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FGF and TGFß signaling link form and function during jaw development and evolution.

Woronowicz, Katherine C; Gline, Stephanie E; Herfat, Safa T; Fields, Aaron J; Schneider, Richard A.
Dev Biol; 444 Suppl 1: S219-S236, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753626
How does form arise during development and change during evolution? How does form relate to function, and what enables embryonic structures to presage their later use in adults? To address these questions, we leverage the distinct functional morphology of the jaw in duck, chick, and quail. In connection with their specialized mode of feeding, duck develop a secondary cartilage at the tendon insertion of their jaw adductor muscle on the mandible. An equivalent cartilage is absent in chick and quail. We hypothesize that species-specific jaw architecture and mechanical forces promote secondary cartilage in duck through the differential regulation of FGF and TGFß signaling. First, we perform transplants between chick and duck embryos and demonstrate that the ability of neural crest mesenchyme (NCM) to direct the species-specific insertion of muscle and the formation of secondary cartilage depends upon the amount and spatial distribution of NCM-derived connective tissues. Second, we quantify motility and build finite element models of the jaw complex in duck and quail, which reveals a link between species-specific jaw architecture and the predicted mechanical force environment. Third, we investigate the extent to which mechanical load mediates FGF and TGFß signaling in the duck jaw adductor insertion, and discover that both pathways are mechano-responsive and required for secondary cartilage formation. Additionally, we find that FGF and TGFß signaling can also induce secondary cartilage in the absence of mechanical force or in the adductor insertion of quail embryos. Thus, our results provide novel insights on molecular, cellular, and biomechanical mechanisms that couple musculoskeletal form and function during development and evolution.