Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.240.634
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

RESUMEN

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Leishmaniasis Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniasis Visceral/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Brasil/epidemiología , Incidencia , Modelos Estadísticos
2.
Med Gas Res ; 13(1): 10-14, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946217

RESUMEN

The intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA) can be used for ventilation and oxygenation between intubation attempts, but there is a varied success rate ranging from 33% to 96%. Air Q is a relatively new entrant. Parker flex tube aids in atraumatic intubation. The primary aim of this study was to compare Air Q intubating laryngeal airway with ILMA as intubation conduits in patients with simulated fixed cervical spine using a Parker flex tube. It was a single-blinded, randomized, prospective, and comparative study conducted on 91 patients aged between 18 to 60 years of either sex, scheduled to undergo elective surgery under general anesthesia belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II. Out of 45 patients in each group, Air Q was successfully placed in 43 patients and ILMA was successfully placed in 44 patients. 35.56% of the patients required maneuvers for placing the Air Q, whereas, for placing the ILMA, only 15.56% of the patients required maneuvers. Intubation through the AIR Q was successful in 39 patients and through the ILMA in 44 patients, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. The number of attempts and the time of device insertion were comparable. There were a similar number of attempts, maneuvers required, and time is taken for endotracheal intubation. The incidence of cough and sore throat was comparable in both groups. We conclude that ILMA has a higher success rate than Air Q for tracheal intubation with Parker Flex tube in patients with simulated fixed cervical spine. More optimized maneuvers were required for the placement of Air Q.


Asunto(s)
Máscaras Laríngeas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anestesia General , Vértebras Cervicales , Humanos , Intubación Intratraqueal , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto Joven
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

RESUMEN

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Aberraciones Cromosómicas , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiología , Pakistán/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Cariotipificación
4.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 62(2): 206-219, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435684

RESUMEN

Population pharmacokinetic (PK) and exposure-safety analyses of alisertib were performed in children enrolled in 2 clinical trials: NCT02444884 and NCT01154816. NCT02444884 was a dose-finding study in children with relapsed/refractory solid malignancies (phase 1) or neuroblastomas (phase 2). Patients received oral alisertib 45 to 100 mg/m2 as powder-in-capsule once daily or twice daily for 7 days in 21-day cycles. Serial blood samples were collected up to 24 hours after dosing on cycle 1, day 1. NCT01154816 was a phase 2 single-arm study evaluating efficacy in children with relapsed/refractory solid malignancies or acute leukemias. Patients received alisertib 80 mg/m2 as enteric-coated tablets once daily for 7 days in 21-day cycles. Sparse PK samples were collected up to 8 hours after dosing on cycle 1, day 1. Sources of alisertib PK variability were characterized and quantified using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling to support dosing recommendations in children and adolescents. A 2-compartment model with oral absorption described by 3 transit compartments was developed using data from 146 patients. Apparent oral clearance and central distribution volume were correlated with body surface area across the age range of 2 to 21 years, supporting the use of body surface area-based alisertib dosing in the pediatric population. The recommended dose of 80 mg/m2 once daily enteric-coated tablets provided similar alisertib exposures across pediatric age groups and comparable exposure to that in adults receiving 50 mg twice daily (recommended adult dose). Statistically significant relationships (P < .01) were observed between alisertib exposures and incidence of grade ≥2 stomatitis and febrile neutropenia, consistent with antiproliferative mechanism-related toxicities.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Azepinas/farmacocinética , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Azepinas/efectos adversos , Superficie Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Esquema de Medicación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Dosis Máxima Tolerada , Modelos Biológicos , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/patología , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/efectos adversos , Pirimidinas/efectos adversos , Adulto Joven
5.
J Neurotrauma ; 39(1-2): 86-92, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626946

RESUMEN

This case-control study using baseline data from the population cohort Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study® compared lifetime history of concussion between children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that children with ADHD would have a greater lifetime history of concussion than children without ADHD. Children were recruited from schools across the United States, sampled to provide strong generalizability to the US population. The current sample included 10,585 children (age: mean = 9.9; standard deviation = 0.6; range 9-10 years; 48.9% girls; 64.6% White), including 1085 with ADHD and 9500 without ADHD. The prevalence of prior concussion among children with ADHD was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.6-7.8%) compared with 3.2% (3.1-3.3%) among children without ADHD, meaning current ADHD status was associated with twice the odds of experiencing a prior concussion [χ2 = 44.54; p < 0.001; odds ratio = 2.34 (1.81-3.03)]. No significant differences were observed in proportion of boys and girls with ADHD who had a prior concussion history. The number of current ADHD symptoms were not meaningfully associated with prior concussion history. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower rates of reported concussion, but not differentially in association with ADHD. ADHD is associated with twice the lifetime prevalence of prior concussion before age 11 among children from the general U.S. population. Boys and girls with ADHD did not differ in proportions with prior concussion and concussion history was not related to the number of ADHD symptoms reported by parents.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Conmoción Encefálica , Adolescente , Atletas/psicología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Conmoción Encefálica/psicología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
6.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 50(4): 401-412, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35201548

RESUMEN

A recent innovation in scoliosis monitoring is the use of ultrasonography, which provides true 3D information in one scan and does not emit ionizing radiation. Measuring the severity of scoliosis on ultrasonographs requires identifying lamina pairs on the most tilted vertebrae, which is difficult and time-consuming. To expedite and automate measurement steps, this paper detailed an automatic convolutional neural network-based algorithm for identifying the laminae on 3D ultrasonographs. The predicted laminae were manually paired to measure the lateral spinal curvature on the coronal view, called the Cobb angle. In total, 130 spinal ultrasonographs of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis recruited from a scoliosis clinic were selected, with 70 for training and 60 for testing. Data augmentation increased the effective training set size to 140 ultrasonographs. Semi-automatic Cobb measurements were compared to manual measurements on the same ultrasonographs. The semi-automatic measurements demonstrated good inter-method reliability (ICC3,1 = 0.87) and performed better on thoracic (ICC3,1 = 0.91) than lumbar curves (ICC3,1 = 0.81). The mean absolute difference and standard deviation between semi-automatic and manual was 3.6° ± 3.0°. In conclusion, the semi-automatic method to measure the Cobb angle on ultrasonographs is feasible and accurate. This is the first algorithm that automates steps of Cobb angle measurement on ultrasonographs.


Asunto(s)
Escoliosis , Columna Vertebral , Adolescente , Humanos , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Escoliosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Columna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía/métodos
7.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(3): 333-339, 2022 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952557

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of gynecomastia, determine mean glandular breast tissue sizes, and evaluate whether there is any difference in the prevalence rate of gynecomastia according to age using three different reference values of glandular breast tissue size (≥5, ≥10, ≥20 mm) in the pediatric age group. METHODS: Glandular breast tissue sizes were measured retrospectively from thoracic computed tomography (CT) images taken for other reasons in 961 boys aged 1-18 years. RESULTS: When each breast was evaluated separately (1,922 breasts), gynecomastia was observed in 1,001 (52.1%), 719 (37.4%), and 216 (11.2%) breasts with ≥5, ≥10, and ≥20 mm considered as reference values, respectively. A significant difference was found in terms of gynecomastia (p<0.001) and mean glandular breast tissue size (p<0.001) with respect to age. CONCLUSIONS: New studies are currently needed to determine the glandular breast tissue size and the prevalence rate of gynecomastia in boys, and thoracic CT images can be used for this purpose.


Asunto(s)
Ginecomastia , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Ginecomastia/diagnóstico por imagen , Ginecomastia/epidemiología , Humanos , Hallazgos Incidentales , Lactante , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos
8.
AIDS Care ; 34(2): 227-231, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625933

RESUMEN

HIV-associated functional impairment may cause cognitive impairment secondary to the viral infection, hence, associations between cognitive impairment and functional impairment in youth living with HIV are important to assess. We sought to determine whether cognitive impairment is associated with functional impairment and if it carries higher risk for also having functional impairment. We collected parent-rated information regarding youth functional impairment on four different measures and administered a cognitive battery to youth to determine cognitive impairment, 203 HIV-infected youth and 44 HIV-uninfected controls. Degree of cognitive impairment correlated strongly with decreased function: CBCL, r = -.17, p = .01; VABS2, r = -.28, p < .001; repeated-grades, r = .26, p < .001. Presence of cognitive impairment was associated with increased risk of functional impairment: 3.47 (CIS); 1.71 (CBCL); 2.17 (VABS2); 2.97 (repeated-grades). Repeated-grades strongly associated with cognitive impairment and functional impairment. We found strong associations between HIV-infected youth functional impairment on CBCL, VABS2 and repeated-grades with degree of cognitive impairment; and that when cognitive impairment was present youth had higher risk of experiencing functional impairment as well. Asking whether youth have repeated a grade at school could be a helpful screening question for assessing potential functional impairment and provide clinicians with an indication as to whether a further in-depth assessment is required.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Infecciones por VIH , Adolescente , Disfunción Cognitiva/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo
9.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 67-75, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130567

RESUMEN

Resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome (RTHS) is defined as increased thyroxine and triiodothyronine associated with normal or increased thyrotropin. This is usually due to a pathogenic variant of the gene coding for thyroid hormone receptor B (THRB). THRB is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an altered response of target tissue to the thyroid hormone action. Retrospective cross-sectional observational study with diagnosis of RTHS evaluated in secondary and tertiary hospitals for 6 years, from 2014 to 2020, in order to describe variables including age, sex, anthropometric data, clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients, who were divided according to age, in a pediatric group from 0 to 14 years (index cases), and an adult group composed of adult relatives of index cases. A molecular analysis of the THRB gene was performed. The total retrospective cohort included 7 pediatric patients and 15 adults. We found 22 cases with a clear male predominance (14/22). Mean age is 24.8 years old (22 days-70 years). Patients were referred because of symptoms 18.2% (4/22), analysis results 22.7% (5/22), or familial study 59.1% (13/22). About 31.8% (7/22) cases show goiter, 31.8% (7/22) sympathetic symptoms and 13.6% (3/22) abnormalities in behavior. In most cases, 77.3%, (17/22) show familial background of thyroid abnormalities. It is important to remark that 18.2% (4/22) relatives received previous incorrect treatments such as thyroidectomy, because of wrong diagnosis. In conclusion, a better understanding of RTHS, its prompt molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling, could avoid unnecessary tests and inappropriate treatments.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Resistencia a Hormonas Tiroideas , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Mutación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Receptores beta de Hormona Tiroidea/genética , Síndrome de Resistencia a Hormonas Tiroideas/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resistencia a Hormonas Tiroideas/genética , Tirotropina , Tiroxina , Triyodotironina , Adulto Joven
10.
Cell Biol Int ; 46(3): 336-343, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941001

RESUMEN

Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor that often occurs in adolescents. There is an urgent need for new treatment options for osteosarcoma due to its poor prognosis after metastasis. Cancer stem cell (CSC) theory states that CSCs represent a small proportion of cancer cells. These CSC have self-renewal ability and are closely associated with cancer growth and metastasis as well as chemotherapy resistance. Similarly, osteosarcoma stem cells (OSCs) play an important role in the growth, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance of osteosarcoma cells. Targeting OSCs may represent a future treatment of osteosarcoma. Furthermore, some genes have been shown to regulate the growth, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance of osteosarcoma cells by altering the stemness of OSCs. Targeting these genes may help in the treatment of osteosarcoma. This review mainly discusses recent advances in the research of OSCs and their related genes.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Óseas , Osteosarcoma , Adolescente , Neoplasias Óseas/patología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular , Humanos , Células Madre Neoplásicas/patología , Osteosarcoma/patología
11.
Early Hum Dev ; 165: 105541, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065415

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Outcomes for infants who survive mild-moderate hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) into adolescence is relatively uncharted. AIMS: We examined neuropsychological and behavioral outcomes in adolescents with mild and moderate HIE, using both parent and self - informants, and including healthy peers and nearest age siblings as controls. PARTICIPANTS: 23 adolescents with a history of mild-moderate HIE (M age = 14.45 years, SD = 1.03; 14 boys and 9 girls) were recruited from an original cohort of 53. A group of their nearest - age siblings (n = 13), and healthy peers (n = 14) were recruited as controls. OUTCOME MEASURES: A number of neuropsychological sub-tests, taken from the WISC-V.UK, Children's Memory Scale, NEPSY, WIAT-III.UK, Rey Complex Figure Copy Test and British Picture Vocabulary Scale were administered. Behavioral adjustment was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the competence subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS: No differences in neuropsychological and behavioral outcomes were observed between mild and moderate HIE cohorts. Together they had significantly lower scores on tests of attention/executive functioning, verbal reasoning and sensory-motor ability compared to healthy peers, with moderate to large effect sizes. Remedial provision at school was greater in the HIE group. Parents reported elevated levels of peer problems in the HIE group compared to both siblings and healthy peers. Reduced competencies were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence that both mild and moderate survivors of HIE experience neuropsychological, school and peer relationship problems in adolescence.


Asunto(s)
Hipoxia-Isquemia Encefálica , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Escalas de Wechsler
12.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226288, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1366204

RESUMEN

Aim: To describe the pattern of toothache experience in a cohort of children aged 2-5 over 21 years and to find the relationship between previous toothache experience and later reports of toothache to get finding on the most critical period of toothache as a problem in life. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS). A total of 1,927 children from IFLS-1 with complete data were included as baseline participants. They were followed up four times within 21 years (age 6-9y, age 9-12y, age 16-19y, age 23- 26y). Toothache was based on the question of self-reported toothache experience during the last four weeks. After 21 years, a total of 1,098 individuals could be traced and completed every cohort of the survey. Toothache experiences were reported for frequencies in every cohort and accumulative experiences over 21 years. Logistic regression tests were performed to analyze the association of previous toothache experience and later toothache experience. Results: Almost 40% of the respondents reported toothache at least once in their life. The age of 6-9 years is the period when a high percentage of children had teeth-related pain. The experience of toothache at this period was significantly related to every period of age in life. Conclusions: The period of early mixed dentition is important. Oral health status in this period is associated with future oral health. A comprehensive dental health prevention program targeting this population is essential to increase the quality of life


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Odontalgia/epidemiología , Salud Bucal , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas de Salud Bucal , Prevalencia , Estudios Longitudinales , Indonesia/epidemiología
13.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e225388, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1366211

RESUMEN

Genetic and environmental factors are essential in occlusal variations and malocclusion and have been of considerable interest to orthodontists. Studies on twin pairs are one of the most effective methods for investigating genetically determined occlusal variables. Many studies have focused on distances between first molars or between canines but malocclusions can also occur in other regions of the dental arch. Aim: To evaluate the characteristics of the dental arch between pairs of Monozygotic (MZ) and Dizygotic (DZ) twins from Southern India. Methods: A random sample of 51 twin pairs (12­18years old) participated in this study. The zygosity of twin pairs was recorded by facial appearance. The occlusion of the first permanent molars was recorded according to Angle's classification. Study models were prepared to assess dental arch characteristics (i.e., arch form, arch perimeter, arch length; intercanine, intermolar width, and teeth size discrepancy). The obtained data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software 19.0. The student's t-test (two-tailed, independent) and Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of studied parameters. Results: Angle's Class I molar relation was more commonly observed followed by the Class II molar relationship among twins. The measured dental arch dimensions did not show a statistically significant difference among twin pairs. The ovoid arch form was commonly observed among Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins. There was a similarity among MZ and DZ twins in the anterior and overall Bolton's ratio. Conclusion: There were similar occurrences of measured parameters among twins, which showed genetic predominance in the expression of measured dental arch traits


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Gemelos Dicigóticos , Gemelos Monocigóticos , Arco Dental/anatomía & histología , India
14.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Online) ; 43(3): 68-71, set.-dez. 2022. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1381331

RESUMEN

Although fluoride (F) is required for the normal growth and development of several human organs and tissues, excessive exposure to it may be potentially toxic. Groundwater may present ranging levels of F; however, the appearance, taste, and smell are not altered. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate dental fluorosis in children from a Brazilian slave-descendent community, as well as to assess F levels in the drinking water supplies available in that area. For that, 21 children aged from 6 to 14 years living in Rincão dos Martimianos were invited to participate. Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (a 0­9 scale) was used to assess dental fluorosis on permanent teeth. Furthermore, the F concentration of two water samples (from the artesian well and a tank) was determined by using a potentiometric method. All children presented dental fluorosis to some degree, ranging from score 2 to 9. About 81% of them had dental fluorosis scores equal to or over 5. Scores lower than 5 were observed only in children younger than 8 years; on the other hand, all children older than 8 years presented scores higher than 5. Moreover, artesian well water had an F concentration of 5 mg/L and tank water 0.8 mg/L. It is suggested that the F-rich groundwater supply was most probably responsible for dental fluorosis in that area. Brazilian slave-descendent communities, therefore, should receive constant attention from their local authorities in order to guarantee a proper water supply for consumption, as well as to provide public health education(AU)


Embora o flúor (F) seja necessário para o crescimento e desenvolvimento normal de vários órgãos e tecidos humanos, a exposição excessiva pode ser potencialmente tóxica. As águas subterrâneas podem apresentar níveis variados de F; no entanto, a aparência, o sabor e o cheiro não são alterados. Desta forma, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a fluorose dentária em crianças de uma comunidade brasileira descendente de escravos, bem como avaliar os níveis de F na água potável disponível nessa área. Para isso, 21 crianças de 6 a 14 anos residentes no Rincão dos Martimianos foram convidadas a participar da pesquisa. O índice de Thylstrup e Fejerskov (uma escala de 0 a 9) foi usado para avaliar a fluorose dentária em dentes permanentes. Além disso, a concentração de F de duas amostras de água (do poço artesiano e de um tanque) foi determinada pelo método potenciométrico. Todas as crianças apresentaram algum grau de fluorose dentária, variando de 2 a 9. Cerca de 81% delas apresentaram escores de fluorose dentária iguais ou superiores a 5. Escores inferiores a 5 foram observados apenas em crianças menores de 8 anos; por outro lado, todas as crianças maiores de 8 anos apresentaram escores superiores a 5. Além disso, a água do poço artesiano tinha concentração de F de 5 mg/L e a água do tanque 0,8 mg/L. Desta forma, acredita-se que a fonte de água subterrânea rica em F foi provavelmente responsável pela fluorose dentária na região avaliada. As comunidades quilombolas brasileiras, portanto, devem receber atenção constante de suas autoridades locais, a fim de garantir o abastecimento adequado de água para consumo, bem como proporcionar educação em saúde pública(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Dentición Permanente , Quilombola , Fluorosis Dental , Abastecimiento de Agua , Agua Potable , Agua Subterránea , Salud Pública , Flúor
15.
rev.cuid. (Bucaramanga.2010) ; 13(1): 1-14, 20221213.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369166

RESUMEN

Introdução: O sedentarismo em adolescentes contribui para a ocorrência de diferentes doenças, sendo relevante investigar sobre fatores associados. Objetivo: Analisar a associação entre sedentarismo e nível socioeconômico em adolescentes de escolas públicas. Materiais e métodos: Estudo transversal, realizado com 347 adolescentes matriculados em escolas públicas do ensino médio do município de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais. A coleta de dados ocorreu no ano de 2017. O sedentarismo foi avaliado utilizando-se o International Physical Activity Questionnaire e o nível socioeconômico pelo critério da Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisa. Foi realizada estatística descritiva e analítica através de modelo de regressão logística multivariada. Resultados: Participaram da investigação 347 adolescentes. A média de idade do grupo foi de 16,4 ± 1,0 anos. Os indivíduos caracterizados como sedentários constituíram 38,9% da amostra, sendo que, destes, 66,7% eram do sexo feminino. Possuir maior nível socioeconômico diminui a probabilidade de ser sedentário (OR=0,235; p=0,021), assim como ser estudante das escolas públicas da região sudoeste aumenta essa chance(OR=2,680; p=0,04). Discussão: Os motivos pelos quais as condições socioeconômicas podem influenciar o sedentarismo são variados. A ausência de espaços públicos pode contribuir para a elevação do sedentarismo em adolescentes com menor nível socioeconômico. Conclusão: Esta investigação sinaliza a importância de investimentos públicos em políticas de estímulo à prática de atividade física para os adolescentes, em especial para os do sexo feminino e de menor nível socioeconômico.


Introduction: A sedentary lifestyle in adolescents contributes to the occurrence of different diseases, making it relevant to investigate associated factors. Objective: To analyze the association between sedentary lifestyle and socioeconomic status in adolescents from public schools. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study, carried out with 347 adolescents enrolled in public high schools in the city of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais. Data collection took place in 2017. Sedentary lifestyle was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and socioeconomic status using the criteria of the Brazilian Association of Research Companies. Descriptive and analytical statistics were performed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results: 347 adolescents participated in the investigation. The mean age of the group was 16.4 ± 1.0 years. Individuals characterized as sedentary constituted 38.9% of the sample, of which 66.7% were female. Having a higher socioeconomic level decreases the probability of being sedentary (OR = 0,235; p = 0.021), just as being a student in public schools in the southwest region increases this chance (OR = 2,680; p = 0.04). Discussion: The reasons why socioeconomic conditions can influence a sedentary lifestyle are varied. The absence of public spaces can contribute to the increase in sedentary lifestyles in adolescents with lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion: This investigation highlights the importance of public investments in policies to encourage the practice of physical activity for adolescents, especially for females and lower socioeconomic status.


Introducción: El sedentarismo en los adolescentes contribuye a la ocurrencia de diferentes enfermedades, por lo que es relevante investigar los factores asociados. Objetivo: Analizar la asociación entre sedentarismo y nivel socioeconómico en adolescentes de escuelas públicas. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal, realizado con 347 adolescentes matriculados en escuelas secundarias públicas de la ciudad de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais. La recolección de datos tuvo lugar en 2017. El estilo de vida sedentario se evaluó mediante el Cuestionario Internacional de Actividad Física y el nivel socioeconómico según los criterios de la Asociación Brasileña de Empresas de Investigación. La estadística descriptiva y analítica se realizó mediante un modelo de regresión logística multivariante. Resultados: 347 adolescentes participaron en la investigación. La edad media del grupo fue de 16,4 ± 1,0 años. Los individuos caracterizados como sedentarios constituyeron el 38,9% de la muestra, de los cuales el 66,7% eran mujeres. Tener un nivel socioeconómico más alto disminuye la probabilidad de ser sedentario (OR = 0,235; p = 0,021), al igual que ser alumno de escuelas públicas de la región suroeste aumenta esta posibilidad (OR = 2,680; p = 0,04). Discusión: Las razones por las que las condiciones socioeconómicas pueden influir en un estilo de vida sedentario son variadas. La ausencia de espacios públicos puede contribuir al aumento de estilos de vida sedentarios en adolescentes de menor nivel socioeconómico. Conclusión: Esta investigación destaca la importancia de la inversión pública en políticas para incentivar la práctica de actividad física en adolescentes, especialmente en mujeres y estrato socioeconómico más bajo.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Clase Social , Adolescente , Conducta Sedentaria
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 908152, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937246

RESUMEN

Objective: To assess whether lack of trust in the government and scientists reinforces social and racial inequalities in vaccination practices. Design: A follow-up of the EpiCov random population-based cohort survey. Setting: In July 2021, in France. Participants: Eighty-thousand nine hundred and seventy-one participants aged 18 years and more. Main Outcome Measures: Adjusted odds ratios of COVID-19 vaccination status (received at least one dose/ intends to get vaccinated/ does not know whether to get vaccinated/refuses vaccination) were assessed using multinomial regressions to test associations with social and trust factors and to study how these two factors interacted with each other. Results: In all, 72.2% were vaccinated at the time of the survey. The population of unvaccinated people was younger, less educated, had lower incomes, and more often belonged to racially minoritized groups, as compared to vaccinated people. Lack of trust in the government and scientists to curb the spread of the epidemic were the factors most associated with refusing to be vaccinated: OR = 8.86 (7.13 to 11.00) for the government and OR = 9.07 (7.71 to 10.07) for scientists, compared to vaccinated people. Lack of trust was more prevalent among the poorest which consequently reinforced social inequalities in vaccination. The poorest 10% who did not trust the government reached an OR of 16.2 (11.9 to 22.0) for refusing to be vaccinated compared to the richest 10% who did. Conclusion: There is a need to develop depoliticised outreach programmes targeted at the most socially disadvantaged groups, and to design vaccination strategies conceived with people from different social and racial backgrounds to enable them to make fully informed choices.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Confianza , Vacilación a la Vacunación , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Gobierno , Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Vacunación
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2225647, 2022 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939300

RESUMEN

Importance: Studies focusing on genetic susceptibility of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are limited. Objectives: To identify genetic variants associated with childhood-onset HL vs adult-onset HL. Design, Setting, and Participants: This genetic association study was performed with 3 cohorts: the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE), initiated in 2007 with ongoing follow-up, and the original and expansion cohorts of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), initiated in the 1990s with ongoing follow-up. Results of these genome-wide association studies (GWASs) were combined via meta-analysis. Data were analyzed from June 2021 to June 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: Childhood HL was the focused outcome. Single-nucleotide variant (SNV, formerly single-nucleotide polymorphism) array genotyping and imputation were conducted for the CCSS original cohort, and whole-genome sequencing was performed for the SJLIFE and CCSS expansion cohort. Results: A total of 1286 HL cases (mean diagnosis [SD] age, 14.6 [3.9] years), 6193 non-HL childhood cancer cases, and 369 noncancer controls, all of European ancestry, were included in the analysis. Using step-wise conditional logistic regression, the odds ratios (ORs) for each of the 3 independent SNVs identified in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus were 1.80 (95% CI, 1.59-2.03; P = 2.14 × 10-21) for rs28383311, 1.53 (95% CI, 1.37-1.70; P = 2.05 × 10-14) for rs3129198, and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.35-1.69; P = 6.21 × 10-13) for rs3129890. Further HLA imputation revealed 9 alleles and 55 amino acid changes that potentially conferred HL susceptibility. In addition, 5 non-HLA loci were identified: (1) rs1432297 (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.18-1.41; P = 2.5 × 10-8; r2 = 0.55; D' = 0.75 with previously reported rs1432295, REL); (2) rs2757647 (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.18-1.42; P = 3.5 × 10-8; r2 = 0.59; D' = 0.83 with previously reported rs6928977, AHI1); (3) rs13279159 (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.20-1.47; P = 1.7 × 10-8; r2 = 0.75; D' = 1.00 with previously reported rs2019960, PVT1); (4) rs3824662 (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.33-1.73; P = 3.9 × 10-10; r2 = 0.91; D' = 1.00 with previously reported rs3781093, GATA3); and (5) rs117953624 (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.56-2.51; P = 1.5 × 10-8; minor allele frequency, 0.02), a novel uncommon SNV mapped to PDGFD. Twelve of 18 previously reported genome-wide significant non-HLA SNVs (67%) were replicated with statistically significant results. Conclusions and Relevance: In this genetic association study, a predominantly common and potentially unique genetic etiology was found between childhood-onset and adulthood-onset HL.


Asunto(s)
Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Enfermedad de Hodgkin , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Antígenos HLA/genética , Enfermedad de Hodgkin/genética , Humanos , Nucleótidos
18.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271489, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939419

RESUMEN

Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) is used to prevent malaria and associated unfavorable maternal and foetal outcomes in pregnancy in moderate to high malaria transmission areas. Effectiveness of IPTp-SP is, however, threatened by mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps) genes which confer resistance to pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine, respectively. This study determined the prevalence of molecular markers of SP resistance among pregnant women in a high malaria transmission area in the forest-savannah area of Ghana. Genomic DNA was extracted from 286 P. falciparum-positive dried blood spots obtained from pregnant women aged ≥18 years (255 at first Antenatal Care (ANC) clinic visit and 31 at delivery from 2017 to 2019) using Chelex 100. Mutations in Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes were detected using molecular inversion probes and next generation sequencing. In the Pfdhfr gene, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in 83.1% (157/189), 92.0% (173/188) and 91.0% (171/188) at codons 51, 59, and 108 respectively in samples collected at first ANC visit, while SNPs were detected in 96.6 (28/29), 96.6% (28/29) and 96.8% (30/31) in isolates collected at delivery. The Pfdhfr triple mutant N51I, C59R and S108N (IRN) was carried by 80.5% (128/159) and 96.5% (28/29) of the typed isolates collected at ANC visit and at delivery respectively. In the Pfdhps gene, SNPs were detected in 0.6% (1/174), 76.2% (138/181), 33.2% (60/181), 1.2% (2/174), 0% (0/183), and 16.6% (27/173) at codons 431, 436, 437, 540, 581 and 613 respectively in samples collected at ANC, and 0% (0/25), 72% (18/25), 40% (10/25), 3.6% (1/25), 0% (0/29) and 7.4% (2/27) in samples collected at delivery. Quadruple mutant Pfdhfr N51I, C59R, and S108N + Pfdhps A437G (IRN-GK) was present in 25.8% (33/128) and 34.8% (8/23) of isolates at ANC and at delivery respectively. Quintuple mutant alleles Pfdhfr N51I, C59R, and S108N + Pfdhps A437G and K540E (IRN-GE) were detected in 0.8% (1/128) and 4.4% (1/23) of samples collected at ANC and at delivery respectively. No mutations were identified at Pfdhfr codons 16 or 164 or Pfdhps 581. There is a high prevalence of Pfdhfr triple mutant P. falciparum infections among pregnant women in the study area. However, prevalence of the combined Pfdhfr/Pfdhps quadruple and quintuple mutants IRN-GK and IRN-GE respectively prior to commencement of IPTp-SP were low, and no Pfdhps A581G mutant was detected, indicating that SP is still likely to be efficacious for IPTp-SP in the forest-savannah area in the middle belt of Ghana.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos , Malaria Falciparum , Adolescente , Adulto , Antimaláricos/farmacología , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Combinación de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos/genética , Femenino , Bosques , Ghana/epidemiología , Humanos , Malaria Falciparum/tratamiento farmacológico , Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Malaria Falciparum/prevención & control , Plasmodium falciparum , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , Prevalencia , Pirimetamina/farmacología , Pirimetamina/uso terapéutico , Sulfadoxina/farmacología , Sulfadoxina/uso terapéutico , Tetrahidrofolato Deshidrogenasa/genética
19.
Chest ; 162(2): e89-e92, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940669

RESUMEN

CASE PRESENTATION: An 18-year-old patient with a history of COVID-19 (1 month previously) was admitted with malaise and complaints of a stiff neck, a left-sided cervical mass, headache, and difficulty in swallowing and breathing, which had been present for 4 days. Two days after the onset of the first symptoms, a painless skin rash on the legs, arms, palms of both hands, and soles of both feet developed. Despite 2 days of treatment with antibiotics (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 500/125 mg three times daily orally), symptoms progressed. On presentation, the patient was alert and oriented, there were no neurologic disorders, and all symptoms related to the recent COVID-19 infection had subsided. His medical history was negative for sexually transmitted diseases, and the patient had received all vaccines except for meningococcus and COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Exantema , Adolescente , Drenaje , Edema , Humanos , Pandemias
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e063745, 2022 08 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940833

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of syphilis and associated factors among pregnant women with antenatal care follow-up. DESIGN: A health facility-based, cross-sectional study. SETTING: The study was conducted in 12 health facilities in Buno Bedele zone, southwest Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: Randomly selected 920 pregnant women who came to health facilities in the Buno Bedele zone for antenatal care services from May to August 2021 were included in the study. Women with previously diagnosed syphilis and those on treatment were excluded from the study. OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood samples and data on sociodemographic and other risk factors for syphilis were collected. Sera were screened for syphilis using the one-step rapid syphilis diagnostic test kit, and positive tests were retested using the rapid plasma reagin test. Data were analysed using SPSS V.22. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors for maternal syphilis at a p value less than 0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of syphilis among pregnant women was found to be 1.4% (95% CI: 0.8% to 2.3%, p=0.002). Women with no formal education (adjusted OR (AOR)=3.6; 95% CI: 1.02 to 13.2, p=0.047), husbands with a history of substance use (AOR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.04 to 10.7, p=0.042), more than one antenatal care visit (AOR=3.5, 95% CI: 1.07 to 10.5, p=0.038), age at marriage under 18 years (AOR=4.3, 95% CI: 2.2 to 7.9, p=0.045) and a woman's poor knowledge of syphilis (AOR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.04 to 10.4, p=0.042) were significantly associated with syphilis. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of maternal syphilis in this study area was found to be comparable with the national prevalence. Women's educational status, husbands' history of substance use, antenatal care, age at marriage and knowledge about syphilis were the independent predictors of syphilis. Emphasis shall be given to screening all pregnant women, education of women, lifestyle factors and avoiding early marriage.


Asunto(s)
Sífilis , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , Atención Prenatal , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/epidemiología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA