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J Mater Chem B ; 12(25): 6005-6032, 2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38869470


Periodontitis is an immune-inflammatory disease caused by dental plaque, and deteriorates the periodontal ligament, causes alveolar bone loss, and may lead to tooth loss. To treat periodontitis, antibacterial and anti-inflammation approaches are required to reduce bone loss. Thus, appropriate drug administration methods are significant. Due to their "syringeability", biocompatibility, and convenience, injectable hydrogels and associated methods have been extensively studied and used for periodontitis therapy. Such hydrogels are made from natural and synthetic polymer materials using physical and/or chemical cross-linking approaches. Interestingly, some injectable hydrogels are stimuli-responsive hydrogels, which respond to the local microenvironment and form hydrogels that release drugs. Therefore, as injectable hydrogels are different and highly varied, we systematically reviewed the periodontal treatment field from three perspectives: raw material sources, cross-linking methods, and stimuli-responsive methods. We then discussed current challenges and opportunities for the translation of hydrogels to clinic, which may guide further injectable hydrogel designs for periodontitis.

Hidrogéis , Periodontite , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrogéis/química , Humanos , Animais , Injeções , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10: 1036061, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324890


Apical periodontitis is a common clinical disease caused by bacteria; bacterial metabolites can cause an imbalance in bone homeostasis, bone mass reduction, and tooth loss. Bone resorption in apical periodontitis causes a concentration of stress in the tooth and periodontal tissues during occlusion, which aggravates the disease. Emerging evidence indicates that bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), also known as growth differentiation factor 2(Gdf2), may play an important role in tooth and dentoalveolar development. Herein, we investigated the role of BMP9 in the development of apical periodontitis and its effects on the biomechanics of dentoalveolar bone. Apical periodontitis models were established in five BMP9 knockout (KO) mice and five C57BL/6 WT (wild-type) mice. At baseline and 14, 28, and 42 days after modeling, in vivo micro-computed tomography analysis and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction were performed to evaluate the apical lesion in each mouse, and confirm that the animal models were successfully established. Finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to study the stress and strain at the alveolar fossa of each mouse under the same vertical and lateral stress. FEA revealed that the stress and strain at the alveolar fossa of each mouse gradually concentrated on the tooth cervix. The stress and strain at the tooth cervix gradually increased with time but were decreased at day 42. Under the same lingual loading, the maximum differences of the stress and strain at the tooth root in KO mice were greater than those in WT mice. Thus, these findings demonstrate that BMP9 could affect the biomechanical response of the alveolar fossa at the tooth root in mice with apical periodontitis. Moreover, the effects of BMP9 on the biomechanical response of the alveolar bone may be site-dependent. Overall, this work contributes to an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis and may inform the development of new treatment strategies for apical periodontitis.