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1.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4622, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-998003

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the pattern and severity of early childhood caries (ECC) by using the decayed and filled surface (dfs) index in preschool children in Al-Jouf, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: A convenience sample of 270 preschool children below 5 years of age (144 boys, 126 girls) attending outpatient pediatric dental clinics was selected for the study. World Health Organization criteria were used to diagnose caries through assessment of the dfs index. Information regarding oral hygiene practices, socio-economic status, and educational status of the mother was obtained through a structured questionnaire given to mothers. The data were statistically analyzed with the Chi-square test and Student's t-test. Results: 73% of children were not brushing regularly; 74.4% of them were using fluoridated toothpaste. In the maxillary teeth, boys had a higher mean dfs index (10.25), as well as a higher number of decayed surfaces (ds), than girls. In the mandibular teeth, boys and girls had similar mean dfs indices. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls regarding filled buccal surfaces (p=0.001) and occlusal surfaces (p=0.001) in maxillary teeth. The mandibular first molar was the most commonly affected tooth (93.3%); lower anterior teeth were the least affected teeth (2-4%) among the primary dentition. Conclusion: The ECC pattern in the northern region of Saudi Arabia follows the typical pattern of nursing caries.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Arábia Saudita , Saúde Bucal , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Assistência Ambulatorial , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Creches , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Odontopediatria , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária
2.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4637, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-998007

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the reliability of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in assessing the tooth length in comparison to orthopantomography (OPG). Material and Methods: Forty patients scheduled for extraction as result of caries or periodontal involvements were randomly selected. Panoramic radiographs and CBCT images were obtained and subsequently patients were subjected for extraction. Teeth with poor prognosis were extracted and stored in 10% formalin. Radiographic teeth measurements were carried out on OPG and CBCT images using a software and the actual tooth length (A-L) measurements were carried out with a digital vernier caliper. The data collected were statistically analyzed for paired "t" test significance of differences and Pearson's correlation at 5% level of confidence. Results: There was significant difference comparing all three actual tooth length (A-L) and CBCT- and OPG-measured tooth lengths. A significant positive correlation was observed among all the measurements. Conclusion: CBCT images exhibited accuracy over panoramic images even though the measurements are still significantly different from actual anatomical tooth lengths.


Assuntos
Humanos , Dente Pré-Molar/anatomia & histologia , Radiografia Panorâmica/instrumentação , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/instrumentação , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Odontometria/métodos , Arábia Saudita , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
3.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4679, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-998236

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of novel newly identified periodontal pathogenic strains in subgingival plaque samples and relate it with bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and age. Material and Methods: 268 chronic periodontitis patients with a mean age of 46.0 ± 6.0 years were included. The following microorganisms were evaluated: Campylobacter gracilis (Cg), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), and Tannerella forsythia (Tf). Full mouth examination was registered; the probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were assessed at six sites per tooth. Dental subgingival plaque samples were taken in the deepest pocket per arch in the maxilla and mandible. DNA analysis was performed using DNA-strip technology. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for statistical analysis. Results: Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia were detected at high level of 80% and 82% respectively. F nucleatum revealed a rate of 94%. Bacterial load significantly increased by increasing mean probing depth of the examined sites. Pearson's coefficient was the highest for Pg (r=0.62, p=0.0001) and the lowest for Cg (r=0.08, p=0.04). The bacterial load significantly increased by increasing the number of bleeding sites; Pearson's coefficient varied from r= 0.14 for Pg (p=0.01) to r=0.39 for Tf (p=0.001). Conclusion: It was confirmed the presence of main putative periodontal pathogens detectable in Saudi periodontal subjects, also providing a comprehensive view for correlation of these putative periodontal pathogens with the increase in probing pocket depth to the presence and load of all the bacterial species.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Periodontais , Bolsa Periodontal , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Periodontite Crônica , Arábia Saudita , Modelos Logísticos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
4.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 4242, 15/01/2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-967064

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of Arabic coffee on bleached teeth in comparison to black coffee. Material and Methods: Forty teeth (sound maxillary or mandibular premolars with no carious lesions) were randomly selected into 4 groups (A, B, C and D). One group (A) did not receive bleaching and was incubated in saline. The second group (B) was bleached and then incubated in saline. The last two groups were bleached and were immersed in either Arabic coffee (C) or black coffee (D). Color recording of the samples was always carried out as near to their mid-buccal surfaces as possible using VITA Easyshade Advance System. Color measurements were carried out using a digital spectrophotometer at baseline and after short-term and long-term immersion. Data were subjected to two way ANOVA and T-test. The level of significance was set at was set at 0.05. Results: Results show that immersion in Arabic coffee resulted only in significant reduction in the b* color value upon long-term immersion (i.e. a reduction in the yellow hue). Black coffee on the other hand resulted in significant: reduction in lightness, increased red tint and increased yellow hue altogether. Conclusion: The use of Arabic coffee did not deteriorate color, with the only significant change being the reduction of yellowish hue. Arabic coffee could be an alternative to black coffee after bleaching.


Assuntos
Arábia Saudita , Espectrofotometria/métodos , Clareamento Dental , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Café/efeitos adversos , Análise de Variância
5.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 3837, 15/01/2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-965574

RESUMO

Objective: To measure the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices of parents in regards to their understanding of early childhood caries (ECC) in Al jouf province, Saudi Arabia (KSA). Material and Methods: A cross-sectional oral health survey was conducted among 228 parents, who were selected by stratified cluster sampling. A questionnaire consisting of 10 questions in each domain addressing knowledge, attitude, and preventive practice for ECC was applied. Scoring in the knowledge field included Yes/No/Don't know, while the attitude and practice domains used a 5-point Likert scale. Results: The mean values for knowledge of the respondents was 'Yes' (106.1 ±46.12), 'No' (63.5 ±50.95), and 'Don't know' (58.4 ±23.21); the p-value was p>0.05. The mean values for attitudes of the parents were strongly disagree (49.8 ±33.51), disagree (28 ±15.63), cannot say (47.4 ±20.33), agree (69.4 ±26.57), and strongly agree (33.4 ±30.48); the p-value was p<0.05. The mean values for preventive practices were strongly disagree (23.3 ±25.15), disagree (27.6 ±28.29), cannot say (38.9 ±31.8), agree (84.9 ±28.07), and stronglyagree (53.3 ±38.73); the p-value was <0.05. Conclusion: The parents did not have adequate knowledge of ECC but did have a good attitude and practice towards its prevention.


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Arábia Saudita , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Pais , Brasil , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Variância
6.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 3945, 15/01/2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-965619

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the prevalence of enamel pearls on panoramic radiographs and to explore any potential correlation between the occurrences of enamel pearls with gender, jaw and tooth involved. Material and Methods: Digital panoramic radiographs of 642 adolescents aging 12­19 years were examined for the presence of enamel pearls. The location of involved tooth in terms of jaw and side and gender were recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out by applying Chi-square tests with the Yates correction. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: The person prevalence of enamel pearls was 4.82% of patients and tooth prevalence was 0.96%. No statistical significant difference was observed between maxillary and mandibular arches and no gender and side predilection was observed. Most of the enamel pearls were seen in maxillary third molars (4.76%) and mandibular third molars (2.68%), followed by maxillary first molars (2.68%) and mandibular second molars (1.95%). No enamel pearl was observed in any of the anterior teeth or in any of the deciduous teeth. Conclusion: The prevalence of enamel pearls was observed in 4.28% of patients and 0.96% of teeth. They were most frequently seen on molars with no predilection for gender, jaw and side.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Arábia Saudita , Radiografia Panorâmica/instrumentação , Adolescente , Esmalte Dentário , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Mandíbula , Maxila , Dente Molar
7.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 3973, 15/01/2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-966827

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the prevalence of pulp stones using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in a Saudi Arabian adolescent population. Material and Methods: CBCT scans of 237 individuals compromising of 1018 teeth were examined. All teeth were analyzed in three dimensions and the presence of pulp stones were identified as a round or oval shaped dense structures in the pulp space. The location of involved tooth in terms of arch, side involved and the status of the tooth were documented. Statistical analysis was carried out by applying Chi-square test. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Pulp stones were observed in 119 out of the 237 participants, and in 118 teeth out of 1018 teeth examined, with the patient prevalence of 50.2% and tooth prevalence 10.6%. Pulp stones were observed in 76 (51.3%) of males and 43 (48.3%) of females, with no significant difference (p>0.05). A nonsignificant difference was also noted when maxillary and mandibular arches and the left and right sides were compared. Pulp stones were observed more frequently observed in molars and in carious (8.8%) and restored teeth (17.1%). Conclusion: The prevalence of pulp stones was high in molars and in carious and restored teeth. No significant difference was noticed between gender, arch and side of tooth involved with pulp stones.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Arábia Saudita , Prevalência , Adolescente , Calcificações da Polpa Dentária , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/instrumentação , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado
8.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 4027, 15/01/2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-966884

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate expectant mothers' knowledge and beliefs on oral healthcare of infants. It also aimed at exploring their knowledge on oral health care during pregnancy and the possible relationship between oral health and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted among expectant mothers attending antenatal clinics in Al Madinah, Saudi Arabia in summer, 2017. Questions collected data on sociodemographic characteristics of the study sample as well as basic knowledge on oral healthcare during pregnancy and infancy. There were also questions on knowledge about adverse pregnancy outcomes that may be associated with poor oral health. Results: A convenient sample of 360 pregnant women participated in the study. A percentage of 79.7% showed a good level of knowledge in oral healthcare of infants while a percentage of 8.9% only showed a good level of knowledge in oral healthcare during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Education level and employment status were significantly associated the good level of knowledge in oral healthcare of infants (p=0.000, and 0.002 respectively). Conclusion: Most of expectant mothers, particularly educated and employed ones, have good knowledge on oral healthcare of infants, however, the majority lacked sufficient knowledge on pregnancy outcomes and oral healthcare during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Arábia Saudita , Gravidez , Saúde Bucal , Assistência Odontológica , Gestantes , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 3890, 15/01/2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-966733

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the prevalence and contributing factors of antibiotic selfmedication for oral conditions in dental patients. Material and Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 501 patients attending Taibah University Dental College and Hospital, Al Madinah, Saudi Arabia during late 2016. Questions were on socio-demographic characteristics, and pattern of antibiotic self-medication for oral disease. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS software version 21. Statistical significance level was set at p ≤.05. Results: Age range was 15-64 years (29.08±9.32 years) with 297 females (59.3%) and 204 males (40.7%). 135 patients (27%) self-medicated with antibiotics for oral disease. This practice was statistically significantly associated with the older adults (p=0.001), lack of medical or dental insurance (p=0.014 and 0.007, respectively), and poor dental attendance (p=0.021). A number of 26 (25.7%) perceived analgesics as antibiotics. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was the most commonly cited antibiotic by 18 patients (17.8%). Dental pain was the most frequently reported oral condition. Pharmacists were the most common source for antibiotic prescription cited by 58 (57.4%). Conclusion: Antibiotic self-medication for oral disease is associated with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics for non-indicated clinical oral conditions. The practice was encouraged by lenient behavior of pharmacists, lack of health insurance, and poor dental attendance.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Automedicação/normas , Biofarmácia , Antibacterianos , Doenças da Boca , Arábia Saudita , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Saúde Bucal , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Assistência Odontológica
10.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 3934, 15/01/2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-966742

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate why women avoid dental visits during pregnancy and to explore the possible association between this attitude and relevant socio-demographic factors. Material and Methods: An online questionnaire was distributed to pregnant women during their routine visits to antenatal clinics in Al Madinah, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire explored socio-demographic factors of age, education, employment status and nationality. It also explored misconceptions/ reasons for avoiding dental visits during pregnancy. Results: A total of 360 pregnant women participated, and their mean age was 30.08 years (range=18-52 years, SD=5.96). The most commonly cited misconception/reason for avoiding dental visits was "local anesthesia is not safe during pregnancy", followed by "transportation is difficult" and lastly, "dental treatment is not safe during pregnancy", (43.6%, 37.5%, 18.9%, respectively). Illiterate participants were statistically significantly associated with the misconception of "unsafe dental treatment during pregnancy" (p=0.002), whereas school-level and unemployed participants were statistically significantly associated with the misconception of "unsafe local anesthesia during pregnancy" (p=0.02, p=0.036 respectively). Conclusion: Pregnant women avoid dental visits mainly due to the misconception that local anesthesia is not safe during pregnancy. Difficult transportation seems to be another important deterrent in preventing pregnant women to visit dentists in this geographic area. Changing the misconceptions should be the starting point in addressing this public health problem and this should involve the three parties involved: pregnant women, oral healthcare providers and obstetric care providers.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Gravidez , Assistência Odontológica , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Consultórios Odontológicos , Anestesia Local
11.
Rev. Bras. Odontol. Leg. RBOL ; 4(2): [12-21], mai.-ago. 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-911826

RESUMO

Saudi Arabia (SA), an oil rich developing country with a population of 31 million people, yet only 33% of whom are Saudis. Wealth, work opportunities and religious status make SA a hub for people from around the world whether it be through legal or illegal routs. As a developing country, SA faces many challenges in regard to mass disasters in light of its underdeveloped infrastructure and the annual Haj (Islamic pilgrimage) that attracts nearly 3 million people in a small area over a short period of time. Moreover, the numbers of unregistered births is high. These factors necessitate the importance of having a strong human identification and age estimation practice. Aim: To assess the reality of Forensic Odontology in Saudi Arabia in regard to: number of personnel and their training, number of forensic odontology cases and the way these cases are referred and documented. Materials and Methods: This project consisted of two parts: Observational study to assess how the system works in regard to forensic odontology cases, how these cases are dealt with and how they are referred. Part two: Cross-sectional survey aimed at all registered Forensic personnel to assess their qualifications, training, level of expertise, expert witness experience and involvement in specialized Forensic Odontology cases, namely: human identification, age estimation and bite mark analysis. Results: Out of 51 participants, only one dentist is registered with some form of Forensic training, 42 have a medical background, 39 of whom received medical Forensic training. Looking at forensic odontology in particular, only 11 out of 51 have had Forensic Odontology training. Participants who don't have any training in Forensic Odontology, yet have worked on cases that required Forensic Odontology training, were 37 on age estimation cases, 27 on bite mark analysis and 36 on human identification cases. There are no designated programs on Forensic Odontology in Saudi Arabia, nor is there a Forensic Odontology entity. There are no clear national guidelines or protocols to personnel when dealing with forensic cases and no detailed forms that documents oral findings. Conclusion: There is no solid Forensic Odontology system in Saudi Arabia that is objective, preserves the integrity of the law and protects human rights. There are many areas that can be improved to achieve that aim and a list of recommendations is presented.


Arábia Saudita, um país desenvolvido e rico em petróleo, com uma população de 31 milhões de habitantes, onde apenas 33% das pessoas são sauditas. Riqueza, oportunidades de trabalho e situação religiosa faz do país um centro de atração para pessoas de todo o mundo, tanto por rotas legais como ilegais. Como um país em desenvolvimento, enfrenta muitos desafios relacionados a desastres em massa em virtude de uma infraestrutura subdesenvolvida e o Haj anual (peregrinação islâmica) que atrai aproximadamente 3 milhões de pessoas em uma pequena área durante um curto período de tempo. Além disso, o número de nascimentos não registrado é alto. Nesse sentido, todos esses fatores reforçam a importância de um sistema de identificação humana e estimativa de idade eficientes. Objetivos: Avaliar a realidade da Odontologia Legal na Arábia Saudita em relação à equipes e treinamento que recebem, número de casos envolvendo a Odontologia Legal e como esses casos são conduzidos e documentados. Material e Métodos: a metodologia consistiu em dois momentos ­ estudo observacional para avaliar como o sistema funciona com relação a casos envolvendo a Odontologia Legal, como esses casos são conduzidos, analisados e referenciados. Em outro momento, um estudo focado em todo o pessoal de área pericial para avaliar sua formação e qualificação profissional, treinamento, experiência e envolvimento com casos de Odontologia Legal envolvendo identificação humana, estimativa de idade e análise de marcas de mordida. Resultados: dos 51 participantes, apenas um cirurgião-dentista está registrado com algum treinamento forense, 42 têm formação médica, dos quais 39 receberam treinamento forense na área médica. Analisando a Odontologia Legal, de maneira particular, somente 11 dos 51 participantes tiveram treinamento em Odontologia Legal. Dos participantes que não tiveram nenhum treinamento em Odontologia Legal, mas trabalharam em casos que necessitavam de tal especialidade, 37 foram casos de estimativa de idade, 27 casos de marcas de mordida e 36 casos de identificação humana. Na Arábia Saudita não há nenhum programa voltado para a Odontologia Legal e nenhuma entidade oficial nessa especialidade. Não há protocolos claros para as equipes forenses quando envolvidas em casos odontolegais, bem como formulários para achados odontológicos. Conclusão: Não há um sistema estruturado em Odontologia Legal na Arábia Saudita que seja objetivo, juridicamente embasado e que proteja os direitos humanos. Há muitas áreas que precisam ser melhoradas a fim de atingir a lista de recomendações apresentada.


Assuntos
Humanos , Determinação da Idade pelos Dentes , Prova Pericial , Odontologia Legal , Mordeduras e Picadas , Arábia Saudita
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