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3.
Eur. j. anat ; 23(3): 159-165, mayo 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-182977

RESUMO

The coronary ostia (CO) lie within the left and right aortic sinuses, respectively; and are bound by the sinotubular junction (STJ) superiorly. The high frequency of cardiac procedures that require catheterization has necessitated the reappraisal of the anatomy of the origin of the coronary arteries. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the CO by recording its diameter, shape, and relation to the sinotubular junction in a select South African population.The present study included the gross dissection of 50 formalin fixed, adult cadaveric hearts. The average diameter of the right coronary ostium (RCO) was 3.29mm and the left coronary ostium (LCO) was 3.87mm. With regard to the shape of the ostia, the RCO was described as circular in 52% (26/50), horizontally ellipsoid in 24% (12/50) and vertically ellipsoid in 24% (12/50) of cases. The LCO was circular in 30% (15/50), horizontally ellipsoid in 60% (30/50) and vertically ellipsoid in 10% (5/50) of cases. The RCO was located below the STJ in 88% (44/50) and at the level of the STJ in 12% (6/50) of cases. The LCO was recorded below the STJ in 64% (32/50), at the level of the STJ in 32% (16/50) and above the STJ in 4% (2/50) of cases. Multiple ostia arising from a single aortic sinus was recorded in 14% (7/50) of cases. In 2% (1/50) of cases, the RCO was located in the non-coronary sinus. In addition, the RCO arose from the left aortic sinus in 2% of cases. The results of the present study correlate with those of previous studies. Anomalous CO, although asymptomatic has been linked to myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. It is, therefore, imperative for the clinician to be aware of variant CO anatomy, which may alert them to the predisposition of cardiac risks


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Cadáver , Seio Coronário/anatomia & histologia , Aorta/anatomia & histologia , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/patologia , África Austral/etnologia , Vasos Coronários/anatomia & histologia
4.
Eur. j. anat ; 23(2): 91-102, mar. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-182419

RESUMO

Variation in the branches of the aortic arch is higher in individuals of African descent. However, published studies are few. The aims were to document variations in the branching pattern of the aortic arch in a South African sample, determine whether these variants are more common than other populations, and determine whether there are any significant differences in the prevalence of variation between males and females. The aortic arch and main branches were dissected in 733 cadavers. All branching patterns were documented and classified as types. Chi-Square tests were used to determine whether there were any significant differences in prevalence of variation between males and females. The diameters of the main branches were measured and compared between sexes.The standard branching pattern was present in 65% of individuals, similar to that reported for other African studies, but lower than other studies from around the world. Variations were more prevalent in males than in females (p = 0.025), while only the diameter of the left vertebral artery, when arising from the arch was significantly larger in females, with no differences between sexes for the other vessel diameters. The results of this study support the hypothesis that variations in the branching pattern of the aortic arch are more common in African individuals. These individuals may be at increased risk of associated although rare, clinical symptoms or iatrogenic injury


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Aorta Torácica/anatomia & histologia , Variação Anatômica , Artéria Subclávia/anatomia & histologia , Artéria Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Dissecação/métodos , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Transversais , Análise Estatística , Cadáver , Aorta/anatomia & histologia , África
5.
Rev. esp. investig. quir ; 22(4): 143-145, 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188317

RESUMO

La enfermedad oclusiva aorto-iliaca, concretamente las lesiones TASC-II C y D continúan siendo subsidiaras de tratamiento quirúrgico abierto según la recomendación de las guías actuales. Sin embargo, mediante la técnica CERAB, estas lesiones podrían ser tratadas endovascularmente con buenos resultados, menores tasas de complicación y una estancia media hospitalaria más corta. Comparando los stents recubiertos empleados en CERAB con otras configuraciones como los kissing stent, se observa que los primeros aportan una reconstrucción más fisiológica de la bifurcación aórtica, ya que se adaptan mejor al vaso y obtienen mejores resultados en comparación con kissing stents


Aorto-iliac occlusive disease, especially the TASC-II C and D lesions are in literatura still recomended to be treated with open surgery. However, with CERAB technique, these lesions can be treated endovascularly with very good results, fewer complication rates and shorter mean hospitalary stay. Comparing covered endovascular stents with other endovascular configurations such as kissing stent, it is shown that CERAB is an improved and more physiological reconstruction of the aortic bifurcation, in terms of minimize radial mismatch and improve outcome, compared to kissing stents


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/terapia , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Ilíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J. physiol. biochem ; 74(1): 9-16, feb. 2018. graf, ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-178913

RESUMO

Obesity is a risk factor for vascular endothelial cell dysfunction characterized by low-grade, chronic inflammation. Increased levels of arginase I and concomitant decreases in l-arginine bioavailability are known to play a role in the pathogenesis of vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. In the present study, we focused on changes in the systemic expression of arginase I as well as l-arginine metabolism in the pre-disease state of early obesity prior to the onset of atherosclerosis. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet (CD; 10% fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% fat) for 8 weeks. The mRNA expression of arginase I in the liver, adipose tissue, aorta, and muscle; protein expression of arginase I in the liver and plasma; and systemic levels of l-arginine bioavailability and NO2 − were assessed. HFD-fed mice showed early obesity without severe disease symptoms. Arginase I mRNA and protein expression levels in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed obese mice than in CD-fed mice. Arginase I levels were slightly increased, whereas l-arginine levels were significantly reduced, and these changes were followed by reductions in NO2 − levels. Furthermore, hepatic arginase I levels positively correlated with plasma arginase I levels and negatively correlated with l-arginine bioavailability in plasma. These results suggested that increases in the expression of hepatic arginase I and reductions in plasma l-arginine and NO2 − levels might lead to vascular endothelial dysfunction in the pre-disease state of early obesity


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Arginase/metabolismo , Arginina/sangue , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Vasculite Sistêmica/metabolismo , Aorta/enzimologia , Aorta/metabolismo , Arginase/sangue , Arginase/genética , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Biomarcadores , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Vasculite Sistêmica/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
Apunts, Med. esport (Internet) ; 52(193): 3-9, ene.-mar. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-162144

RESUMO

La función de amortiguación de las oscilaciones de la presión de la sangre hace de la aorta una «prolongación» de la función ventricular sistólica. Esta función se pone aún más de manifiesto durante el ejercicio de resistencia, durante el cual se produce un incremento del índice de eyección de unas 4 veces los valores de reposo. De la misma manera que a consecuencia del entrenamiento se produce una adaptación de la morfología cardiaca, la aorta experimenta una modificación de su estructura que permite una mejor función amortiguadora. Los deportistas que mayor grado de adaptación pueden experimentar, tanto de las cavidades cardiacas como de la aorta, son aquellos que demandan una elevada exigencia cardiovascular, alto componente dinámico y moderado estático. En seres humanos, mediante medidas incruentas (ecocardiografía, resonancia magnética, fundamentalmente), se ha demostrado un incremento del tamaño de la aorta en los deportistas con mayor exigencia cardiovascular


The damping of the blood pressure oscillations makes the aorta an ‘‘extension’’ of the ventricular systolic function. This function is even more evident during endurance exercise, with an increase in the ejection index of 4 times the resting values. Similarly, as a result of training, an adaptation occurs in cardiac morphology, in which the aorta undergoes a change in its structure that allows for better damping function. Athletes that adapt more may experience both of the heart chambers and the aorta, are those who demand a high cardiovascular stress, a high dynamic component and moderate static component. By using non-invasive measurements in humans (mainly echocardiography and MRI), the size of the aorta has been shown to increase in athletes with greater cardiovascular demands


Assuntos
Humanos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Aorta/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Adaptação Fisiológica , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia
13.
Angiología ; 68(5): 379-387, sept.-oct. 2016. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-155984

RESUMO

Introducción: Las infecciones de endoprótesis aórticas son infrecuentes pero devastadoras. El tratamiento no está estandarizado, resultando una decisión compleja y en muchos casos urgente. Objetivos: Describir el diagnóstico, el tratamiento y la evolución de los casos de infección de endoprótesis aórtica abdominal (EVAR) y torácica (TEVAR) tratados en un único centro. Métodos: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo, descriptivo que incluyó pacientes con infección endoprotésica tratados entre 1998 y 2015. Se recogió la indicación del implante inicial, intervenciones posteriores, tiempo hasta la infección, clínica, pruebas complementarias, tratamiento y evolución. Resultados: Registramos 9 infecciones: 5 EVAR (1,2%) y 4 TEVAR (4,2%). La mediana de edad fue de 77 años (rango, 62-85). Detectamos 5 infecciones tras implantes urgentes (5 de 9) y 3 tras intervenciones secundarias (3 de 9). La mediana de tiempo hasta la infección fue de 3,5 meses (rango, 0-109,5). Realizamos 7 explantes de endoprótesis (5 EVAR y 2 TEVAR), con reparación in situ con prótesis de dacrón-plata (n=5) o bypass axilobifemoral (n=2). En 2 TEVAR el tratamiento fue conservador por elevado riesgo quirúrgico dadas sus comorbilidades. La mortalidad a 30 días fue del 44,4% (4 de 9 pacientes), todos tras tratamiento quirúrgico. La mortalidad global fue del 66,6% (6 de 9 pacientes). Solo falleció un paciente con tratamiento conservador tras 2 años de seguimiento debido a una fístula aortoesofágica. Tres pacientes están en seguimiento (2 explantes y uno conservador) tras 121, 74 y 51 meses, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La mortalidad de los pacientes con infección endoprotésica es elevada, independientemente del tratamiento. El tratamiento conservador es una buena opción en nuestra experiencia, y la cirugía, una alternativa que debería emplearse en función de las características del paciente (AU)


Introduction: Aortic endograft infections are uncommon. However, they are usually life-threatening. Treatment is not standardised, making this disease complex, and in most cases, an urgent situation. Objectives: To describe the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of all cases diagnosed with infected aortic endograft (abdominal-EVAR, and thoracic-TEVAR) in our Hospital. Methods: An observational and retrospective study was conducted using data collected between 1998 and 2015. A descriptive analysis is presented on the primary indication for treatment, secondary procedures, the time-lapse between the diagnosis and primary treatment, type of repair, follow-up, and mortality. Results: Of the 9 patients with infected aortic endografts, 5 were with EVAR (1.2%) and 4 with TEVAR (4.2%). The median age was 77 years (range, 62-85). Five patients received a primary urgent endograft (5 of 9). Three patients had secondary procedures before the infection diagnosis (3 of 9). The median time between primary repair and diagnosis was 3.5 months (range, 0-109.5). Explantation was performed on 7 patients. Two patients received medical treatment due to their increased surgical risk. The 30 day mortality was 44.4% (4 of 9 patients), and the overall mortality was 66.6% (6 of 9 patients). One patient with medical treatment died due to an aortic-oesophageal fistula after 2 years of follow-up. Three patients are still alive (2 explantations, and 1 with medical treatment) after 121, 74, and 51 months, respectively. Conclusions: Endograft infections mortality is high, despite the treatment used. Medical treatment is a good choice in our experience. Surgical treatment is an alternative depending on the fitness and comorbidities of the patient (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Stents/efeitos adversos , Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Estudo Observacional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Aorta/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos
16.
Angiología ; 68(4): 304-310, jul.-ago. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-154029

RESUMO

La úlcera aórtica penetrante es una entidad poco frecuente e infradiagnosticada con características propias respecto la disección clásica. Se presenta una revisión actualizada de la enfermedad centrándose sobre todo en las características pronósticas y el manejo terapéutico (AU)


Penetrating aortic ulcer is a rare and underdiagnosed condition, with its own characteristics regarding classical dissection. An updated review is presented, focusing on its prognosis and therapeutic management (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Úlcera/diagnóstico , Úlcera/terapia , Aorta/lesões , Prognóstico , Túnica Média/lesões , Aorta Torácica/lesões , Aorta Abdominal/lesões , Angiografia/instrumentação , Angiografia/métodos , Ferimentos Penetrantes , Comorbidade , Angiografia , Síndromes do Arco Aórtico/terapia , Síndromes do Arco Aórtico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos
19.
Eur. j. anat ; 20(2): 131-136, abr. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-152869

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of Eurycoma longifolia (EL) extract on intima media thickness (IMT) of aorta in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats fed with high-fat diet. Twenty healthy male SD rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 animals each and treated for 12 weeks as follows: Group ND was given only normal diet, Group NDEL was given normal diet and EL, Group HFD was given only high fat diet, Group HFDEL was given HFD and EL extracts. The aortic thicknesses of the intima media were photographed and measured with Dino-Capture® 2.0.In this study, the HFD produced obvious atherosclerotic plaque; treatment with aqueous extract of EL has reduced the size and formation of atherosclerotic plaque. The aortic IMT was more significantly increased in the HFD group than that of ND (p < 0.05); on the other hand, the aortic IMT was more significantly reduced in HFDEL group than that of HFD group (p < 0.05). It is concluded that the aqueous extract of EL significantly attenuated the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta of rats and preserved the vascular structure


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Eurycoma , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Aorta/fisiopatologia
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