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1.
J. physiol. biochem ; 74(3): 441-454, ago. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-178998

RESUMO

Physical training (PT) has been considered as a treatment in metabolic syndrome (MS), since it induces thermogenic activity in brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of PT on activity of WAT and BAT in rats with MS induced by high-fat diet (30% lard) for 13 weeks and submitted, for the last 6 weeks, to swimming or kept sedentary (SED) rats. MS-SED rats compared to control diet (CT-SED) rats showed low physical fitness and high levels of glucose, insulin, homeostasis evaluation of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis evaluation of the functional capacity of Beta-cells (HOMA-Beta), and blood pressure. The gastrocnemius muscle decreased in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha and beta (PGC-1alfa, PGC-1beta), and uncoupled protein 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3) expressions. Both WAT and BAT increased in the adipocyte area and decreased in blood vessels and fibroblast numbers. WAT increased in expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines and decreased in anti-inflammatory adipokine and adiponectin. WAT and gastrocnemius showed impairment in the insulin signaling pathway. In response to PT, MS rats showed increased physical fitness and restoration of certain biometric and biochemical parameters and blood pressure. PT also induced thermogenic modulations in skeletal muscle, WAT and BAT, and also improved the insulin signaling pathway. Collectively, PT was effective in treating MS by inducing improvement in physical fitness and interchangeable effects between skeletal muscle, WAT and BAT, suggesting a development of brown-like adipocyte cells


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/patologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/patologia , Adiposidade , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Adipocinas/genética , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Musculares , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
2.
J. physiol. biochem ; 73(3): 457-464, ago. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-178896

RESUMO

In recent years, much attention has been paid by the scientific community to phenolic compounds as active biomolecules naturally present in foods. Pterostilbene is a resveratrol dimethylether derivative which shows higher bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of pterostilbene on brown adipose tissue thermogenic markers in a model of genetic obesity, which shows reduced thermogenesis. The experiment was conducted with 30 Zucker (fa/fa) rats that were distributed in three experimental groups: control and two groups orally administered with pterostilbene at 15 and 30 mg/kg body weight/day for 6 weeks. Gene expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1 α (Pgc-1α), carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1b (Cpt1b), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Pparα), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nfr1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2); protein expression of PPARα, PGC-1α, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), UCP1 and glucose transporter (GLUT4); and enzyme activity of CPT 1b and citrate synthase (CS) were assessed in interscapular brown adipose tissue. With the exception of Pgc-1α expression, all these parameters were significantly increased by pterostilbene administration. These results show for the first time that pterostilbene increases thermogenic and oxidative capacity of brown adipose tissue in obese rats. Whether these effects effectively contribute to the antiobesity properties of these compound needs further research


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Tecido Adiposo Marrom , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Estilbenos/uso terapêutico , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/patologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/patologia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Ingestão de Energia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos Zucker , Termogênese
3.
J. physiol. biochem ; 73(3): 475-486, ago. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-178898

RESUMO

Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), identical to primary amine oxidase or vascular adhesion protein-1, is a membrane enzyme that generates hydrogen peroxide. SSAO is highly expressed at the adipocyte surface, and its plasma levels increase with type 2 diabetes. Since visceral adipose tissue (AT) is more tightly associated with obesity complications than subcutaneous (SC) abdominal fat, we compared SSAO activity in plasma and 4 distinct AT locations in 48 severely obese women (body mass index (BMI), averaging 54 ± 11 kg/m2), with or without a dysmetabolic profile. Higher glucose and triacylglycerol levels vs lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol characterized dysmetabolic women (DYS; n = 25) from non-dysmetabolic (NDYS; n = 23), age- and weight-matched subjects. SC, mesenteric (ME), omental (OM), and round ligament (RL) fat locations were collected during bariatric surgery. SSAO capacity to oxidize up to 1 mM benzylamine was determined in AT and plasma with radiometric and fluorimetric methods. Plasma SSAO was higher in the DYS group. SSAO activity was higher in fat than in plasma, when expressed as radiolabeled benzaldehyde per milligram of protein. In ATs from DYS women, protein content was 10 % higher, and basal hydrogen peroxide release lower than in NDYS subjects, except for RL location. The SSAO affinity towards benzylamine did not exhibit regional variation and was not altered by a dysmetabolic profile (K m averaging 184 ± 7 μM; n = 183). Although radiometric and fluorimetric methods gave different estimates of oxidase activity, both indicated that AT SSAO activity did not vary according to anatomical location and/or metabolic status in severely obese women


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tecido Adiposo Branco/enzimologia , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/enzimologia , Obesidade Mórbida/enzimologia , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/química , Benzilaminas/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Cinética , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Especificidade de Órgãos
4.
Nutr. hosp ; 34(3): 603-607, mayo-jun. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-164115

RESUMO

Introduction: Gene expression analyses from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and white adipose tissue are conflicting. It seems that results from single tissue are not enough to explain how changes affect humans as a complex biological system. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare, from obesity subjects, PBMC and white adipose tissue gene expression that regulates adipogenesis (perilipin 1 [PLIN1], adrenoreceptor beta 3 [ADRB3] and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [PPARG2]) and the energy metabolism (uncoupling protein UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3) process. Methods: This study enrolled 35 obese patients, with a body mass index (BMI) > 40 kg/m2 (obesity group [OG]), and ten eutrophic health subjects, 18 > BMI > 24.9 kg/m2 (control group [CG]). Anthropometric and body composition data were assessed at recruitment using standardized protocols. Samples of peripheral blood and subcutaneous adipose tissue (biopsy) were collected to analyze gene expression by RT-qPCR technique. For statistical analysis, we used the Shapiro-Wilk test and Wilcoxon tests by the SPSS software version 20.0; a p < 0.05 significance level was adopted. Results: There were significant differences of PLIN1, ADRB3, PPARG2 and UCP3 expression between blood against adipose tissue samples, showing that these genes are upregulated in adipose tissue. UCP2 expression was upregulated in PBMC. Conclusion: The PLIN1, ADRB3, PPARG2 and UCP3 genes were preferentially expressed in adipose tissue. However, UCP2 was upregulated in PBMC, suggesting that this gene may be assessed in a peripheral blood cell, which is easily accessible, safe and practical (AU)


Introducción: la expresión de genes de células mononucleares de sangre periférica y de tejido adiposo blanco es contradictoria. Los resultados del tejido no son suficientes para explicar cómo afectan los cambios al ser humano como un sistema biológico complejo. Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio fue comparar, en individuos con obesidad, la expresión de genes que regulan los procesos de adipogénesis (PLIN1, ADRB3 y PPARg2) y el metabolismo energético (UCP1, UCP2 y UCP3) en sangre y tejido adiposo blanco. Métodos: este estudio incluyó a 35 pacientes con obesidad e índice de masa corporal (IMC) > 40 kg/m2 en el grupo obesidad (GO) y a diez personas sanas con peso normal (18 > IMC > 24,9 kg/m2) en el grupo control (GC). Los datos antropométricos y de composición corporal fueron obtenidos por protocolos estandarizados. Se recogieron muestras de sangre periférica y tejido adiposo subcutáneo (biopsia) para analizar la expresión génica por la técnica de RT-qPCR. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizaron el test de Shapiro-Wilk y pruebas de Wilcoxon mediante el programa SPSS versión 20.0 (p < 0,05). Resultados: no se encontraron diferencias significativas en la expresión de genes PLIN1, ADRB3, PPARg2 y UCP3 entre la sangre y las muestras de tejido adiposo, mostrando que estos genes son regulados positivamente en el tejido adiposo. La expresión del gen UCP2 fue regulada positivamente en sangre. Conclusión: los genes PLIN1, ADRB3, PPARg2 y UCP3 se expresaron de forma preferente en el tejido adiposo. Sin embargo, el gen UCP2 se reguló positivamente en sangre, lo que sugiere que puede ser evaluado en sangre periférica, que es fácilmente accesible, de forma segura y práctica (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Tecido Adiposo Branco/patologia , Expressão Gênica/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Adipogenia/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Antropometria/métodos
5.
J. physiol. biochem ; 73(2): 215-224, mayo 2017. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-168478

RESUMO

Aging increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Alterations in epicardial fat play an important pathophysiological role in coronary artery disease and hypertension. We investigated the impact of normal aging on obesity-related genes in epicardial fat. Sex-specific changes in obesity-related genes with aging in epicardial fat (EF) were determined in young (6 months) and old (30/36 months) female and male, Fischer 344 × Brown Norway hybrid (FBN) rats, using a rat obesity RT2 PCR Array. Circulating sex hormone levels, body and heart weights were determined. Statistical significance was determined using two-tailed Student's t test and Pearson's correlation. Our results revealed sex-specific differences in obesity-related genes with aging. Dramatic changes in the expression profile of obesity-related genes in EF with aging in female, but not in male, FBN rats were observed. The older (30 months) female rats had more significant variations in the abundance of obesity-related genes in the EF compared to that seen in younger female rats or both age groups in male rats. A correlation of changes in obesity-related genes in EF to heart weights was observed in female rats, but not in male rats with aging. No correlation was observed to circulating sex hormone levels. Our findings indicate a dysfunctional EF in female rats with aging compared to male rats. These findings, with further functional validation, might help explain the sex differences in cardiovascular risk and mortality associated with aging observed in humans (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Ratos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Envelhecimento , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Obesidade/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Miocárdio/patologia , Pericárdio , Ganho de Peso , Caracteres Sexuais , Ratos Endogâmicos BN , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
6.
J. physiol. biochem ; 72(4): 643-656, dic. 2016. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-168372

RESUMO

Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We argue whether the potentiating effect of PM2.5 over the development of T2DM in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice would be related to modification in cell stress response, particularly in antioxidant defenses and 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70) status. Male mice were fed standard chow or HFD for 12 weeks and then randomly exposed to daily nasotropic instillation of PM2.5 for additional 12 weeks under the same diet schedule, divided into four groups (n = 14-15 each): Control, PM2.5, HFD, and HFD + PM2.5 were evaluated biometric and metabolic profiles of mice, and cellular stress response (antioxidant defense and HSP70 status) of metabolic tissues. Extracellular to intracellular HSP70 ratio ([eHSP72]/[iHSP70]), viz. H-index, was then calculated. HFD + PM2.5 mice presented a positive correlation between adiposity, increased body weight and glucose intolerance, and increased glucose and triacylglycerol plasma levels. Pancreas exhibited lower iHSP70 expression, accompanied by 3.7-fold increase in the plasma to pancreas [eHSP72]/[iHSP70] ratio. Exposure to PM2.5 markedly potentiated metabolic dysfunction in HFD-treated mice and promoted relevant alteration in cell stress response assessed by [eHSP72]/[iHSP70], a relevant biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammatory state and T2DM risk (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP72/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco , Administração Intranasal , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Resistência à Insulina , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase
7.
An. R. Acad. Farm ; 82(n.extr): 64-75, oct. 2016. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-157615

RESUMO

La obesidad es en la actualidad una epidemia mundial. La obesidad se ha convertido en un problema de salud pública no sólo por el aumento de la estigmatización social, el problema económico que supone o el fallo en la calidad de vida, sino también por el riesgo asociado que presentan dichos pacientes a desarrollar otras patologías como la diabetes tipo 2, dislipidemias, hígado graso, aterosclerosis, enfermedad cardiovascular, enfermedad de Alzheimer, enfermedades óseas y con frecuencia algunos tipos de cánceres especialmente digestivos, algunas de las cuales conllevan un riesgo cardiovascular elevado. En mamíferos el tejido adiposo está compuesto al menos por dos tipos muy distintas de grasas como son el tejido adiposo blanco (TAB) y el tejido adiposo marrón o pardo (TAM) que presentan diferencias en cuanto a su morfología, distribución, genes y función. El tejido adiposo blanco es el principal reservorio de energía y libera un gran número de hormonas y citoquinas que modulan el metabolismo del organismo y la resistencia a la insulina. Algunas de estas moléculas están implicadas en la regulación del peso corporal (leptina, adiponectina), en la respuesta inflamatoria generada localmente en una situación de obesidad (TNF-α, interlukina-6 e IL-1β), en la función vascular (Angiotensina II y PAI-1) o reproductora (estrógenos, entre otras). El tejido adiposo marrón está formado por adipocitos marrones y células progenitoras de adipocitos. La activación del tejido adiposo marrón reduce la adiposidad y protege frente a la obesidad. Por el contrario, la pérdida de la masa del tejido adiposo marrón, confiere susceptibilidad a desarrollar obesidad en ratones y en humano (AU)


Obesity is a worldwide epidemic. It represents a public health alarm associated to several metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, systolic hypertension, fatty liver, gastrointestinal cancer and neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer disease. Some of them involve high cardiovascular disease risk and damage. The adipose organ is composed by two different kinds of adipose tissues differing in morphology, distribution, genes and function. The white adipose tissue is mainly involved in lipid storage while the brown adipose tissue participates in the adaptive thermogenesis. Both of them secrete specific adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin or resistin and also adipocytokynes such as TNFα or Interleukins 6 and 1β that trigger a local inflammatory process associated with a primary insulin resistance in the adipose tissues and a vascular effect through prothrombogenic molecules such as Angiotensin II or PAI-I. The activation of the brown adipose tissue confers an obesity resistance. Conversely, the loss of functional brown adipose tissue confers an obesity prone in mice and humans. In conclusion, the loss in brown adipose tissue and the adaptative thermogenesis it is of particular relevance in most of the human population (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Adiposidade , Termogênese/fisiologia
8.
J. physiol. biochem ; 72(3): 453-467, sept. 2016. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-168288

RESUMO

White adipose tissue (WAT) is a critical organ involved in regulating metabolic homeostasis under obese condition. Strategies that could positively affect WAT function would hold promise for fighting against obesity and its complications. The aim of the present study is to explore the effects of treadmill exercise training and rutin intervention on adipose tissue function from diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and whether fat depot-specific effects existed. In epididymal adipose tissue, high-fat diet (HFD) resulted in reduction in adiponectin mRNA expression, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-γ and DsbA-L protein expression, elevation in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers including 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP-78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis and insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation ex vivo were blunted from HFD group. The combination of rutin with exercise (HRE) completely restored GRP78 and p-JNK protein expression to normal levels, as well as blunted signaling ex vivo. In inguinal adipose tissue, HFD led to increased adiponectin mRNA expression, PPAR-γ, GRP78, and p-JNK protein expression, and reduction in DsbA-L. HRE is effective for restoring p-JNK, PPAR-γ, and DsbA-L. In conclusion, depot-specific effects may exist in regard to the effects of rutin and exercise on key molecules involved in regulating adipose tissue function (i.e., ER stress markers, PPAR-γ and DsbA-L, adiponectin expression, and secretion, ex vivo catecholamine stimulated lipolysis and insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation) from DIO mice (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Atividade Motora , Obesidade/terapia , Rutina/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Terapia Combinada , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Especificidade de Órgãos , Distribuição Aleatória
9.
J. physiol. biochem ; 72(3): 509-521, sept. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-168292

RESUMO

The present review focuses on the role of miRNAs in the control of white adipose tissue browning, a process which describes the recruitment of adipocytes showing features of brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNAs (19-22 nucleotides) involved in gene regulation. Although the main effect of miRNAs is the inhibition of the translational machinery, thereby preventing the production of the protein product, the activation of protein translation has also been described in the literature. In addition to modifying translation, miRNAs binding to its target mRNAs also trigger the recruitment and association of mRNA decay factors, leading to mRNA destabilization, degradation, and thus to the decrease in expression levels. Although a great number of miRNAs have been reported to potentially regulate genes that play important roles in the browning process, only a reduced number of studies have demonstrated experimentally an effect on this process associated to changes in miRNA expressions, so far. These studies have shown, by using either primary adipocyte cultures or experimental models of mice (KO mice, mice overexpressing a specific miRNA) that miR-196a, miR-26 and miR-30 are needed for browning process development. By contrast, miR-155, miR-133, miR-27b and miR-34 act as negative regulators of this process. Further studies are needed to fully describe the miRNA network-involved white adipose tissue browning regulation (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Adipócitos Bege/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Adipócitos Brancos , Obesidade , Transdiferenciação Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , RNA Mensageiro , Estabilidade de RNA
11.
J. physiol. biochem ; 72(3): 567-582, sept. 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-168297

RESUMO

Resveratrol is beneficial in obese and diabetic rodents. However, its low bioavailability raises questions about its therapeutic relevance for treating or preventing obesity complications. In this context, many related natural polyphenols are being tested for their putative antidiabetic and anti-obesity effects. This prompted us to study the influence of piceatannol, a polyhydroxylated stilbene, on the prevention of obesity complications in Zucker obese rats. A 6-week supplementation was followed by the determination of various markers in plasma, liver, adipose tissue and heart, together with a large-scale analysis of gut microbiota composition. When given in doses of 15 or 45 mg/kg body weight/day, piceatannol did not reduce either hyperphagia or fat accumulation. It did not modify the profusion of the most abundant phyla in gut, though slight changes were observed in the abundance of several Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Bacteroides species belonging to Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. This was accompanied by a tendency to reduce plasma lipopolysaccharides by 30 %, and by a decrease of circulating non-esterified fatty acids, LDL-cholesterol, and lactate. While piceatannol tended to improve lipid handling, it did not mitigate hyperinsulinemia and cardiac hypertrophy. However, it increased cardiac expression of ephrin-B1, a membrane protein that contributes to maintaining cardiomyocyte architecture. Lastly, ascorbyl radical plasma levels and hydrogen peroxide release by adipose tissue were similar in control and treated groups. Thus, piceatannol did not exhibit strong slimming capacities but did limit several obesity complications (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Estilbenos/uso terapêutico , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Ratos Zucker , Distribuição Aleatória , Miocárdio , Fígado , Hiperlipidemias , Biomarcadores , Adiposidade , Tecido Adiposo Branco , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1
12.
J. physiol. biochem ; 72(2): 157-167, jun. 2016. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-168263

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are pleiotropic growth factors that control cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Herein, we evaluated whether visceral adiposity of mice is accompanied by the alteration of signaling molecules mediated by fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) induced by using two different male C57BL/6J mice models of obesity namely high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity for 12 weeks or mice with genetic deletion of leptin (ob/ob). Both HFD-fed and ob/ob mice exhibited significantly higher messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of FGF1, cyclin D (cycD), transcription factor E2F1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma 2 (PPAR-γ2), CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), and adipocyte protein 2 (aP2) genes in their epididymal adipose tissues compared to those of the normal diet (ND)-fed and lean control mice, respectively. In addition, immunoblot analyses of the epididymal adipose tissues revealed that both mice exposed to HFD and ob/ob mice exhibited elevated phosphorylation of FGFR1, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and retinoblastoma (Rb) proteins. These data support the notion that FGF1-mediated signaling represents an important signaling cascade related to adipogenesis, at least partially, among other known signaling pathways. These new findings regarding the molecular mechanisms controlling adipose tissue plasticity provide a novel insight about the functional network with potential therapeutic application against obesity (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima , Fosforilação , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT , Ciclina D , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fator de Transcrição E2F1 , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , PPAR gama
13.
J. physiol. biochem ; 71(3): 559-568, sept. 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-142451

RESUMO

Numerous controversies surround the peptide hormone irisin. Although implicated as a myokine promoting the browning of adipose tissue in rodents, its roles in humans remain unclear. Contradictory results have also been found with respect to the relationships between adiposity or metabolic health and plasma irisin levels in humans. We investigated the relationship between irisin levels and body composition (hydrostatic weighing), insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), fitness level (ergocycle VO2max) and skeletal muscle metabolic profile in 53 men (aged 34–53 years) from four groups: sedentary non-obese controls (body mass index [BMI] <25 kg/m2), sedentary obese (BMI >30 kg/m2), sedentary obese glucose-intolerant, and non-obese highly trained endurance active. Baseline plasma irisin levels were significantly different between groups, being lowest in trained men (140.6 ± 38.2 ng/mL) and highest in metabolically deteriorated glucose-intolerant subjects (204.0 ± 50.5 ng/mL; ANOVA p = 0.01). Including all subjects, irisin levels were positively associated with adiposity (e.g. fat mass, r = 0.430, p < 0.01) and negatively associated with fitness (r = −0.369, p < 0.01), insulin sensitivity (M/I, r = −0.355, p < 0.01) and muscle citrate synthase (CS) activity (r = −0.482, p < 0.01). Most correlations lost statistical significance when excluding active individuals, except for insulin resistance (r = −0.413, p < 0.01) and CS (r = −0.462,p < 0.01). Multiple regression analyses reveal CS as the strongest independent predictor of irisin levels (r 2 range 0.214 to 0.237). We conclude that muscle oxidative potential is an important factor linked to circulating irisin levels (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tecido Adiposo Branco , Hormônios Peptídicos/farmacocinética , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Fibronectinas , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Miosinas , Adipocinas
14.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 26(3): 140-146, mayo-jun. 2014. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-124897

RESUMO

Ante la necesidad de comprender el fundamento de los beneficios metabólicos del ejercicio surgió el descubrimiento de la irisina, hace menos de 2 años. Esta citoquina, secretada por el músculo esquelético debido al ejercicio, tendría efectos positivos a nivel del metabolismo energético. Concretamente, actuaría como mensajero sobre el tejido adiposo blanco modificando su fenotipo hacia adipocito beige e incrementando su capacidad termogénica. A partir de su descripción, han sido numerosos los estudios orientados a delinear su función con el fin de determinar si la irisina configuraría una posible diana terapéutica en el contexto de enfermedades relacionadas con el exceso calórico, como la obesidad y la diabetes. En esta revisión se resume el descubrimiento de la irisina y sus efectos in vitro e in vivo descritos hasta la actualidad


Due to the need to understand the basis of the metabolic benefits of exercise, irisin was discovered a few years ago. This cytokine, secreted by skeletal muscle due to exercise, should have positive effects on energetic metabolism. In particular, it could act as a messenger on white adipose tissue, modifying its phenotype into the beige adipocyte, and increasing its thermogenic capacity. Since it was described, there have been numerous studies led to depict its function, with the aim of determining if irisin could become a therapeutic target in the context of diseases associated with a caloric excess, such as obesity and diabetes. In this review, the irisin discovery is summarized, along with its in vitro and in vivo effects described up until now


Assuntos
Humanos , Citocinas/análise , Músculo Esquelético , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiologia , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Deficiências na Proteostase/fisiopatologia , Composição Corporal
15.
An. R. Acad. Farm ; 80(2): 322-346, abr.-jun. 2014. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-125901

RESUMO

En esta revisión se valora la contribución del tejido adiposo blanco, marrón y perivascular a la fisiopatología de las complicaciones metabólicas y vasculares asociadas a la obesidad. Para combatir la obesidad y evitar las crecientes complicaciones metabólicas y vasculares, además de los tratamientos establecidos, hay que avanzar en el conocimiento del tejido adiposo marrón y su prometedor potencial terapéutico. Dada la capacidad del tejido adiposo marrón en el gasto energético y los efectos sobre el metabolismo lipídico y glucídico, así como su potencial resistencia a la inflamación junto con el tejido adiposo perivascular; las nuevas perspectivas del tratamiento de la obesidad podrían centrarse en el diseño de nuevos fármacos o distintos regímenes o terapias que incrementen la cantidad y función del tejido adiposo marrón no sólo para luchar contra la obesidad sino también para prevenir la diabetes tipo 2 y otros desórdenes metabólicos y vasculares asociados a la misma


This review analyzes the contribution of white, brown and perivascular adipose tissues to the pathophysiology of metabolic and vascular complications associated to obesity. To combat obesity and prevent its metabolic and vascular complications of high prevalence, in addition to conventional treatments a new insight in our knowledge of role of brown adipose tissue thermogenic function and its promising therapeutic potential in humans is much needed. Owing to the impact of brown adipose tissue on energy expenditure related to lipid and glucose metabolisms, as well as its potential resistance against inflammation together to perivascular adipose tissue, new perspectives in the obesity treatment might be focused in the design of new drugs, or different regimens or therapies, that increase the amount and activity of brown adipose tissue. These new treatments not only may contribute to combat obesity, but also prevent complications such as type 2 diabetes and other associated metabolic and vascular alterations


Assuntos
Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiopatologia , Adipócitos Marrons/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Vasculares/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
16.
Endocrinol. nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 61(2): 100-112, feb. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-119504

RESUMO

En el organismo existen 2 tipos de tejido adiposo cuya función parece estar bien diferenciada. El tejido adiposo blanco almacena reservas energéticas en forma de lípidos, mientras que la función metabólica del tejido adiposo marrón es la oxidación de lípidos para producir calor. Un buen equilibrio entre ambos va a ser importante para mantener la homeostasis energética. En las últimas décadas ha cambiado radicalmente el concepto de tejido adiposo blanco, considerándose hoy en día un órgano endocrino que secreta numerosos factores con funciones autocrinas, paracrinas y endocrinas. Además, ya no podemos hablar del tejido adiposo blanco como un solo tejido, ya que las diferentes localizaciones muestran un perfil metabólico diferente con consecuencias también diferentes. Si bien la célula que caracteriza el tejido adiposo es el adipocito, este no es el único tipo celular presente en el tejido adiposo, ni siquiera el más abundante. Entre los otros tipos celulares del tejido adiposo se han descrito células madre, preadipocitos, macrófagos, neutrófilos, linfocitos y células endoteliales. El equilibrio entre estos diferentes tipos celulares, así como su perfil de expresión, están estrechamente relacionados con el mantenimiento de la homeostasis energética. El incremento del tamaño de los adipocitos, del número y del tipo de linfocitos y macrófagos infiltrados está estrechamente relacionado con las enfermedades del síndrome metabólico. El estudio de la regulación de la proliferación y diferenciación de preadipocitos, células madre, así como la comprensión de la interrelación entre los diferentes tipos celulares, nos van a aportar nuevas dianas para actuar frente a estas patologías


There are two types of adipose tissue in the body whose function appears to be clearly differentiated. White adipose tissue stores energy reserves as fat, whereas the metabolic function of brown adipose tissue is lipid oxidation to produce heat. A good balance between them is important to maintain energy homeostasis. The concept of white adipose tissue has radically changed in the past decades, and is now considered as an endocrine organ that secretes many factors with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions. In addition, we can no longer consider white adipose tissue as a single tissue, because it shows different metabolic profiles in its different locations, with also different implications. Although the characteristic cell of adipose tissue is the adipocyte, this is not the only cell type present in adipose tissue, neither the most abundant. Other cell types in adipose tissue described include stem cells, preadipocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. The balance between these different cell types and their expression profile is closely related to maintenance of energy homeostasis. Increases in adipocyte size, number and type of lymphocytes, and infiltrated macrophages are closely related to the metabolic syndrome diseases. The study of regulation of proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes and stem cells, and understanding of the interrelationship between the different cell types will provide new targets for action against these diseases


Assuntos
Humanos , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiologia , Adipócitos Marrons/fisiologia , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Adipócitos Brancos/fisiologia , Células-Tronco , Macrófagos , Neutrófilos , Adipocinas
18.
An. pediatr. (2003, Ed. impr.) ; 78(3): 140-148, mar. 2013. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-109975

RESUMO

Introducción: El tejido adiposo blanco (TAB) subcutáneo (Sc) humano podría variar dependiendo de su localización anatómica, con diferencias en su perfil proteómico. Pacientes y métodos: Se obtuvieron aspirados de TAB-Sc de 6 mujeres con IMC > 25kg/m2, a las que se les había realizado una liposucción. Dicho TAB-Sc se obtuvo de 6 localizaciones anatómicas: abdominal superior e inferior, muslo, dorsal, flanco y cadera, analizándose su perfil proteómico mediante electroforesis bidimensional. En muslo y abdomen superior se compararon, además, las muestras obtenidas de las 2 capas del TAB-Sc (profunda y superficial). Resultados: Se detectaron 21 proteínas que mostraban una intensidad de expresión diferente entre las 6 localizaciones anatómicas y 14 entre las capas superficial y profunda de una misma región. Entre las proteínas identificadas se incluyen: vimentina (proteína estructural); proteínas heat shock (HSP), superóxido-dismutasa (estrés/chaperoninas); proteína fijadora de ácidos grasos 4 (FABP-4) y alfa-enolasa (metabolismo lipídico y de los hidratos de carbono, respectivamente) y ATP-sintetasa (producción de energía). Entre las regiones estudiadas, el TAB-Sc dorsal mostraba un perfil proteómico particular, con menor expresión de proteínas implicadas en la producción de energía y metabolismo (ATP-sintetasa, alfa-enolasa, HSP y FABP-4) que el resto de regiones. Conclusiones: Los niveles de expresión de diversas proteínas en el TAB-Sc humano no son homogéneos, difiriendo entre localizaciones anatómicas. Esto señala la existencia de diferencias funcionales en el TAB-Sc de acuerdo con su localización anatómica, lo que debe considerarse antes de asumir la extrapolación de los datos derivados del TAB-Sc de una determinada localización al de otras partes de la anatomía(AU)


Background: Human subcutaneous (SQ) white adipose tissue (WAT) can vary according to its anatomical location, with subsequent differences in its proteomic profile. Patients and methods: SQ-WAT aspirates were obtained from six overweight (BMI >25kg/m2) women who underwent extensive liposuction. SQ-WAT was removed from six different locations (upper abdominal, lower abdominal, thigh, back, flank, and hip), and the protein profiles were determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In addition, the proteomic profiles of upper abdominal and hip SQ-WAT were subjected to further analysis, comparing samples obtained from two layers of WAT (deep and superficial). Results: Twenty one protein spots showed differential intensities among the six defined anatomical locations, and 14 between the superficial and the deep layer. Among the proteins identified were, vimentin (structural protein), heat-shock proteins (HSPs), superoxide-dismutase (stress-resistance/chaperones), fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) 4, and alpha-enolase (lipid and carbohydrate metabolism), and ATP-synthase (energy production). Among the WAT samples analyzed, the back sub-depot showed significant differences in the levels of selected proteins when compared to the other locations, with lower level of expression of several proteins involved in energy production and metabolism (ATP-synthase, alpha-enolase, HSPs and FABP-4). Conclusions: The levels of several proteins in human SQ-WAT are not homogeneous between different WAT depots. These changes suggest the existence of inherent functional differences in subcutaneous fat depending upon its anatomical location. Thus, caution must be used when extrapolating data from one subcutaneous WAT region to other depots(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Proteoma/análise , Tecido Adiposo/ultraestrutura , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/anatomia & histologia , Gordura Subcutânea/anatomia & histologia , Lipectomia
19.
An. pediatr. (2003, Ed. impr.) ; 78(3): 189-189[e1-e15], mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-109982

RESUMO

El incremento universal de la prevalencia de obesidad en niños y adolescentes durante las últimas décadas, junto con la evidencia creciente de que el establecimiento de obesidad en etapas precoces de la vida, está asociado con un incremento de la prevalencia de comorbilidades y del riesgo de muerte prematura, con gran repercusión económica en los sistemas sanitarios de los países occidentales, y ha impulsado la investigación en esta área. Estos estudios han remarcado la importante actividad endocrina del tejido adiposo, ejercida por medio de la síntesis y secreción de un gran número de péptidos y citoquinas, denominados adipoquinas. En esta revisión se resume el estado actual de los conocimientos, así como los estudios más relevantes, en relación con la dinámica de secreción de las principales adipoquinas en niños, centrándose en el control de la homeostasia energética, la regulación metabólica (fundamentalmente el metabolismo de los hidratos de carbono) y la inflamación. Así mismo, se analizan las particularidades de la síntesis, secreción y acciones de las adipoquinas desde el nacimiento hasta la adolescencia, reseñando el efecto que, sobre ellas, ejerce la instauración de la obesidad(AU)


The worldwide increase in the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents during the last decades, as well as the mounting evidence indicating that obesity is associated with an increased incidence of comorbidities and the risk of premature death, resulting in a high economic impact, has stimulated obesity focused research. These studies have highlighted the prominent endocrine activity of adipose tissue, which is exerted through the synthesis and secretion of a wide variety of peptides and cytokines, called adipokines. This review presents a summary of the current knowledge and most relevant studies of adipokine dynamics and actions in children, focusing on the control of energy homeostasis, metabolic regulation (particularly carbohydrate metabolism), and inflammation. The particularities of adipose secretion and actions in healthy children, from birth to adolescence, and the modifications induced by early onset obesity are highlighted(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adipocinas/análise , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Valores de Referência , Lectinas/análise , Adiponectina/análise , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/análise , Resistina/análise , Tecido Adiposo Branco/química , Interleucina-6/análise , Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/análise
20.
J. physiol. biochem ; 65(4): 423-436, dic. 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-122865

RESUMO

No disponible


Besides adipocytes, specialized in lipid handling and involved in energy balance regulation, white adipose tissue (WAT) is mainly composed of other cell types among which lymphocytes represent a non-negligible proportion. Different types of lymphocytes (B, alphabetaT, ãäT, NK and NKT) have been detected in WAT of rodents or humans, and vary in their relative proportion according to the fat pad anatomical location. The lymphocytes found in intra-abdominal, visceral fat pads seem representative of innate immunity, while those present in subcutaneous fat depots are part of adaptive immunity, at least in mice. Both the number and the activity of the different lymphocyte classes, except B lymphocytes, are modified in obesity. Several of these modifications in the relative proportions of the lymphocyte classes depend on the degree of obesity, or on leptin concentration, or even fat depot anatomical location. Recent studies suggest that alterations of lymphocyte number and composition precede the macrophage increase and the enhanced inflammatory state of WAT found in obesity. Lymphocytes express receptors to adipokines while several proinflammatory chemokines are produced in WAT, rendering intricate crosstalk between fat and immune cells. However, the evidences and controversies available so far are in favour of an involvement of lymphocytes in the control of the number of other cells in WAT, either adipocytes or immune cells and of their secretory and metabolic activities. Therefore, immunotherapy deserves to be considered as a promising approach to treat the endocrino-metabolic disorders associated to excessive fat mass development (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Linfócitos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imunidade Inata , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Leptina
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