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1.
J Clin Periodontol ; 48(9): 1165-1188, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101223

RESUMO

AIM: Up-to-date epidemiological studies on the global burden of severe periodontitis is scarce. This study aimed to present the latest estimates for prevalence of severe periodontitis from 1990 to 2019, by region, age, and level of socio-demographic development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Estimates from the Global Burden of Disease study 2019 were used to investigate burden and trends of prevalence of severe periodontitis and its association with socio-demographic development at global, regional, and national level. Decomposition analysis was performed to explore the contribution of demographic and epidemiological factors to the evolving burden of severe periodontitis. RESULTS: In 2019, there were 1.1 billion (95% uncertainty interval: 0.8-1.4 billion) prevalent cases of severe periodontitis globally. From 1990 to 2019, age-standardized prevalence rate of severe periodontitis increased by 8.44% (6.62%-10.59%) worldwide. Prevalence of severe periodontitis is higher among less developed countries/regions. Global population growth accounted for 67.9% of the increase in the number of prevalent cases of severe periodontitis from 1990 to 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The global burden of severe periodontitis has been substantial and increasing over the past three decades. Upstream policy changes are urgently needed to address the global public health challenge of severe periodontitis.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Periodontite , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
2.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 57, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate changes in facial morphology during the first six months of orthodontic treatment among adult females receiving orthodontic treatment. METHODS: 43 adult females receiving orthodontic treatment were randomly recruited. 3D facial images were taken at baseline (T0), three months (T1), and six months (T2) after treatment initiation. Spatially dense facial landmarks were digitized to allow for sufficient details in characterization of facial features. 3D geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistics were used to investigate changes in mean and variance of facial shape and facial form associated with treatment. RESULTS: We observed statistically significant changes in facial shape across the three treatment stages (p = 0.0022). Pairwise comparisons suggested significant changes from T0 to T1 (p = 0.0045) and from T0 to T2 (p = 0.0072). Heatmap visualization indicated that the buccal and temporal region were invaginated while the labial region became protruded with treatment. The magnitude of shape change was 0.009, 0.004, and 0.010 from T0 to T1, T1 to T2, and T0 to T2, respectively, in unit of Procrustes distance. The average magnitude of change per-landmark was 1.32 mm, 0.21 mm, and 1.34 mm, respectively. Changes in mean facial form were not statistically significant (p = 0.1143). No changes in variance of facial shape were observed across treatment stages (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Rate of facial changes was twice as fast during the first three months as that during fourth to sixth month. Buccal and temporal region became invaginated while labial region became protruded with treatment.


Assuntos
Face , Imageamento Tridimensional , Cefalometria , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino
3.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 59(10): 1019-1026, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28627071

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the oral health status of children and adolescents affected by intellectual disabilities with their unaffected counterparts. METHOD: Citations published in English were searched from electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus) from their start dates to March 2017. The whole process was conducted following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The PICO (population, intervention/interest, comparator, outcome) principle was used to formulate the topic. Studies were synthesized through qualitative summary or, whenever possible, meta-analysis. RESULTS: The initial search yielded 2393 records. Thirty-nine studies from 22 countries were identified for qualitative analysis; 26 studies were eligible for meta-analysis. Participants with intellectual disabilities had higher levels of dental plaque, worse gingival status, fewer decayed and filled permanent teeth, and similar caries experience between males and females. These findings were supported by both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Various patterns of caries experiences were indicated by qualitative analysis, but it was not substantiated by meta-analysis. INTERPRETATION: There is increasing worldwide interest in oral health status of children with intellectual disabilities. Differences in dental plaque deposition, gingival inflammation, and the number of decayed and filled permanent teeth were investigated between children and adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities. Evidence remains elusive about the pattern of caries experience among those children.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Saúde Bucal , Adolescente , Criança , Nível de Saúde , Humanos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to retrospectively evaluate the survival rate of pulpectomy performed under dental general anesthesia (DGA) through long-term follow-up and to explore the risk factors associated with treatment failure. METHODS: The medical records of the children who were diagnosed with S-ECC and received pulpectomy treatment under general anesthesia (GA) from 1 August 2014 to 1 December 2019, in the Stomatological Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, were collected. Two dentistry postgraduates extracted the necessary information and filled in a predesigned excel form. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The shared frailty model was used to explore possible factors affecting the success rate of pulpectomy in primary teeth. RESULTS: A total of 381 children (mean age 3.49 ± 0.90) with S-ECC and 1220 teeth were included in the study, including 590 primary anterior teeth and 630 primary molars. The overall 35-month survival rate was 38.5%, which was 52.9% for anterior teeth and 31.1% for molars. The overall median survival time was 31 months, in which anterior teeth were 35 months and molars were 26 months. The older the children were, the greater the risk of treatment failure (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.09, 2.24). The risk of pulpectomy failure of primary molars was 1.9 times that of primary anterior teeth (95% CI 1.36, 2.65) and the teeth with abnormal radiological findings before treatment was 1.41 times higher than that of teeth without imaging abnormalities (95% CI 1.74, 3.36). CONCLUSION: The survival rate of primary tooth pulpectomy is acceptable but decreased gradually with time. The failure rate of pulpectomy in primary molars is higher than that of primary anterior teeth. When the primary caries has extended to the pulp and resulted in a nonvital lesion, pulpectomy could be an option for maximum retention of the primary tooth.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Pulpectomia , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pulpectomia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Dente Decíduo , Anestesia Geral , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/cirurgia
5.
Front Psychol ; 12: 555613, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122203

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is challenging the dental community to an unprecedented degree. Knowledge of the increased risk of infection in dental settings has been disseminated to the public and guidelines have been formulated to assist dental attendance decision-making. However, dental attendance behaviors incompatible with treatment need is not uncommon in clinical settings. Important gaps remain in the knowledge about how psychological factors are affecting dental attendance behaviors during the COVID-19 epidemic. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire survey was performed during February and March 2020. A total of 342 and 294 dental patients who attended and avoided dental visits, respectively, were included. The participants were classified into four groups based on dental attendance behavior and emergent/urgent dental treatment need. Bivariate analysis was performed to investigate factors associated with dental attendance. Multivariable logistic regression based on principal component scores was performed to identify major psychological constructs associated with unnecessary dental avoidance and attendance. Among all the factors explored, inability to wear masks during dental treatment (P < 0.001; effect size: 0.32) was most closely associated with the overall pattern of dental attendance among participants. Multivariable regression suggested that unnecessary dental avoidance was associated with perceived risk of infection in general and in dental settings (odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.62 [0.53, 0.72]; p < 0.001), perceived impact of COVID-19 and dental problems on general health (0.79 [0.65, 0.97]; 0.021), and personal traits such as trust and anxiety (0.77 [0.61, 0.98]; 0.038). Unnecessary dental attendance was associated with optimism toward the epidemic (1.68 [1.42, 2.01]; <0.001) and trust (1.39 [1.13, 1.74]; 0.002). Multidisciplinary efforts involving dental and medical professionals as well as psychologists are warranted to promote more widespread adoption, among the general public, of dental attendance behaviors compatible with dental treatment need during the COVID-19 epidemic.

6.
Am J Prev Med ; 59(6): 896-903, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153836

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to identify the trends in incidence and prevalence of untreated caries in permanent teeth in China during 1993-2017. METHODS: Data representing >31 billion person-years of observation from the Global Burden of Disease study 2017 were analyzed. Age-period-cohort modeling was performed to investigate the trends in untreated caries that may be of value to policymakers. Analyses were conducted in 2019-2020. RESULTS: Prevalence of untreated caries in permanent teeth decreased steadily before 2010; after which, an increasing trend was noted without the signs of plateauing (age-adjusted annual percentage change, 1993-2017: -0.54%, 95% CI= -0.75%, -0.33%; declining period RR, 1993-2017: p=6.33 × 10-9; declining cohort RR, 1993-2017: p=3.46 × 10-6). Although untreated caries prevalence declined overall among multiple age groups (p<0.05), an increase in prevalence after 2010 was noted. This was driven by the deteriorating oral health condition in recent birth cohorts aged <25 years. Estimates of the longitudinal age trend (incidence: -0.013, 95% CI= -0.015, -0.011; prevalence: -0.0038, 95% CI= -0.0060, -0.0015) suggested that the highest untreated caries incidence and prevalence rate were both observed among young adults aged 20-24 years. No differences between incidence and prevalence of untreated caries were observed among adults aged >55 years (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The increased burden of untreated caries in China after 2010 is driven by those aged <25 years. Untreated caries data from the Global Burden of Disease study are a valid complement to the data from the Chinese National Oral Health Epidemiology Surveys.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Saúde Bucal , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18526, 2019 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811230

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate changes in types of dental arch form during adolescence and explore adolescent changes in size and form of dental arch. Hong Kong Chinese were recruited and digital dental arch models were obtained at ages 12, 15, and 18 years. Geometric morphometrics was used to investigate adolescent changes of dental arch form. There were 225 participants from whom digital models at all three age periods were available. Three types of dental arch form were identified through clustering. Significant changes (p < 0.001) in types of dental arch form were noted during age 12-18 years. During age 12-18 years, significant changes in centroid size and form of dental arch were observed (p < 0.001). No significant changes were observed during 15-18 years. Adolescent changes of dental arch form occur primarily during age 12-15 years, whereas dental arch form was relatively stable during age 15-18 years.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Arco Dental/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Cefalometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Arco Dental/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(28): e11434, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995795

RESUMO

The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate scientific evidence on the association between emotional disorder (depression and anxiety) and chronic periodontitis. An overall electronic literature search in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure was undertaken up to November 2017. Newcastle-Ottawa scale was applied to ascertain the validity of each eligible study. Stata statistical software was used to perform meta-analysis. The strength of the association between periodontitis and emotional disorder was measured by odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were performed. Publication bias was assessed through funnel plots and Begger's test. A total of 14 eligible articles were included in the meta-analysis, 6 of them were focused exclusively on depression, whereas 8 studies investigated both depression and anxiety. There was significant association between emotional disorder and chronic periodontitis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.27-1.86). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the stability of the present results. No evidence of asymmetry was observed in Begger's test. This meta-analysis demonstrates significant association between emotional disorder (including anxiety and depression) and chronic periodontitis. Nevertheless, the result should be interpreted with caution because of the potential bias and confounding in the included studies.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/complicações , Periodontite Crônica/psicologia , Depressão/complicações , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 44(5): 467-75, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27112928

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Studies investigating influencing factors of permanent tooth eruption/emergence have primarily focused on anthropometric measurements while less attention has been paid to the effect of perinatal factors. We aimed to explore early factors associated with eruption status of permanent teeth among 12-year-olds through a population-representative prospective cohort. METHODS: A community sample of Hong Kong children born in 1997 was obtained by random sampling from local secondary schools. Participants' background information including birth characteristics, prenatal and early childhood exposures, family socioeconomic status and medical records was prospectively collected. Clinical examination of tooth emergence was conducted in 2010. Children were divided into complete emergence (of 28 permanent teeth) and partial emergence groups based on clinical examinations. Bivariate analyses were used to assess the association of tooth emergence status with each putative predictor. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were applied to select the best predictors for tooth emergence status at age 12. RESULTS: Complete background information and clinical data were available from 514 children (76.9% of the invited participants). Bivariate analyses showed that the average birthweight in the partial emergence group was significantly lower than the complete emergence group (mean difference 0.2 kg, P = 0.006). The finding was confirmed by logistic regression analyses. In the adjusted regression model, it was found that for every 1 kilogram increase in birthweight, the odds of having partial emergence would be lowered by 0.49 (odds ratio 0.49, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Birthweight is associated with status of permanent tooth emergence at 12 years of age, as observed from a population-representative sample of Hong Kong children.


Assuntos
Erupção Dentária , Fatores Etários , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Dentição Permanente , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 44(3): 255-62, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26776741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies on developmental defects of enamel (DDE) have focused on its potential contributory factors and prevalence while there is limited evidence on the longitudinal changes in the epidemiological profile of DDE. Thus, the objective of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether any type of DDE changes with time. METHODS: A total of 668 participants were initially recruited in 2010, and 432 participants were successfully followed up and examined for DDE both at the age of 12 in 2010 and 15 in 2013. The central incisor, lateral incisor and first molar in each quadrant were chosen as index teeth and were examined 'wet' by two trained and calibrated examiners using the modified FDI (DDE) Index. RESULTS: The mouth prevalence and tooth prevalence of 'any defect' showed a significant decrease from 2010 to 2013 (P < 0.001). This was predominantly due to the decrease in diffuse opacities (P < 0.001). Significant difference in the distribution of the extent of DDE was also found for diffuse opacities at both the participant and tooth levels irrespective of the types of tooth (P < 0.0001). Median extent score for diffuse opacities in 2013 was lower than those in 2010 at both participant and tooth level irrespective of the types of tooth (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Diffuse opacities, in terms of prevalence and severity, did fade out over time. The observed overall change in DDE was due to the dominating effect of diffuse opacities over demarcated opacities and hypoplasia.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/anormalidades , Anormalidades Dentárias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incisivo/anormalidades , Masculino , Prevalência , Anormalidades Dentárias/diagnóstico
11.
Heliyon ; 2(12): e00216, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28018985

RESUMO

While northern and southern Chinese are genetically correlated, there exists notable environmental differences in their living conditions. This study aimed to evaluate validity of the southern Chinese reference dataset for dental age estimation applied to northern Chinese. Dental panoramic tomographs of 437 northern Chinese aged 3 to 21 years were analysed. All the left maxillary and mandibular permanent teeth plus the 2 third molars on the right side were scored based on Demirjian's classification of tooth development stages. Mean and standard error of dental age were obtained for each tooth development stage, followed by random effect meta-analysis for mean dental age estimation. Validity of the method was examined through measures of agreement (95% limits of agreement, standard error of measurement, and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient) and measure of reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient). On average, the estimated dental age overestimated chronological age by only around 1 month in both females and males. The Intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.99 for both sexes, suggesting excellent reliability of the method. Reference dataset for dental age estimation developed on the basis of southern Chinese was applicable for use among the northern Chinese.

12.
Adv Nutr ; 6(6): 828-41, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26567204

RESUMO

The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarize evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and periodontal status in children and adolescents. We searched PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, and 7 additional databases, following the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, up to December 2014. Observational studies reporting data on the association between anthropometric measurements and periodontal diseases in 2-18-y-old participants were included. An initial search identified 4191 papers; 278 potentially effective studies (k = 0.82) and 16 effective studies (k = 0.83) were included after screening. The mean quality of evidence among the studies was 20.3, according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology checklist (k = 0.79). Meta-analyses showed that obesity (measured by body mass index) was significantly associated with visible plaque index (OR: 4.75; 95% CI: 2.42, 9.34), bleeding on probing (OR: 5.41; 95% CI: 2.75, 10.63), subgingival calculus (OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.10, 8.62), probing depth (OR: 14.15; 95% CI: 5.10, 39.25) and flow rate of salivary secretion (standardized mean difference: -0.89; 95% CI: -1.18, -0.61). However, various results were reported in the effective studies that were not included in meta-analyses. In conclusion, obesity is associated with some signs of periodontal disease in children and adolescents. Further studies with a comprehensive prospective cohort design and more potential variables are recommended.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Periodontais/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Placa Dentária/epidemiologia , Placa Dentária/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Energia , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Índice Periodontal , Salivação/fisiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 9(10): e109351, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25275499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Current studies on the aetiology of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) are subject to recall bias because of the retrospective collection of information. Our objective was to investigate potential risk factors associated with the occurrence of DDE through a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Using a random community sample of Hong Kong children born in 1997, we performed a cohort study in which the subjects' background information, medical and dental records were prospectively collected. A clinical examination to identify DDE was conducted in 2010 when the subjects were 12 years old. The central incisor, lateral incisor and first molar in each quadrant were chosen as the index teeth and were examined 'wet' by two trained and calibrated examiners using the modified FDI (DDE) Index. RESULTS: With a response rate of 74.9%, the 514 examined subjects had matched data for background information. Diffuse opacites were the most common type of DDE. Of the various possible aetiological factors considered, only experience of severe diseases during the period 0-3 years was associated with the occurrence of 'any defect' (p = 0.017) and diffuse opacities (p = 0.044). The children with experience of severe diseases before 3 years of age were 7.89 times more likely to be affected by 'any defect' compared with those who did not have the experience (OR 7.89; 95% CI 1.07, 58.14; p = 0.043). However, after adjusting for confounding factors, the association no longer existed. CONCLUSION: No variables could be identified as risk factors of DDE in this Hong Kong birth cohort.


Assuntos
Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário/epidemiologia , Esmalte Dentário/anormalidades , Esmalte Dentário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário/diagnóstico , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incisivo/anormalidades , Incisivo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Incisivo/patologia , Lactente , Masculino , Dente Molar/anormalidades , Dente Molar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dente Molar/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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