


Asunto(s)
Pollos/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Contaminación de Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Micotoxinas/efectos adversos , Tricotecenos/efectos adversos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Ciego/microbiología , Pollos/inmunología , Pollos/microbiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiología , Intestino Delgado/inmunología , Intestinos/inmunología , Yeyuno/inmunología , Lipopolisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Tricotecenos/farmacología
3.
J Anim Sci ; 93(3): 1114-23, 2015 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26020888

RESUMEN

Deoxynivalenol (DON) causes various toxic effects in human and animals. However, our previous studies have shown that composite antimicrobial peptides (CAP) can have a protective effect in piglets challenged with DON. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the CAP GLAM 180# on the metabolism of piglets challenged with DON using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach. A total of 28 individually housed piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large Yorkshire) weaned at 28 d of age were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups (7 pigs/treatment) based on a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement that were fed, respectively, a basal diet (NC), basal diet + 0.4% CAP (basal + CAP), basal diet + 4 mg/kg DON (basal + DON), and basal diet + 4 mg/kg DON + 0.4% CAP (DON + CAP). A 7-d adaptation period was followed by 30 d of treatment. Blood samples were then collected for metabolite analysis by proton NMR (H-NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The combined results of H-NMR spectroscopy and LC-MS/MS showed that DON increased ( < 0.05) the serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein, glycoprotein, urea, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), and lactate as well as those of almost all essential AA and some nonessential AA but decreased the concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), unsaturated lipids, citrate, choline, and fumarate compared with those in NC treatment ( < 0.05). There was a significant interaction effect ( < 0.05) of supplementation with DON and CAP on some metabolites showed that the serum concentrations of HDL, unsaturated lipids, Pro, citrate, and fumarate were greater ( < 0.05) whereas those of glycoprotein, urea, TMAO, Gly, and lactate were lower in the DON + CAP treatment compared with those in the basal + DON treatment ( < 0.05). These findings indicated that DON causes disturbances in AA, lipid, and energy metabolism and that CAP could partially attenuate the above metabolic disturbances induced by DON.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Péptidos Catiónicos Antimicrobianos/farmacología , Metaboloma/efectos de los fármacos , Porcinos/metabolismo , Tricotecenos/efectos adversos , Tricotecenos/farmacología , Aminoácidos/sangre , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Péptidos Catiónicos Antimicrobianos/administración & dosificación , Péptidos Catiónicos Antimicrobianos/análisis , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Metabolismo Energético/efectos de los fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/efectos de los fármacos , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/fisiología , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Metaboloma/fisiología , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Tricotecenos/análisis
4.
Br J Nutr ; 106(3): 398-407, 2011 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21396141

RESUMEN

Trichotecenes are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium sp., which may contaminate animal feeds and human food. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of a fusarotoxin-contaminated diet, and to explore the counteracting potential of a calcium fructoborate (CFrB) additive on performance, typical health biochemistry parameters and immune response in weaned pigs. A naturally contaminated maize, containing low doses of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and T-2/HT-2 toxins (1790, 20, 0·6 and 90 parts per billion), was included in a maize-soyabean meal diet, and given ad libitum to eight weaned piglets (two groups: four pigs/group) for a period of 24 d. CFrB was administered to one of the contaminated groups and to another four piglets as a daily supplement, following the manufacturer's recommendation. A decrease in performance was observed in contaminated animals at this concentration of feed toxins, which was ameliorated by the dietary CFrB supplementation. Fusarium toxins also altered the pig immune response by increasing (P < 0·05) the ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation (111·7 % in comparison with control), the respiratory burst of porcine granulocytes (15·4 % for responsive cells v. 5·1 % for unstimulated cells and 70·95 v. 22·65 % for stimulated cells, respectively), the percentage of peripheral T, CD3(+), CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) subsets and the synthesis of IL-1ß, TNF-α and IL-8 (123·8, 217·1 and 255·1 %, respectively). The diet containing the CFrB additive reduced these exacerbated cellular immune responses induced by Fusarium toxins. However, consumption of CFrB did not counteract the effect of mycotoxins on biochemistry parameters, and increased plasma IgM and IgG of contaminated pigs.


Asunto(s)
Antídotos/farmacología , Boratos/farmacología , Boro/farmacología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Fructosa/análogos & derivados , Fusarium , Inmunidad/efectos de los fármacos , Tricotecenos/efectos adversos , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Citocinas/biosíntesis , Aditivos Alimentarios , Contaminación de Alimentos , Fructosa/farmacología , Granulocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Granulocitos/metabolismo , Inmunidad/fisiología , Inmunoglobulinas/sangre , Leucocitos Mononucleares/efectos de los fármacos , Leucocitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Estallido Respiratorio/efectos de los fármacos , Glycine max , Porcinos , Subgrupos de Linfocitos T/efectos de los fármacos , Subgrupos de Linfocitos T/metabolismo , Zea mays
5.
Vet Rec ; 165(24): 713-8, 2009 Dec 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20008344

RESUMEN

Two groups of 10 pregnant gilts (89 +/- 2 days gestation) were fed either an experimental diet that contained 5.08 mg/kg deoxynivalenol, 0.09 mg/kg zearalenone and 21.6 mg/kg fusaric acid, or a control diet that contained 0.29 mg/kg deoxynivalenol, <0.02 mg/kg zearalenone and <0.77 mg/kg fusaric acid. The concentrations of immunoglobulins were measured in sera of the gilts and in the colostrum and serum of the piglets by radial immunodiffusion. The feed consumption of the sows fed the experimental diet was significantly lower and the overall growth rate of their piglets was significantly reduced. On average, parturition took 80 minutes longer in sows fed the experimental diet. On day 17 after parturition, the concentration of IgM in the serum of the experimental gilts was significantly higher, but the concentration of IgA in their colostrum was significantly lower, than in the control gilts. In the serum of the piglets 12, 24 and 48 hours after first suckling, the concentrations of IgA and IgG were significantly lower in those farrowed by the sows fed the experimental diet than in those farrowed by the sows fed the control diet.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/veterinaria , Contaminación de Alimentos , Inmunoglobulinas/efectos de los fármacos , Micotoxinas/efectos adversos , Reproducción/efectos de los fármacos , Porcinos , Tricotecenos/efectos adversos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Calostro/química , Dieta/efectos adversos , Conducta Alimentaria/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Inmunodifusión , Inmunoglobulinas/sangre , Parto/efectos de los fármacos , Embarazo , Porcinos/sangre , Porcinos/inmunología , Porcinos/fisiología
6.
Arch Tierernahr ; 52(3): 275-84, 1999.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10553490

RESUMEN

Changes in the activity of enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism of glutamine, and in protein content, in the epithelial tissue along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of growing pigs exposed to nivalenol (NIV) in the diet were investigated. The epithelial tissue was taken from the stomach, small intestine and colon of three groups of animals fed diets without NIV (control), with inclusion of 2.5 mg NIV/kg diet (low dose) and with inclusion of 5.0 mg NIV/kg diet (high dose). The activities of glutaminase, glutamate dehydrogenase, oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and alanine aminotransferase were determined. In the control pigs the activities of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and alanine aminotransferase were higher (P < 0.05) in the epithelium of the small intestine as compared with the stomach and colon, while there were no differences in the activities of glutaminase, glutamate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. With increasing inclusion of NIV in the diet the activity of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase decreased (P < 0.05) in the epithelium of the small intestine and colon, and the activity of alanine aminotransferase tended (P = 0.07) to increase in the epithelium of the small intestine. The activities of glutaminase, glutamate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase remained unaffected by the inclusion of NIV in the diet. In the control pigs the protein content in the epithelium of the small intestine was higher (P < 0.05) than in the stomach and colon, while there were no effects of NIV inclusion in the diet on the protein content. It can be concluded from the present study that the epithelial tissue of the small intestine and colon of pigs exposed to a diet containing NIV will have a reduced enzymatic capacity to utilise alpha-ketoglutarate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA-cycle), suggesting an impaired energy supply to these organs.


Asunto(s)
Sistema Digestivo/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Porcinos/metabolismo , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminasa/análisis , Animales , Colon/enzimología , Colon/metabolismo , Sistema Digestivo/enzimología , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Glutamato Deshidrogenasa/análisis , Glutaminasa/análisis , Mucosa Intestinal/enzimología , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/enzimología , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Isocitrato Deshidrogenasa/análisis , Complejo Cetoglutarato Deshidrogenasa/análisis , Masculino , Micotoxinas/administración & dosificación , Micotoxinas/efectos adversos , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Organismos Libres de Patógenos Específicos , Espectrofotometría/veterinaria , Estómago/enzimología , Tricotecenos/administración & dosificación , Tricotecenos/efectos adversos
7.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 9(3): 187-8, 1986 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3728370

RESUMEN

Thirty-three patients with advanced colorectal adenocarcinoma were treated with daily Anguidine i.v. 5 mg/m2 X 5 for 3 weeks. The patients were stratified into two groups: prior chemotherapy and no prior chemotherapy. No responses were noted. Major toxicities were hypotension and fever.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias del Colon/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias del Recto/tratamiento farmacológico , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapéutico , Tricotecenos/uso terapéutico , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/efectos adversos , Evaluación de Medicamentos , Fiebre/inducido químicamente , Humanos , Hipotensión/inducido químicamente , Tricotecenos/efectos adversos
9.
Cancer Treat Rep ; 66(2): 381-3, 1982 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7055820

RESUMEN

The Southwest Oncology Group conducted a phase II study of anguidine in 134 patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. Anguidine was administered as a 4-hour infusion at doses of 3.0 and 4.5 mg/m2 daily x 5. Response rates for patients with colon carcinoma were 22% (four of 18 patients without previous chemotherapy) and 6% (four of 63 patients with previous chemotherapy). There were no responses in patients with pancreatic cancer (four patients) or gastric cancer (six). Toxic effects included thrombocytopenia (19.8%), leukopenia (18.8%), nausea and vomiting (49%), hypotension (37%), and confusion (12%). Antitumor activity of anguidine in patients with colon cancer may be similar to that of 5-FU, but nonhematologic toxicity is substantial.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Gastrointestinales/tratamiento farmacológico , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapéutico , Tricotecenos/uso terapéutico , Anciano , Evaluación de Medicamentos , Humanos , Tricotecenos/efectos adversos
12.
Cancer Treat Rep ; 63(5): 789-91, 1979 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-455316

RESUMEN

A phase II evaluation of anguidine was carried out in 30 patients with advanced refractory breast cancer. A dose of 5.0 mg/m2 daily for 5 days was explored. The main toxic effects were nausea and vomiting, fever and chills, hypotension, skin erythema, somnolence, confusion, and lethargy. Myelosuppression was minimal. Among these extensively pretreated patients, there was one partial responder and one additional patient who showed improvement (less than a partial response); both responses occurred in soft tissue sites.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapéutico , Tricotecenos/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Anciano , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/efectos adversos , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Femenino , Fusarium , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tricotecenos/efectos adversos
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