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Time-dependent behavior of porcine periodontal ligament: A combined experimental, numeric in-vitro study.

Knaup, Thomas Johannes; Dirk, Cornelius; Reimann, Susanne; Keilig, Ludger; Eschbach, Meike; Korbmacher-Steiner, Heike; Bourauel, Christoph.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop; 153(1): 97-107, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287661


The aim of this study was to analyze the time-dependent in-vitro behavior of the periodontal ligament (PDL) by determining the material parameters using specimens of porcine jawbone. Time-dependent material parameters to be determined were expected to complement the results from earlier biomechanical studies.


Five mandibular deciduous porcine premolars were analyzed in a combined experimental-numeric study. After selecting suitable specimens (excluding root resorption) and preparing the measurement system, the specimens were deflected by a distance of 0.2 mm at loading times of 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 60 seconds. The deflection of the teeth was determined via a laser optical system, and the resulting forces and torques were measured. To create the finite element models, a microcomputed tomography scanner was used to create 3-dimensional x-ray images of the samples. The individual structures (tooth, PDL, bone) of the jaw segments were reconstructed using a self-developed reconstruction program. A comparison between experiment and simulation was conducted using the results from finite element simulations. Via iterative parameter adjustments, the material parameters (Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio) of the PDL were assessed at different loading velocities.


The clinically observed effect of a distinct increase in force during very short periods of loading was confirmed. Thus, a force of 2.6 N (±1.5 N) was measured at the shortest stress duration of 0.2 seconds, and a force of 1.0 N (±0.5 N) was measured at the longest stress duration of 60 seconds. The numeric determination of the material parameters showed bilinear behavior with a median value of the first Young's modulus between 0.06 MPa (2 seconds) and 0.04 MPa (60 seconds), and the second Young's modulus between 0.30 MPa (10 seconds) and 0.20 MPa (60 seconds). The ultimate strain marking the transition from the first to the second Young's modulus remained almost unchanged with a median value of 6.0% for all loading times.


A combined experimental-numeric analysis is suitable for determining the material properties of the PDL. Microcomputed tomography allows high-precision recordings with only minimum effort. This study confirms the assumption of time dependency and nonlinearity of previous studies.