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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

RESUMEN

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Leishmaniasis Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniasis Visceral/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Brasil/epidemiología , Incidencia , Modelos Estadísticos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

RESUMEN

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Aberraciones Cromosómicas , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiología , Pakistán/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Cariotipificación
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246062, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339355

RESUMEN

Abstract A group of inherited blood defects is known as Thalassemia is among the world's most prevalent hemoglobinopathies. Thalassemias are of two types such as Alpha and Beta Thalassemia. The cause of these defects is gene mutations leading to low levels and/or malfunctioning α and β globin proteins, respectively. In some cases, one of these proteins may be completely absent. α and β globin chains form a globin fold or pocket for heme (Fe++) attachment to carry oxygen. Genes for alpha and beta-globin proteins are present in the form of a cluster on chromosome 16 and 11, respectively. Different globin genes are used at different stages in the life course. During embryonic and fetal developmental stages, γ globin proteins partner with α globin and are later replaced by β globin protein. Globin chain imbalances result in hemolysis and impede erythropoiesis. Individuals showing mild symptoms include carriers of alpha thalassemia or the people bearing alpha or beta-thalassemia trait. Alpha thalassemia causes conditions like hemolytic anemia or fatal hydrops fetalis depending upon the severity of the disease. Beta thalassemia major results in hemolytic anemia, growth retardation, and skeletal aberrations in early childhood. Children affected by this disorder need regular blood transfusions throughout their lives. Patients that depend on blood transfusion usually develop iron overload that causes other complications in the body systems like renal or hepatic impairment therefore, thalassemias are now categorized as a syndrome. The only cure for Thalassemias would be a bone marrow transplant, or gene therapy with currently no significant success rate. A thorough understanding of the molecular basis of this syndrome may provide novel insights and ideas for its treatment, as scientists have still been unable to find a permanent cure for this deadly disease after more than 87 years since it is first described in 1925.


Resumo Um grupo de defeitos sanguíneos hereditários é conhecido como talassemia e está entre as hemoglobinopatias mais prevalentes do mundo. As talassemias são de dois tipos, como talassemia alfa e beta. As causas desses defeitos são as mutações genéticas que levam a níveis baixos e/ou proteínas de globina com mau funcionamento, respectivamente. Em alguns casos, uma dessas proteínas pode estar completamente ausente. As cadeias de globina α e β formam uma dobra ou bolsa de globina para a fixação de heme (Fe ++) para transportar oxigênio. Os genes das proteínas alfa e beta globina estão presentes na forma de um cluster nos cromossomos 16 e 11, respectivamente. Diferentes genes de globina são usados ​​em diferentes estágios do curso de vida. Durante os estágios de desenvolvimento embrionário e fetal, as proteínas γ globina se associam à α globina e, posteriormente, são substituídas pela proteína β globina. Os desequilíbrios da cadeia de globina resultam em hemólise e impedem a eritropoiese. Indivíduos que apresentam sintomas leves incluem portadores de talassemia alfa ou as pessoas com traços de talassemia alfa ou beta. A talassemia alfa causa condições como anemia hemolítica ou hidropsia fetal fatal, dependendo da gravidade da doença. A beta talassemia principal resulta em anemia hemolítica, retardo de crescimento e aberrações esqueléticas na primeira infância. As crianças afetadas por esse distúrbio precisam de transfusões de sangue regulares ao longo da vida. Os pacientes que dependem de transfusão de sangue geralmente desenvolvem sobrecarga de ferro que causa outras complicações nos sistemas do corpo, como insuficiência renal ou hepática, portanto as talassemias agora são classificadas como uma síndrome. A única cura para as talassemias seria um transplante de medula óssea ou terapia genética sem atualmente uma taxa de sucesso significativa. Uma compreensão completa da base molecular dessa síndrome pode fornecer novos insights e ideias para seu tratamento, já que os cientistas ainda não conseguiram encontrar uma cura permanente para essa doença mortal depois de mais de 87 anos desde que foi descrita pela primeira vez em 1925.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preescolar , Talasemia/genética , Talasemia beta/genética , Hemoglobinas
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248717, 2023. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339344

RESUMEN

Abstract The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract diseases in young children worldwide, leading to a high number of hospitalizations and significant expenditures for health systems. Neutrophils are massively recruited to the lung tissue of patients with acute respiratory diseases. At the infection site, they release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that can capture and/or inactivate different types of microorganisms, including viruses. Evidence has shown that the accumulation of NETs results in direct cytotoxic effects on endothelial and epithelial cells. Neutrophils stimulated by the hRSV-F protein generate NETs that are able to capture hRSV particles, thus reducing their transmission. However, the massive production of NETs obstructs the airways and increases disease severity. Therefore, further knowledge about the effects of NETs during hRSV infections is essential for the development of new specific and effective treatments. This study evaluated the effects of NETs on the previous or posterior contact with hRSV-infected Hep-2 cells. Hep-2 cells were infected with different hRSV multiplicity of infection (MOI 0.5 or 1.0), either before or after incubation with NETs (0.5-16 μg/mL). Infected and untreated cells showed decreased cellular viability and intense staining with trypan blue, which was accompanied by the formation of many large syncytia. Previous contact between NETs and cells did not result in a protective effect. Cells in monolayers showed a reduced number and area of syncytia, but cell death was similar in infected and non-treated cells. The addition of NETs to infected tissues maintained a similar virus-induced cell death rate and an increased syncytial area, indicating cytotoxic and deleterious damages. Our results corroborate previously reported findings that NETs contribute to the immunopathology developed by patients infected with hRSV.


Resumo O vírus sincicial respiratório humano (hRSV) é a causa mais comum de doenças graves do trato respiratório inferior em crianças pequenas em todo o mundo, resultando em grande número de hospitalizações e gastos significativos para os sistemas de saúde. Neutrófilos são recrutados em massa para o tecido pulmonar de pacientes com doenças respiratórias agudas. No local da infecção, eles liberam armadilhas extracelulares de neutrófilos (NETs) que podem capturar e/ou inativar diferentes tipos de microrganismos, incluindo vírus. Evidências demonstraram que o acúmulo de NETs resulta em efeitos citotóxicos diretos nas células endoteliais e epiteliais. Os neutrófilos estimulados pela proteína F do vírus sincicial respiratório (hRSV-F) geram NETs que são capazes de capturar partículas virais, reduzindo assim sua transmissão. No entanto, a produção maciça de NETs obstrui as vias aéreas e aumenta a gravidade da doença. Assim, um maior conhecimento sobre os efeitos das NETs durante as infecções por hRSV é essencial para o desenvolvimento de novos tratamentos específicos e eficazes. Este estudo avaliou os efeitos das NETs no contato prévio ou posterior à infecção de células Hep-2 com hRSV. As células Hep-2 foram infectadas com diferentes quantidades de hRSV (multiplicidade de infecção ou MOI 0,5 ou 1,0), antes ou após a incubação com NETs (0,5-16 μg/mL). Células infectadas e não tratadas mostraram redução da viabilidade celular e intensa coloração com azul de tripano, que foi acompanhada pela formação de sincícios numerosos e grandes. O contato prévio entre as NETs e as células não resultou em efeito protetor. As células em monocamadas mostraram um número e área de sincícios reduzidos, mas a morte celular foi semelhante àquela apresentada por células infectadas e não tratadas. A adição de NETs aos tecidos infectados manteve taxa de morte celular e formação de sincícios semelhantes àqueles induzidos pelo vírus em células não tratadas, indicando danos citotóxicos e deletérios. Nossos resultados corroboram achados relatados anteriormente de que as NETs contribuem para a imunopatologia desenvolvida por pacientes infectados com hRSV.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preescolar , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Humano , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio , Trampas Extracelulares , Células Epiteliales , Pulmón
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285619

RESUMEN

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preescolar , Niño , Anciano , Granada (Fruta) , Staphylococcus aureus , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Escherichia coli , Antiinfecciosos
6.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 225: 105534, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36030640

RESUMEN

There is a lack of research on the development of prosocial behavior in middle childhood. The current study addressed this gap through the application of attachment theory; attachment security has been shown to promote prosocial behavior in early childhood, and emotion regulation may be an important intervening variable in this association. A sample of 199 children (aged 6-12 years) reported on their attachment internal working models for the mother-child and father-child relationships, parents reported on child emotion regulation and emotional lability/dysregulation, and children completed a sticker donation task to assess their prosocial behavior. Child emotional lability/dysregulation served as an intervening variable in the association between father-child attachment security (communication and trust) and greater sticker donation. Mother-child and father-child attachment security was also associated with child emotion regulation, but emotion regulation was not associated with sticker donation. Findings suggest that secure attachment may foster prosocial behavior toward peers in middle childhood primarily by reducing dysregulated responses to the distress of others.


Asunto(s)
Altruismo , Regulación Emocional , Niño , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Preescolar , Emociones/fisiología , Relaciones Padre-Hijo , Humanos , Apego a Objetos
7.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 225: 105533, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049249

RESUMEN

Young children frequently make a peculiar counting mistake. When asked to count units that are sets of multiple items, such as the number of families at a party, they often count discrete items (i.e., individual people) rather than the number of sets (i.e., families). One explanation concerns children's incomplete understanding of what constitutes a unit, resulting in a preference for discrete items. Here we demonstrate that children's incomplete understanding of counting also plays a role. In an experiment with 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 43), we found that even if children are able to name sets, group items into sets, and create one-to-one correspondences with sets, many children are nevertheless unable to count sets as units. We conclude that a nascent understanding of the abstraction principle of counting is also a cause of some children's counting errors.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil , Formación de Concepto , Preescolar , Humanos
8.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 225: 105532, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988359

RESUMEN

The cooperative eye hypothesis posits that human eye morphology evolved to facilitate cooperation. Although it is known that young children prefer stimuli with eyes that contain white sclera, it is unknown whether white sclera influences children's perception of a partner's cooperativeness specifically. In the current studies, we used an online methodology to present 5-year-old children with moving three-dimensional face models in which facial morphology was manipulated. Children found "alien" faces with human eyes more cooperative than faces with dark sclera (Study 2) but not faces with enlarged irises (Study 1). For more human-like faces (Study 3), children found human eyes more cooperative than either enlarged irises or dark sclera and found faces with enlarged irises cuter (but not more cooperative) than eyes with dark sclera. Together, these results provide strong support for the cooperative eye hypothesis.


Asunto(s)
Movimientos Oculares , Esclerótica , Preescolar , Conducta Cooperativa , Humanos , Esclerótica/anatomía & histología
9.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 225: 105493, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007352

RESUMEN

Restrictions in the sequencing of sounds (phonotactic constraints) can be represented at the level of sound co-occurrences (e.g., in baF.Pev, F and P co-occur) and at the level of the syllable (e.g., F is syllable-coda/end, P is syllable-onset/start). Can children (5-year-olds) and infants (11-month-olds) represent constraints as sound co-occurrences and/or relative to syllable positions? Participants listened to artificial languages displaying both word-medial consonant restrictions in co-occurrence pairs (e.g., FP or DZ but not FZ) and in the position of consonants within syllables (e.g., P/Z onsets and D/F codas) in words like baF.Pev and tiD.Zek. Children responded similarly to novel words with the same (e.g., FP) versus different (e.g., FZ) co-occurrence pairs, but they were more misled (i.e., responded "heard it before") by novel words with consonants in the same (e.g., onset-P) versus different (e.g., coda-P) syllable positions (Experiment 1). With the same training stimuli, infants had similar orientation times for novel words with the same versus different co-occurrence pairs, but they had longer orientation times for novel words with consonants in the same versus different syllable positions (Experiment 2). Thus, across different methods and ages, syllable-position information was more readily available for generalization than consonant co-occurrence information. The results suggest that when multiple regularities are present simultaneously, some phonotactic constraints (e.g., consonants in particular syllable positions) may be spontaneously represented and generalized by children and infants, whereas others (e.g., consonant co-occurrences) might not be available. The results contribute toward understanding how children and infants represent sound sequences.


Asunto(s)
Fonética , Percepción del Habla , Niño , Preescolar , Generalización Psicológica , Humanos , Lactante , Lenguaje , Aprendizaje
10.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(12): e98, 2022 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347906

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is quite difficult to distinguish retractile testis from gliding testis, which requires different treatment planning in the clinic setting. We evaluated practice patterns of urologists in Korea regarding the diagnosis and management of retractile and gliding testes. METHODS: We mailed or e-mailed self-completion questionnaires consisting of 20 items to 106 urologists practicing in Korean hospitals concerning the diagnosis and treatment of cryptorchidism. We collected and analyzed the responses statistically. RESULTS: Responses were received from 62 urologists. The response rate was 58.5%. Thirty-seven urologists (59.7%) actually felt they had difficulty in distinguishing retractile testis from gliding testis in the clinic setting. This rate was higher for non-pediatric urologists (78.1%) than for pediatric urologists (40.0%) (P = 0.006). In cases of infant retractile testis, only five urologists (8.1%) said that they would perform orchiopexy immediately, with 54 (87.1%) urologists saying they would do follow-up. In cases of preschool-age children with retractile testis, 17 urologists (27.4%) said that they would perform orchiopexy immediately with 41 (66.1%) urologists saying they would do follow-up. In cases of infant gliding testis, 37 urologists (59.7%) said that they would perform orchiopexy immediately with 24 (38.7%) urologists saying they would do a follow-up. CONCLUSION: More than half (59.7%) of Korean urologists revealed it challenging to distinguish retractile testis and gliding testis in the clinical setting. The more it was difficult to diagnose retractile testis with certainty, the more frequent surgical correction was chosen for treatment. Therefore, it is essential to prevent unnecessary surgical treatment by establishing a practical guideline.


Asunto(s)
Criptorquidismo , Urólogos , Niño , Preescolar , Comprensión , Criptorquidismo/diagnóstico , Criptorquidismo/cirugía , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino
11.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(3): 333-339, 2022 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952557

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of gynecomastia, determine mean glandular breast tissue sizes, and evaluate whether there is any difference in the prevalence rate of gynecomastia according to age using three different reference values of glandular breast tissue size (≥5, ≥10, ≥20 mm) in the pediatric age group. METHODS: Glandular breast tissue sizes were measured retrospectively from thoracic computed tomography (CT) images taken for other reasons in 961 boys aged 1-18 years. RESULTS: When each breast was evaluated separately (1,922 breasts), gynecomastia was observed in 1,001 (52.1%), 719 (37.4%), and 216 (11.2%) breasts with ≥5, ≥10, and ≥20 mm considered as reference values, respectively. A significant difference was found in terms of gynecomastia (p<0.001) and mean glandular breast tissue size (p<0.001) with respect to age. CONCLUSIONS: New studies are currently needed to determine the glandular breast tissue size and the prevalence rate of gynecomastia in boys, and thoracic CT images can be used for this purpose.


Asunto(s)
Ginecomastia , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Ginecomastia/diagnóstico por imagen , Ginecomastia/epidemiología , Humanos , Hallazgos Incidentales , Lactante , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos
12.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 67-75, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130567

RESUMEN

Resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome (RTHS) is defined as increased thyroxine and triiodothyronine associated with normal or increased thyrotropin. This is usually due to a pathogenic variant of the gene coding for thyroid hormone receptor B (THRB). THRB is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an altered response of target tissue to the thyroid hormone action. Retrospective cross-sectional observational study with diagnosis of RTHS evaluated in secondary and tertiary hospitals for 6 years, from 2014 to 2020, in order to describe variables including age, sex, anthropometric data, clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients, who were divided according to age, in a pediatric group from 0 to 14 years (index cases), and an adult group composed of adult relatives of index cases. A molecular analysis of the THRB gene was performed. The total retrospective cohort included 7 pediatric patients and 15 adults. We found 22 cases with a clear male predominance (14/22). Mean age is 24.8 years old (22 days-70 years). Patients were referred because of symptoms 18.2% (4/22), analysis results 22.7% (5/22), or familial study 59.1% (13/22). About 31.8% (7/22) cases show goiter, 31.8% (7/22) sympathetic symptoms and 13.6% (3/22) abnormalities in behavior. In most cases, 77.3%, (17/22) show familial background of thyroid abnormalities. It is important to remark that 18.2% (4/22) relatives received previous incorrect treatments such as thyroidectomy, because of wrong diagnosis. In conclusion, a better understanding of RTHS, its prompt molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling, could avoid unnecessary tests and inappropriate treatments.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Resistencia a Hormonas Tiroideas , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Mutación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Receptores beta de Hormona Tiroidea/genética , Síndrome de Resistencia a Hormonas Tiroideas/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resistencia a Hormonas Tiroideas/genética , Tirotropina , Tiroxina , Triyodotironina , Adulto Joven
13.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226341, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1354797

RESUMEN

Treatment of dental caries in children still remains challenging due to lack of cooperation with conventional treatment modalities. Recently, the use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) has proved useful in addressing this challenge. Aim: This clinical trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) in arresting caries in children in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: This was a phase III balanced randomized controlled school based interventional study on 240 children. The study group was treated with SDF while GIC was used in the control group. Follow up visits in 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months were carried out to assess the treatment outcome. Inferential statistics with the use of Pearson Chi-square test and Independent Student t-test were used at 5% level of significance. Results: There was significant relationship between SDF and caries arrest in 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months' assessment period (p = 0.001). The control group showed continuous decline (71.7%, 54.3% and 50.9%) in restorative success from 2 weeks to 3 months respectively. The mean ± SD and Confidence Interval (CI) of arrested caries in the SDF group were 113± 1.24 and 113.1 ­ 113.5 respectively. In the control group the mean ± SD and CI of restorative success were 69.3±11.8 and 67.2 ­ 71.4. The effect size was 5.24. Conclusion: The result of the study showed that SDF was effective in arresting caries in children without any harm and there was statistically significant difference in the use of 38% SDF in arresting caries in children


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Niño , Fluoruros Tópicos , Caries Dental , Cementos de Ionómero Vítreo
14.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226288, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1366204

RESUMEN

Aim: To describe the pattern of toothache experience in a cohort of children aged 2-5 over 21 years and to find the relationship between previous toothache experience and later reports of toothache to get finding on the most critical period of toothache as a problem in life. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS). A total of 1,927 children from IFLS-1 with complete data were included as baseline participants. They were followed up four times within 21 years (age 6-9y, age 9-12y, age 16-19y, age 23- 26y). Toothache was based on the question of self-reported toothache experience during the last four weeks. After 21 years, a total of 1,098 individuals could be traced and completed every cohort of the survey. Toothache experiences were reported for frequencies in every cohort and accumulative experiences over 21 years. Logistic regression tests were performed to analyze the association of previous toothache experience and later toothache experience. Results: Almost 40% of the respondents reported toothache at least once in their life. The age of 6-9 years is the period when a high percentage of children had teeth-related pain. The experience of toothache at this period was significantly related to every period of age in life. Conclusions: The period of early mixed dentition is important. Oral health status in this period is associated with future oral health. A comprehensive dental health prevention program targeting this population is essential to increase the quality of life


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Odontalgia/epidemiología , Salud Bucal , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas de Salud Bucal , Prevalencia , Estudios Longitudinales , Indonesia/epidemiología
15.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(2): e205, dic. 2022. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1383652

RESUMEN

En marzo de 2020 se confirma el primer caso de enfermedad por coronavirus en Uruguay, recomendándose un confinamiento social. La atención sanitaria se redujo a servicios de urgencia y emergencia (SE). Objetivo: analizar las características de las consultas pediátricas en los SE del subsector público y privado en Uruguay, durante los primeros 4 meses de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2. Metodología: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, multicéntrico. Resultados: participaron 23 SE de todas las regiones del país. Período 1 prepandemia: 14/03/19-29.07.19, período 2: 14/03/20-29/07/20 Consultas: período 1 n=121.116, período 2 n=33.099 (desciende 73%). Hospitalizaciones desde el SE: período 1 n= .6649 (tasa 5,5%). Período 2: n=2.948 (tasa 9,5%). Diagnósticos período 1: infección respiratoria aguda (IRA) alta 39.892 (33%), IRA baja 86.56 (7%), trauma menor 8.651 (7%), gastroenteritis 8.044 (6,6%), crisis asmática/CBO 7.974 (6,5%), lesiones 4.389 (3,6%), dolor abdominal 3.528 (3%), problemas de salud mental 859 (0,7%), convulsiones 758 (0,7%), patología social 678 (0,5%). Diagnósticos 2020: IRA alta 5.168 (16%), trauma menor 2.759 (8%), lesiones 2.652 (8%), dolor abdominal 1.494 (4,5%), gastroenteritis 1.296 (4%), asma/CBO 1.095 (3,3%), IRA baja 700 (2,1%), patología social 522 (1,6%), problemas de salud mental 471 (1,4%), convulsiones 408 (1,2%). Conclusiones: en los primeros meses de la pandemia hubo una reducción sostenida y significativo de consultas pediátricas en los SE. No hubo aumento en frecuencia absoluta de ninguno de los diagnósticos. Se registró un descenso histórico de las IRA bajas y las hospitalizaciones por esta causa en todo el país. Mantener una vigilancia de las consultas en los SE permitiría identificar e intervenir oportunamente si se produjeran cambios o situaciones de riesgo hasta el momento no detectadas.


In March 2020 the first case of coronavirus disease was confirmed in Uruguay, and lockdown was recommended. Health care services were reduced to Urgency and Emergency Services (ES). Objectives: to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric visits to the ES of the public and private subsector in Uruguay, during the first 4 months of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Methods: descriptive, retrospective. Results: 23 institutions participated. 2 periods were considered: 1) pre-pandemic, 03/14/19 to 07/29/19, 2) 03/14/20 to 07/29/20. Visits: period 1: n=121,116 (< 15 years), period 2: n=33.099 (73% decrease). Hospital admissions: period 1: n=6,649 (rate 5.5). Period 2: n=2.948 (rate 9,5). Diagnoses period 1: High acute respiratory infection 39,892 (33%), low acute respiratory infection 8,656 (7%), minor trauma 8,651 (7%), gastroenteritis 8,044 (6,6%), asthmatic crisis/CBO 7.974 (6,5%), injuries 4,389 (3,6%), abdominal pain (3,528) 3%, mental health problems 859 (0.7%), seizures 758 (0.7%), social pathology 678 (0.5% ). 2020 diagnoses: high acute respiratory infection 5.168 (16%), minor trauma 2,759 (8%), injuries 2,652 (8%), abdominal pain 1,494 (4.5%), gastroenteritis 1,296 (4%), asthma/CBO 1,095 (3,3%), low acute respiratory infection 700 (2,1%), social pathology 522 (1,6%), mental health problems 471 (1,4%), seizures 408 (1,2%). Conclusions: in the first months of the pandemic there was a sustained and significant reduction in pediatric consultations in ES. There was no increase in absolute frequency of any of the diagnoses. There was a historical decrease in low respiratory infections and hospitalizations due to this cause in the whole country. Maintaining a surveillance of the visits in the ES would enable practitioners to identify and take action in case of changes or previously undetected risk situations.


Em março de 2020, foi confirmado o primeiro caso de doença por coronavírus no Uruguai, recomendando o confinamento. A assistência à saúde foi reduzida a serviços de urgência e emergência (SE). Objetivo: analisar as características das consultas pediátricas no SE do subsetor público e privado no Uruguai, durante os primeiros 4 meses da pandemia de SARS-CoV-2. Metodologia: estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, multicêntrico. Resultados: participaram 23 SEs de todas as regiões do país. Período pré-pandemia 1: 14/03/19-29/07/19, período 2: 14/03/20-29/07/20 Consultas: período 1 n=121.116, período 2 n=33.099 (redução de 73%) . Internações da SE: período 1 n= 0,6649 (taxa 5,5%). Período 2: n=2.948 (taxa de 9,5%). Diagnósticos do período 1: infecção respiratória aguda alta (IRA) 39.892 (33%), LRA baixa 86,56 (7%), trauma menor 8.651 (7%), gastroenterite 8.044 (6,6%), crise asmática/CBO 7.974 (6, 5% ), lesões 4.389 (3,6%), dor abdominal 3.528 (3%), problemas de saúde mental 859 (0,7%), convulsões 758 (0,7%), patologia social 678 (0,5%). Diagnósticos 2020: IRA alta 5.168 (16%), trauma leve 2.759 (8%), lesões 2.652 (8%), dor abdominal 1.494 (4,5%), gastroenterite 1.296 (4%), asma/CBO 1.095 (3, 3%), IRA baixa 700 (2,1%), patologia social 522 (1,6%), problemas de saúde mental 471 (1,4%), convulsões 408 (1,2%). Conclusões: nos primeiros meses da pandemia houve uma redução sustentada e significativa das consultas pediátricas no SE. Não houve aumento na frequência absoluta de nenhum dos diagnósticos. Foi registrado um decréscimo histórico de IRAs baixas e internações por essa causa em todo o país. A manutenção de uma vigilância das consultas no SE permitiria identificar e intervir atempadamente nos casos de alterações ou situações de risco que até agora não tinham sido detectadas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Salud Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Médica , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Uruguay/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudio Multicéntrico , Sector Público , Sector Privado , Distribución por Edad y Sexo
16.
rev.cuid. (Bucaramanga.2010) ; 13(1): 1-16, 20221213.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369105

RESUMEN

Introducción: En el ambiente del hogar se propician estilos de crianza, aprendizajes, actividades, experiencias y estímulos que modulan la estimulación del niño(a). Objetivo: Identificar el grado de estimulación temprana y su relación con variables de tipología familiar y participación en el cuidado de niños(as) entre 1 y 4 años de un centro de desarrollo infantil en Pereira, Colombia, en 2019. Métodos: Estudio transversal. Se realizó un muestreo tipo censo que incluyó a todos los niños y cuidadores, que cumplían con los criterios de selección (niños sin antecedente de patologías neurológicas, consentimiento informado de cuidadores). Se midieron variables sociodemográficas y de tipología familiar. Se empleó el Inventario de estimulación temprana en el hogar HOME45 (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment). Se realizó análisis univariado y bivariado. Para la asociación entre predictores y el puntaje global de estimulación temprana (desenlace: alta/media/baja) se efectuó una regresión logística ordinal. Resultados: Participaron 76 diadas madre-hijo. La mediana de edad de los niños fue 36 meses (RIQ=11, 12-48). El cuidado diario fue brindado en un 67% por la madre. Se evidenció una alta estimulación en el 50% de las diadas. Los predictores que redujeron la probabilidad de estimulación alta fueron (p<0,05): hábito de lectura (No, RP=0,29 (0,09-0,87)), participación en fiestas infantiles (No, RP=0,24 (0,07­0,79)), edad del cuidador (mayor a 36 años, RP=0,95 (0,92-1,00)), estrategia de corrección (castigo verbal o físico, RP=0,16 (0,03-0,98)). Conclusión: Corregir al niño mediante diálogo, incentivar la lectura y participar de fiestas infantiles, además de tener un cuidador menor de 35 años, fueron variables que incrementaron la probabilidad de presentar una alta estimulación.


Introduction: Home environment fosters parenting styles, learning, activities, experiences, and stimuli modulating children's stimulation. Objective: To identify the degree of home-based early stimulation and its relationship with family variables and participation in the care of children aged 1 to 4 years attending a daycare center in Pereira, Colombia in 2019. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted by means of a census sampling including all children and caregivers who met the selection criteria (children with no history of neurological disorders and caregiver informed consent.) Sociodemographic and family variables were also measured. The Early Childhood HOME45 (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) inventory was administered. Univariate and bivariate analyses were carried out. Ordinal logistic regression was performed for associating predictors and total early stimulation score (high/medium/low). Results: The average age of children was 36 months (RIQ=11, 12-48). 67% of mothers gave children daily care. High stimulation was observed for 50% of the dyads. Predictors that reduced the probability of high stimulation (p<0.05) were reading habit (No, PR=0.29 (0.09-0.87)), participation in children's parties (No, PR=0.24 (0.07-0.79)), caregiver age (older than 36 years old, PR=0.95 (0.92-1.00)), child discipline strategy applied (verbal or physical abuse) (PR=0.16 (0.03-0.98)). Conclusions: Educating children through dialogue, encouraging reading and participating in children's parties, as well as having a caregiver under 35 years of age, were variables that increased the probability of high stimulation in children.


Introdução: O ambiente familiar fomenta estilos de criação, aprendizagem, atividades, experiências e estímulos que modulam a estimulação das crianças. Objetivo: Identificar o grau de estimulação precoce e sua relação com variáveis de tipologia familiar e participação no cuidado de crianças entre 1 e 4 anos de idade em um centro de desenvolvimento infantil em Pereira, Colômbia, em 2019. Métodos: Estudo de corte transversal. Foi realizada uma amostragem tipo censo que incluiu todas as crianças e cuidadores que preenchiam os critérios de seleção (crianças sem histórico de patologias neurológicas, consentimento informado dos cuidadores). As variáveis sociodemográficas e de tipologia familiar foram medidas. O inventário de estimulação precoce HOME45 (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) foi utilizado. Foram realizadas análises univariadas e bivariadas. Para a associação entre os preditores e a pontuação global de estimulação precoce (resultado: alto/médio/baixo), foi realizada uma regressão logística ordinal. Resultados: Setenta e seis díades mãe-filho participaram. A idade média das crianças era de 36 meses (RIQ=11, 12-48). O cuidado diário era de 67% fornecido pela mãe. A alta estimulação era evidente em 50% das díades. Os preditores que reduziram a probabilidade de alta estimulação foram (p<0,05): hábito de leitura (Não, PR=0,29 (0,09-0,87)), participação em festas infantis (Não, PR=0,24 (0,07-0,79)), idade do cuidador (mais de 36 anos, PR=0,95 (0,92-1,00)), estratégia de correção (castigo verbal ou físico, PR=0,16 (0,03-0,98)). Conclusão. Corrigir a criança através do diálogo, incentivar a leitura e a participação em festas infantis, assim como ter um cuidador com menos de 35 anos de idade, foram variáveis que aumentaram a probabilidade de apresentar um alto nível de estimulação.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preescolar , Niño , Conducta Infantil , Desarrollo Infantil , Crianza del Niño , Relaciones Familiares
17.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226343, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1393030

RESUMEN

Aim: to evaluate the surgical effects of two rehabilitation protocols on dental arch occlusion of 5-year-old children with or without cleft lip and palate. Methods: this is a retrospective longitudinal study the sample comprised 45 digitized dental casts divided into followed groups: Group 1 (G1) ­ children who underwent to cheiloplasty (Millard technique) at 3 months and to one-stage palatoplasty (von Langenbeck technique) at 12 months; Group 2 (G2) ­ children who underwent to cheiloplasty (Millard technique) and two-stage palatoplasty (Hans Pichler technique for hard palate closure) at 3 months and at 12 months to soft palate closure (Sommerlad technique); and Group 3 (G3) ­ children without craniofacial anomalies. Linear measurements, area, and occlusion were evaluated by stereophotogrammetry software. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to verify normality. ANOVA followed by posthoc Tukey test and Kruskal-Wallis followed by posthoc Dunn tests were used to compared groups. Results: For the measures intercanine distance (C-C'), anterior length of dental arch (I-CC'), and total length of the dental arch (I­MM'), there were statistical differences between G1x G3 and G2xG3, the mean was smaller for G1 and G2. No statistically significant differences occurred in the intermolar distance and in the dental arch area among groups. The occlusion analysis revealed significant difference in the comparison of the three groups (p=0.0004). Conclusion: The surgical effects of two rehabilitation protocols affected the occlusion and the development of the anterior region of the maxilla of children with oral clefts when compared to children without oral clefts.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Cirugía Bucal , Protocolos Clínicos , Labio Leporino , Fisura del Paladar , Arco Dental , Oclusión Dental
18.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e227095, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1393297

RESUMEN

Aim: To verify the validity of maternal reports on the number of deciduous teeth erupted in their children. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed with children enrolled in a Birth Cohort at the age of 12 months in the first stage and 24 months in the second stage. At both stages, children were clinically examined, and mothers reported the number of teeth of their children. Comparison between groups was performed using the Mann-Whitney non-paired Wilcoxon test. Level of agreement between two methods were estimated by the Observed Agreement, Weighted Kappa and Intraclass Correlation coefficients. Results: A total of 125 children were examined in the first stage, with mean number of reported teeth of 6.2. In the second stage, 149 children were examined, with mean number of reported teeth of 15.9. High level of agreement, kappa values and intraclass correlation coefficients were observed for both arches in both periods (p<0.001). Conclusions: Maternal report on the number of teeth erupted in children was reliable and valid. Thus, it seems to be a useful instrument for collecting data in population-based epidemiological studies targeting young children


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Lactante , Preescolar , Diente Primario , Erupción Dental , Desarrollo Infantil , Odontología Pediátrica , Madres
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41(Suppl 1): 3, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36158748

RESUMEN

Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda. In June 2019, the Uganda Ministry of Health through routine surveillance data analysis was notified of an increase in malaria cases in Bumbobi and Nyondo Sub-counties, Mbale District, which exceeded the action thresholds. We investigated to assess outbreak magnitude, identify transmission risk factors, and recommend evidence-based control measures. We defined a confirmed case as a positive malaria result using malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test or microscopy from 1 Jan 2019 to 30 Jun 2019 in a resident or visitor of Bumbobi or Nyondo Sub-county, Mbale District. We reviewed medical records to develop a line list for descriptive epidemiology. In a case-control study, we compared exposures between 150 case-persons and 150 age- and village-matched asymptomatic controls. We conducted environmental and entomological assessments on vector dynamics and behavior. We identified 7,891 case-persons (attack rate [AR]=26%). Females (AR=36%) were more affected than males (AR=25%). The 5-18 year age group (AR=26%) was most affected. The epidemic curve showed steady increase in malaria cases from March following intermittent rainfall from January, with short spells of no rainfall up to June. In the matched pair case-control analysis, 95% (143/150) of case-patients and 49% (73/150) of controls had soil erosion control pits near their homes that held stagnant water for several days following rainfall (AOR=18, 95%CI=7-50); Active breeding sites were found near and within homesteads with Anopheles gambiaeas the predominant vector. Increased vector breeding sites due to erosion control pits sustained by the intermittent rainfall caused this outbreak. We recommended draining of pits immediately after the rains and increasing coverage for bed-nets.


Asunto(s)
Malaria , Mosquitos Vectores , Adolescente , Animales , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Malaria/prevención & control , Masculino , Uganda/epidemiología , Agua
20.
J Anal Psychol ; 67(4): 1091-1125, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36165300

RESUMEN

The birth of a new sibling can create a state of inner chaos for the first born. Conflict, aggression and regression often occur as the replaced child adjusts to his loss of exclusivity. This paper describes a short analytic sandplay case of a 5-year-old boy manifesting anger and anxiety as the birth of his new sibling approached. Throughout this individuation process, a fluid back and forth movement occurred from regression to progression, and from deintegration to reintegration (Fordham 1988), as he advanced from the regressed Uroboric phase of development, forward to the age-appropriate phase of the Patriarche (Neumann 1990). As he grieved the loss of his exclusive status, Roy worked with his aggressive feelings towards his mother and the new baby, as well as with his feelings of despair. This process developed in the context of a positive maternal transference which allowed for both moments of deep resonance, states of participation mystique, and moments of projected rage and aggression towards the 'abandoning mother'. His work in analysis resulted in an opening of the ego-Self axis, a solidifying of the depressive position, and a movement forward in development. At the end of treatment, an initiatory process into the realm of the 'Father' was activated. Roy's symptoms had diminished and he was ready to leave the regressive pull of the Great Mother and move out into the world of peers, with a strengthened ego and an expanded sense of self.


La naissance d'un petit frère ou d'une petite sœur peut générer un état de chaos intérieur pour le premier de la fratrie. Alors que l'enfant remplacé s'ajuste à la perte de l'exclusivité, des conflits, de l'agressivité et une régression peuvent se produire. Cet article décrit un court cas de thérapie analytique par le jeu de sable avec un petit garçon de cinq ans qui montrait de la colère et de l'angoisse alors que la naissance du prochain enfant se rapprochait. Au cours de ce processus d'individuation, un mouvement fluide de flux et de reflux se produisit de la régression à la progression, et de la dé-intégration à la ré-intégration (Fordham 1985) alors qu'il avançait de la phase ouroborique régressée du développement vers la phase en relation avec son âge et dite « du Patriarche ¼ (Neumann 1990). Alors qu'il faisait le deuil de son statut d'exclusivité, Roy travailla ses sentiments agressifs envers sa mère et le nouveau bébé ainsi que ses sentiments de désespoir. Ce processus se produisit dans le contexte d'un transfert maternel positif qui rendit possible des moments de profonde résonnance, des états de participation mystique, ainsi que des moments de rage et d'agressivité projetée envers « la mère qui abandonne ¼. Son travail d'analyse aboutit à une ouverture de l'axe moi-Soi, une consolidation de la position dépressive et un mouvement en avant dans son développement. A la fin du traitement, le commencement d'un processus dans le domaine du « Père ¼ fut activé. Les symptômes de Roy décrurent et il fut capable de lâcher l'emprise de la Grande Mère et d'avancer vers le monde de ses pairs, avec un Moi renforcé et un sentiment de soi plus large.


El nacimiento de un hermano puede crear un estado de caos interno para el primer hijo. Conflicto, agresión y regresión suceden a menudo a medida que el niño reemplazado se adapta a su falta de exclusividad. El presente trabajo describe un corto caso analítico de Juego con Arena, de un niño de cinco años que manifestaba enojo y ansiedad a medida que se aproximaba el nacimiento de su nuevo hermano. A través de su proceso de individuación, ocurrió un fluido movimiento de ir y venir desde la regresión hacia la progresión, y desde la deintegración hacia la integración (Fordham 1985), a medida que avanzaba desde una fase del desarrollo urobórica regresiva, a una fase Patriarcal adecuada a su edad (Neumann 1990). A medida que duelaba la pérdida de su estatus exclusivo, Roy trabajó con sus sentimientos agresivos hacia la madre y nuevo hermano, así como también con su sentimiento de desesperación. Este proceso se desarrolló en el contexto de una transferencia materna positiva, la cual posibilitó estados de profunda resonancia, estados de participation mystique, y momentos de ira y agresión proyectadas en la 'madre abandónica'. Su trabajo en análisis resultó en una apertura del eje ego-Self, una consolidación de la posición depresiva, y en un movimiento hacia adelante en su desarrollo. Hacia el final del tratamiento, se activó un proceso de iniciación en la dimensión del 'Padre'. Los síntomas de Roy decrecieron y estuvo listo para dejar la fuerza de atracción de la Gran Madre y moverse hacia el mundo de los pares, con un ego fortalecido y un sentido expandido del self.


Asunto(s)
Individualismo , Preescolar , Humanos , Masculino , Receptor para Productos Finales de Glicación Avanzada
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