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1.
In. Steele, Godfrey A. . Health communication in the Caribbean and beyond: a reader. Kingston, University of the West Indies Press, 2011. p.193-211.
Monography in English | MedCarib | ID: med-17473

ABSTRACT

Considerable interest in the role of interpersonal and mass mediated communication in the health has evolved from a classical sender-receiver approach to one that recognizes the role of various influences on how campaign messages are decoded and interpreted. This recognition is evident in various mass-mediated and interpersonal communication studies, but the question of integrating the relative and different contributions of each field has remained elusive despite many significant, but separate findings. Using a health context, this chapter proposes a theoretical framework based on the mediating influences of talk, conversation and discourse on concepts of involvement, engagement and influence. These first three concepts are derived from theories of persuasion in interpersonal communication, and the other concepts of analytic audience, media exposure and encoded exposure are derived from two-step, diffusion of innovations, and agenda-setting theories in mass-mediated communication. Against the backdrop of the proposed theoretical framework, data from a survey evaluation of a national HIV/AIDS prevention campaign in Trinidad and Tobago, interviews with programme officials, and newspaper texts are adduced and analysed. The findings contribute insights into the proposed integrated interpersonal and mass-mediated communication (IMC) model.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/rehabilitation , Health Communication , Trinidad and Tobago
2.
Journal of public health ; 30(4): 398-406, sep.2008. tabgraf
Article in English | MedCarib | ID: med-17874

ABSTRACT

Some countries (e.g. Brazil) have good reputations on AIDS policy, whereas others, (notably South Africa) have been criticized for inadequate leadership. Cross-country regression analysis reveals that these 'poster children' for AIDS leadership have indeed performed better or worse than expected given their economic and institutional constraints and the demographic and health challenges facing them. Regressions were run on HAART coverage (number on highly active antiretroviral therapy as percentage of total need) and MTCTP coverage (pregnant HIV+ women accessing mother-to-child-transmission prevention services as percentage of total need). Brazil, Cambodia, Thailand and Uganda (all of whom have established reputations for good leadership on AIDS performed consistently better than expected-as did Burkina-Faso, Suriname, Paraguay Costa Rica, Mali and Namibia. South Africa, which has the worst reputation for AIDS leadership, performed significantly below expectations-as did Uruguay and Trinidad and Tobago. The paper thus confirms much of the conventional wisdom on AIDS leadership at country level and suggests new areas for research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Geography , Health Services , Socioeconomic Factors , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Trinidad and Tobago
3.
BMC public health ; 5(121): [1-12], Nov. 2005. ilus
Article in English | MedCarib | ID: med-17648

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are significant determinants of HIV transmission in the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago (T&T), where the adult HIV/AIDS prevalence is 2.5%. T&T is a spiritually-aware society and over 104 religious groups are represented. This religious diversity creates a complex social environment for the transmission of a sexually transmitted infection like HIV/AIDS. Religious leaders are esteemed in T&T's society and may use their position and frequent interactions with the public to promote HIV/AIDS awareness, fight stigma and discrimination, and exercise compassion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PWHA). Some religious groups have initiated HIV/AIDS education programs within their membership, but previous studies suggest that HIV/AIDS remains a stigmatized infection in many religious organizations. The present study investigates how the perception of HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection impacts religious representatives' incentives to respond to HIV/AIDS in their congregations and communities. In correlation, the study explores how the experiences of PWHA in religious gatherings impact healing and coping with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: Between November 2002 and April 2003, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 religious representatives from 10 Christian, Hindu and Muslim denominations. The majority of respondents were leaders of religious services, while two were active congregation members. Religious groups were selected based upon the methods of Brathwaite. Briefly, 26 religious groups with the largest followings according to 2000 census data were identified in Trinidad and Tobago. From this original list, 10 religious groups in Northwest Trinidad were selected to comprise a representative sample of the island's main denominations. In-depth interviews with PWHA were conducted during the same study period, 2002-2003. Four individuals were selected from a care and support group located in Port of Spain based upon their perceived willingness to discuss religious affiliation and describe how living with a terminal infection has affected their spiritual lives. The interviewer, a United States Fulbright Scholar, explained the nature and purpose of the study to all participants. Relevant ethical procedures associated with the collection of interview data were adopted: interviews were conducted in a non-coercive manner and confidentiality was assured. All participants provided verbal consent, and agreed to be interviewed without financial or other incentive. Ethics approval was granted on behalf of the Caribbean Conference of Churches Ethics Committee. Interview questions followed a guideline, and employed an open-ended format to facilitate discussion. All interviews were recorded and transcribed by the interviewer. RESULTS: Religious representatives' opinions were grouped into the following categories: rationale for the spread of HIV/AIDS, abstinence, condom use, sexuality and homosexuality, compassion, experiences with PWHA, recommendations and current approach to addressing HIV/AIDS in congregations. Religious representatives expressed a measure of acceptance of HIV/AIDS and overwhelmingly upheld compassion for PWHA. Some statements, however, suggested that HIV/AIDS stigma pervades Trinidad's religious organizations. For many representatives, HIV/AIDS was associated with a promiscuous lifestyle and/or homosexuality. Representatives had varying levels of interaction with PWHA, but personal experiences were positively associated with current involvement in HIV/AIDS initiatives. All 4 PWHA interviewed identified themselves as belonging to Christian denominations. Three out of the 4 PWHA described discriminatory experiences with pastors or congregation members during gatherings for religious services. Nonetheless, PWHA expressed an important role for faith and religion in coping with HIV. CONCLUSION: Religious groups in Trinidad are being challenged to promote a clear and consistent response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic; a response that may reflect personal experiences and respect religious doctrine in the context of sex and sexuality. The study suggests that (1) religious leaders could improve their role in the fight against HIV/AIDS with education and sensitization-specifically aimed at dismantling the myths about HIV transmission, and the stereotyping of susceptible sub-populations, and (2) a consultative dialogue between PWHAs and religious leaders is pivotal to a successful faith-based HIV intervention in Trinidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , HIV , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Stereotyping , Religion , Trinidad and Tobago
4.
In. World Health Organization. AIDS epidemic update: December 2004. Geneva, UNAIDS, 2004. p.31-35, ilus, tab.
Monography in English | MedCarib | ID: med-17062

ABSTRACT

More than 440 000 [270 000-78 000] people are living with HIV in the Caribbean, including the 53 000 [27 000-140 000] people who acquired the virus in 2004. An estimated 36 000 [24 000-61 000] people died of AIDS in the same year. With average adult HIV prevalence of 2.3 percent, the Caribbean is the second-most affected region in the world. In five countries (the Bahamas, Belize, Guyana, Haiti and Trinidad and Tobago), national prevalence exceeds 2 percent. Overall, the highest HIV-infection levels among women in the Americas are in the Caribbean countries and AIDS has become the leading cause of death in the Caribbean among adults aged 15-44 years (Caribbean Epidemiology Centre, PAHO, WHO, 2004). Life expectancy at birth in 2010 is projected to be 10 years less in Haiti and in Trinidad and Tobago nine years less than it would have been without AIDS. Several countries and territories with economies that are most heavily affected by the epidemic in this region, including the Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago. Yet most countries in this region have limited capacity to track the evolution of their epidemics, and are relying on data and systems that do not necessarily match the realities they are facing


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV , Trinidad and Tobago , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Guyana , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Haiti , HIV Infections/mortality , Bahamas , Caribbean Region , Life Expectancy/trends , Belize , Suriname
5.
Caribbean health ; 4(2): 9-10, Apr. 2001. tab
Article in English | MedCarib | ID: med-17321

ABSTRACT

The potential of the HIV/AIDS equipment to derail adjustment and development trends in the Caribbean has generated concern about the cost of controlling and reducing the hold of the epidemic on the region. This concern leads to an emphasis on three crucial dimensions of the programme which has been set up in response to the threat. These dimensions can be listed as:(1) programme content (2) programme targeting (3) programme funding. This paper focuses on programme funding and deals specifically with the level of funding required, its source, and its allocation(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Health Care Economics and Organizations , Trinidad and Tobago/epidemiology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology
6.
In. Howe, Glenford D; Cobley, Alan G. The Caribbean AIDS epidemic. Kingston, University of the West Indies Press, 2000. p.202-13, tab.
Monography in English | MedCarib | ID: med-621
7.
In. Howe, Glenford D; Cobley, Alan G. The Caribbean AIDS epidemic. Kingston, University of the West Indies Press, 2000. p.110-21, tab.
Monography in English | MedCarib | ID: med-626
8.
In. Howe, Glenford D; Cobley, Alan G. The Caribbean AIDS epidemic. Kingston, University of the West Indies Press, 2000. p.89-109, tab.
Monography in English | MedCarib | ID: med-627
10.
In. Hatcher Roberts, Janet; Kitts, Jennifer; Jones Arsenault, Lori. Gender, health, and sustainable development: perspectives from Asia and the Caribbean, proceedings of workshops held in Singapore 23-26 January 1995 and Bridgetown, Barbados 6-9 December 1994. Ottawa, International Development Research Center, Aug. 1995. p.315-25.
Monography | MedCarib | ID: med-3738
11.
AIDS Weekly Plus ; (9/12/95): 13-4, Jun. 12, 1995.
Article in English | MedCarib | ID: med-522

ABSTRACT

Reports on the prevalent attitude towards HIV and AIDS in Barbados, which is obstructing the battle against the disease. HIV-positive individuals' nondisclosure of their condition to their sex partner; Men as the worst offenders; Swiss tourist scandal; Examples of anecdotal evidence; Need for AIDS education


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Barbados , Trinidad and Tobago , Sexual Behavior , Attitude , Truth Disclosure , Caribbean Region
14.
Article in English | MedCarib | ID: med-2399

ABSTRACT

As the AIDS pandemic reaches the stage of maturity, in the sense of the highest rate of conversion from HIV positive status to full blown AIDS since the identification of the disease in the early eighties, a host of legal and ethical issues have been thrown into stark relief. The society must now attempt to grapple with the twin goals of caring for the sick and controlling the spread of the disease on the one hand, whilst on the other hand, grappling with the myriad issues pertaining to the rights and obligations of persons with HIV disease and those having contact with such persons. In respect of testing for HIV these concerns centre around the duty of health care personnel to obtain the consent of persons with HIV disease, but the consent must be informed and given in circumstances where the person is counselled as to the implications of an HIV status. In certain circumstances health care personnel have been held by our legal system to whom they know are having unsuspecting sexual contact with the person with HIV disease. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/psychology , Confidentiality , Legislation, Medical , Trinidad and Tobago
20.
West Indian med. j ; 39(3): 174-7, Sept. 1990.
Article in English | MedCarib | ID: med-14324

ABSTRACT

The first twenty-one cases of Paediatric Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (PAIDS) in Trinidad and Tobago were studied. An overwhelming majority of patients were of African descent. Most of the children presented within the first year of life, the average time between presentation and death was one and a half months, and the majority presented with either diarrhoea or pneumonia or failure to thrive, common conditions in the West Indies. Fever lasting longer than two weeks as well as hepatomegaly were clues which led to a definite diagnosis (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Male , Female , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Hepatomegaly/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Failure to Thrive/etiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/mortality , Trinidad and Tobago
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