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Cell-to-cell communication--periodontal regeneration.

Bosshardt, Dieter D; Stadlinger, Bernd; Terheyden, Hendrik.
Clin Oral Implants Res; 26(3): 229-39, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25639287


Although regenerative treatment options are available, periodontal regeneration is still regarded as insufficient and unpredictable.


This review article provides scientific background information on the animated 3D film Cell-to-Cell Communication - Periodontal Regeneration.


Periodontal regeneration is understood as a recapitulation of embryonic mechanisms. Therefore, a thorough understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating normal tooth root development is imperative to improve existing and develop new periodontal regenerative therapies. However, compared to tooth crown and earlier stages of tooth development, much less is known about the development of the tooth root. The formation of root cementum is considered the critical element in periodontal regeneration. Therefore, much research in recent years has focused on the origin and differentiation of cementoblasts. Evidence is accumulating that the Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) has a pivotal role in root formation and cementogenesis. Traditionally, ectomesenchymal cells in the dental follicle were thought to differentiate into cementoblasts. According to an alternative theory, however, cementoblasts originate from the HERS. What happens when the periodontal attachment system is traumatically compromised? Minor mechanical insults to the periodontium may spontaneously heal, and the tissues can structurally and functionally be restored. But what happens to the periodontium in case of periodontitis, an infectious disease, after periodontal treatment? A non-regenerative treatment of periodontitis normally results in periodontal repair (i.e., the formation of a long junctional epithelium) rather than regeneration. Thus, a regenerative treatment is indicated to restore the original architecture and function of the periodontium. Guided tissue regeneration or enamel matrix proteins are such regenerative therapies, but further improvement is required. As remnants of HERS persist as epithelial cell rests of Malassez in the periodontal ligament, these epithelial cells are regarded as a stem cell niche that can give rise to new cementoblasts. Enamel matrix proteins and members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) superfamily have been implicated in cementoblast differentiation.


A better knowledge of cell-to-cell communication leading to cementoblast differentiation may be used to develop improved regenerative therapies to reconstitute periodontal tissues that were lost due to periodontitis.