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Dual gating mechanism and function of P2X7 receptor channels.

Khadra, Anmar; Tomic, Melanija; Yan, Zonghe; Zemkova, Hana; Sherman, Arthur; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.
Biophys J; 104(12): 2612-21, 2013 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23790369
The ATP-gated P2X7 receptor channel (P2X7R) operates as a cytolytic and apoptotic receptor but also controls sustained cellular responses, including cell growth and proliferation. However, it has not been clarified how the same receptor mediates such opposing effects. To address this question, we have combined electrophysiological, imaging, and mathematical studies using wild-type and mutant rat P2X7Rs. Activation of naïve (not previously stimulated) receptors by low agonist concentrations caused monophasic slow desensitizing currents and internalization of receptors without other changes in the cellular morphology, much like other P2XRs. In contrast, saturating agonist concentrations induced high-amplitude biphasic currents, reflecting pore dilation and causing rapid cell swelling and lysis. The existence of these two signaling patterns was accounted for using a revised Markov-state model that included, in addition to naïve and sensitized states, desensitized states. Occupancy of one or two ATP-binding sites of naïve receptors favored a slow transition to desensitized states, whereas occupancy of the third binding site favored a transition to sensitized/dilated states. Consistent with model predictions, nondilating P2X7R mutants always generated desensitizing currents. These results suggest that the level of saturation of the ligand binding sites determines the nature of the P2X7R gating and cellular actions.