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Antagonists of retinoic acid and BMP4 affect fetal mouse osteogenesis and odontoblast differentiation.

Koussoulakou, Despina S; Margaritis, Lukas H; Koussoulakos, Stauros L.
Pathophysiology; 18(2): 103-9, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20303242
Retinoic acid and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP4) are endogenous factors indispensable for the physiological development of vertebrates. The proximate aim of the present study was to investigate whether the natural compound citral (a retinoic acid synthesis inhibitor) and a monoclonal, anti-BMP4 antibody, administered to pregnant mice affect in the fetuses cranial osteogenesis and odontoblast differentiation. The present investigation was motivated by the fact that, retinoic acid inhibitors and BMP4 neutralizers may frequently contact human tissues (both intentional and unintentional, and/or unconsciously) inducing unanticipated effects. Our ultimate goal is the prevention of side effects and, future clinical implementation of the results. To this end, pregnant, white mice (balb-c Mus musculus) were intra-abdominally injected with either citral or anti-BMP4 antibody at the 9th gestational day. Newborns were processed within 5h, postnatal. Results were evaluated (a) macroscopically, (b) stereoscopically, following histochemical double staining of cartilage and osseous tissues and, (c) microscopically after (c(1)) histological staining of paraffin sections, and, (c(2)) immunohistochemical detection of apoptosis. Data indicate that in vivo administration of citral (biomimicking hypovitaminosis A) caused restriction/retardation of cranial chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Apoptosis was not detected in teeth tissues. In vivo administration of anti-BMP4 antibody resulted in a transitory interference with the normal course of odontoblast differentiation and the production of pre-dentin, whereas, delay in the ossification also included the alveoli. Animals inspected in adulthood displayed a fairly normal phenotype. It is concluded that those two substances, under their concentrations experienced, are quite safe for the public.