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2.
Cir. plást. ibero-latinoam ; 44(4): 379-387, oct.-dic. 2018. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180084

RESUMO

Introducción y Objetivo: Los estímulos fisiológicos, como la pérdida masiva de peso, proporcionan adaptaciones celulares en las que se alcanza un nuevo equilibrio que preserva la viabilidad de la célula, lo que se conoce como cambios adaptativos celulares. En nuestro trabajo nos planteamos la siguiente hipótesis: ¿podemos demostrar los cambios adaptativos fisiomorfológicos, histológicos e inmunohistoquímicos celulares sufridos por la piel y la grasa de los pacientes con pérdida masiva de peso? Material y Método: Llevamos a cabo un estudio experimental, descriptivo, prospectivo y comparativo de casos y controles, con una muestra al azar dividida en 2 grupos: A, pacientes postbariátricos y B, pacientes no postbariátricos. Resultados: Las muestras de piel de los pacientes postbariátricos presentaron cambios en el epitelio, colágeno, dermis y adipocitos. Conclusiones: Demostramos la presencia de cambios adaptativos celulares en la piel y la grasa de los pacientes con pérdida masiva de peso, que nos permiten establecer que existe un patrón histológico postbariátrico. Estos datos mejoran nuestro enfoque médico y quirúrgico en la búsqueda de menores complicaciones con mejores resultados en las cirugías de readaptación de contorno corporal a las que pueden someterse dichos pacientes


Background and Objective: The physiological stimuli, such as massive weight loss, provide cellular adaptations in which a new balance that preserves cell viability is reached, what is known as cellular adaptive changes. Our hypothesis in this study was: can we show fisiomorfológic cellular, histological and immunohistochemical adaptive changes suffered by the skin and fat of patients with massive weight loss? Methods: An experimental, descriptive, prospective and comparative case-control study was conducted on a random sample divided into 2 groups: A, postbariátric patients and B, no postbariatric patients. Results: Skin samples from postbariátric patients showed changes in the epithelium, collagen, dermis and fat cells. Conclusions: Cellular adaptive changes in the skin and fat of patients with massive weight loss are shown. These data improve our medical and surgical approach in finding minor complications with better aesthetic results when these patients undergo a body contouring surgery


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Epitélio/patologia , Colágeno/análise , Derme/patologia , Adipócitos/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Imuno-Histoquímica
3.
J. physiol. biochem ; 74(4): 655-666, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-179043

RESUMO

Some researchers have proposed important variations in adipose tissue among different strains of rats and mice in response to a high-caloric (hc) diet, but data concerning the mechanisms underlying these differences are scarce. The aim of the present research was to characterize different aspects of triacylglycerol (TG) metabolism and clock genes between Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats. For this purpose, 16 male Sprague-Dawley and 16 male Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups (n = 8) and fed either a normal-caloric (nc) diet or a hc diet for 6 weeks. After sacrifice, liver and epididymal, perirenal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots were dissected, weighed and immediately frozen. Liver TG content was quantified, RNA extracted for gene expression analysis and fatty acid synthase enzyme activity measured. Two-way ANOVA and Student’s t test were used to perform the statistical analyses. Under hc feeding conditions, Wistar rats were more prone to fat accumulation in adipose tissue, especially in the epididymal fat depot, due to their increased lipogenesis and fatty acid uptake. By contrast, both strains of rats showed similarly fatty livers after hc feeding. Peripheral clock machinery seems to be a potential explanatory mechanism for Wistar and Sprague-Dawley strain differences. In conclusion, Wistar strain seems to be the best choice as animal model in dietary-induced obesity studies


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Lipogênese , Fígado/metabolismo , Adipócitos , Proteínas CLOCK , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar
4.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 65(7): 387-393, ago.-sept. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-176124

RESUMO

Background: There is little evidence of the association between CETP SNPs and obesity and/or related metabolic parameters. Objective: To analyze the association of the polymorphism rs1800777 of the CETP gene with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, metabolic syndrome and its components, and adipokine levels in obese subjects without type 2 diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Design: A population of 1005 obese subjects was analyzed. Electrical bioimpedance was performed, and blood pressure, presence of metabolic syndrome, dietary intake, physical activity, and biochemical tests were recorded. Results: Nine hundred and sixty eight patients (96.3%) had the GG genotype, 37 patients the GA genotype (3.7%) (no AA genotype was detected). Fat mass (delta: 4.4±1.1kg; p=0.04), waist circumference (delta: 5.6±2.1cm; p=0.02), and waist to hip ratio (delta: 0.04±0.01cm; p=0.01) were higher in A allele carriers than in non-A allele carriers. HDL cholesterol levels were lower in A allele carriers than in non-A allele carriers (delta: 4.2±1.0mg/dL; p=0.04). In the logistic regression analysis, the GA genotype was associated to an increased risk of central obesity (OR 7.55, 95% CI 1.10-55.70, p=0.02) and low HDL cholesterol levels (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.23-4.91, p=0.014). Conclusion: The CETP variant at position +82 is associated to lower HDL cholesterol levels, increased fat mass, and central obesity in obese subjects. These results may suggest a potential role of this variant gene in pathophysiology of adipose tissue


Antecedentes: Existen pocas evidencias en relación a la asociación entre los SNP de CETP y la presencia de obesidad y/o parámetros metabólicos relacionados. Objetivo: Examinar la asociación del polimorfismo (rs1800777) del gen CETP con parámetros antropométricos, perfil lipídico, presencia de síndrome metabólico y sus diferentes componentes y los niveles de adipocitoquinas en sujetos con obesidad sin diabetes mellitus ni hipertensión. Diseño: Se analizó una población de 1.005 sujetos con obesidad. Se registró una bioimpedancia, presión arterial, presencia de síndrome metabólico, ingesta dietética, ejercicio físico y parámetros bioquímicos. Resultados: Novecientos sesenta y ocho pacientes (96,3%) tuvieron el genotipo GG y 37 pacientes presentaron el genotipo GA (3,7%) (no se detectó genotipo AA). La masa grasa (delta: 4,4±1,1kg; p=0,04), circunferencia de la cintura (delta: 5,6±2,1cm; p=0,02), relación cintura-cadera (delta: 0,04±0,01cm; p=0,01) fueron mayores en los portadores del alelo A. El colesterol HDL fue menor en los portadores del alelo A (delta: 4,2±1,0mg/dl; p=0,04). En el análisis de regresión logística la presencia del alelo A se asoció con un mayor riesgo de obesidad central (OR: 7,55; IC 95%: 1,10-55,70; p=0,02) y un mayor riesgo de colesterol HDL bajo (OR: 2,46; IC 95%: 1,23-4,91; p=0,014). Conclusión: La variante CETP en la posición +82 se asocia a unos niveles más bajos de colesterol HDL, a un mayor porcentaje de masa grasa y obesidad central en personas con obesidad. Estos resultados podrían sugerir un posible papel de esta variante en la fisiopatología del tejido adiposo


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/fisiologia , HDL-Colesterol/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo Genético/fisiologia , HDL-Colesterol/genética , Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Adipócitos , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Antropometria/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
5.
J. physiol. biochem ; 73(3): 315-321, ago. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-178883

RESUMO

Recent investigations have showed that the functional thermogenic adipocytes are present in both infants and adult humans. Accumulating evidence suggests that the coexistence of classical and inducible brown (brite) adipocytes in humans at adulthood and these adipocytes function to generate heat from energy resulting in reducing body fat and improving glucose metabolism. Human thermogenic adipocytes can be differentiated in vitro from stem cells, cell lines, or adipose stromal vascular fraction. Pre-activated human brite adipocytes in vitro can maintain their thermogenic function in normal or obese immunodeficient mice; therefore, they improve glucose homeostasis and reduce fat mass in obese animals. These key findings have opened a new door to use in vitro thermogenic adipocytes as a cell therapy to prevent obesity and related disorders. Thus, this paper intends to highlight our knowledge in aspects of in vitro human brite/brown adipocytes for the further studies


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/fisiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Termogênese
6.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 64(6): 317-327, jun.-jul. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171728

RESUMO

La inflamación generada en el tejido adiposo o lipoinflamación, puede contribuir al desarrollo de la resistencia a la insulina. Los mecanismos asociados a la lipoinflamación están relacionados con la función de los adipocitos y los macrófagos presentes en el tejido adiposo. En este contexto, el nivel del nucleósido adenosina está aumentado en individuos con obesidad. Las causas o consecuencias de este aumento no se conocen. Aunque, adenosina al activar a sus receptores (A1, A2A, A2B y A3) es capaz de modular diferencialmente la función de adipocitos y macrófagos, con el fin de evitar la reducción de la sensibilidad a la insulina y generar un estado antiinflamatorio en el individuo con obesidad. En esta revisión proponemos que adenosina podría ser un elemento clave en el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias para el control de la lipoinflamación y homeostasis metabólica a través de la regulación del diálogo adipocito-macrófago (AU)


Lipoinflamation is the inflammation generated in the adipose tissue. It can contribute to the development of insulin resistance. The lipoinflammation-associated mechanisms are related to the function of adipocytes and macrophages present in the adipose tissue. In this regard, the level of nucleoside adenosine is increased in individuals with obesity. Causes or consequences of this increase are unknown. Although, adenosine activating its receptors (A1, A2A, A2B and A3) is able to differentially modulate the function of adipocytes and macrophages, in order to avoid the reduction of insulin sensitivity and generate an anti-inflammatory state in subject with obesity. In this review we propose that adenosine could be a key element in the development of new strategies for limit lipoinflammation and regulate metabolic homeostasis through modulation of adipocyte-macrophage dialogue (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adenosina/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Interleucinas/análise , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/análise , Macrófagos , Receptor A2B de Adenosina/análise , Tecido Adiposo , Obesidade/complicações
8.
Actas urol. esp ; 41(2): 97-102, mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-160618

RESUMO

Objetivo: Modelos animales han demostrado que existe una asociación entre disfunción eréctil y acumulación de grasa bajo la albugínea del pene, pudiendo provocar fuga venosa y pérdida de rigidez del pene. En este estudio se llevó a cabo una comparación de la histología de los cuerpos cavernosos bajo la albugínea de pacientes con disfunción eréctil refractarios a tratamiento médico sometidos a implante de prótesis de pene, y pacientes con enfermedad de Peyronie, sin disfunción eréctil, sometidos a corporoplastia. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron 17 pacientes con disfunción eréctil y 14 pacientes potentes con enfermedad de Peyronie. Se recolectaron muestras de tejido cavernoso bajo la túnica albugínea en cada cirugía, las cuales fueron analizadas por un uropatólogo en búsqueda de adipocitos subalbugíneos. Se llevó a cabo un análisis bivariado para comparar características de ambos grupos. Se calcularon las odds ratio con un modelo multivariado de regresión logística. Un valor de p < 0,05 fue considerado significativo. Resultados: Once pacientes (11/17) en el grupo de disfunción eréctil presentaron adipocitos en la histología, mientras solo un paciente (1/14) lo presentó en el grupo control (p < 0,05). El análisis multivariado mostró una odds ratio de 40,72; IC 95%: 2,28-727,29 (p = 0,012). Conclusiones: Alteraciones en los andrógenos provocan cambios estructurales en el pene, llevando a apoptosis y desdiferenciación de músculo trabecular hacia adipocitos. Este es el primer estudio prospectivo en humanos que muestra una asociación entre grasa subalbugínea y disfunción eréctil. La fuga venosa secundaria a este fenómeno podría influir en la disfunción eréctil, especialmente en pacientes que no responden a tratamiento médico


Objectives: Animal models have shown that erectile dysfunction is associated with adipocyte accumulation under tunica albugínea, which could be involved in venous leakage and loss of penile rigidity. In the current sudy, we compared the histology of the penile sub-albuginean region of drug-refractory erectile dysfunction patients undergoing penile prosthesis implantation with potent patients with Peyronie's disease undergoing curvature correction procedures. Materials and methods. Seventeen refractory erectile dysfunction patients and fourteen potent patients with Peyronie's disease were recruited. Sub-albuginean tissue samples were taken in each surgery. An expert uropathologist analysed each section. A bivariate analysis was performed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios; P value <.05 was considered significant. Results: Eleven patients (11/17) in the case group presented cavernous fat cell accumulation, while only one patient (1/14) in the control group presented this finding (P < .05). Adjusted odds ratio for erectile dysfunction was 40.72; 95% CI 2.28-727.29 (P = .012). Conclusions: Different studies have shown that androgen disruption could be involved in penile structural changes, leading to trabecular smooth muscle apoptosis and trans or de-differentiation into adipocytes. This is the first prospective study in humans to report an association between erectile dysfunction and sub-albuginean adipocyte accumulation. Venous leakage secondary to this phenomenon could be a factor in the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction, especially in patients that do not respond to medical therapy


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Adulto , Idoso , Adipócitos/patologia , Disfunção Erétil/complicações , Disfunção Erétil/diagnóstico , Disfunção Erétil/veterinária , Antagonistas de Androgênios/análise , Modelos Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Razão de Chances , Análise Multivariada , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Prospectivos , Declaração de Helsinki , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/normas
9.
An Real Acad Farm ; 83(4): 392-402, 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-172237

RESUMO

En la actualidad la terapia celular, a través de las aplicaciones clínicas de las células madres (stem cell, SC), ha adquirido importancia como tratamiento frente a enfermedades que involucran la reparación de tejidos u órganos, frente a las cuales el organismo no es capaz de responder adecuadamente. Un campo de reciente interés se centra en el uso de células madres derivadas de adipocitos (adipose-derived stem cells, ASCs), que presentan ventajas en comparación a las células madres mesenquimales derivadas de médula ósea (mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, MSC-BM), las que han sido ampliamente investigadas. Los múltiples estudios enfocados en las aplicaciones clínicas de este tipo celular han sido muy prometedores y satisfactorios, lo que ha permitido que recientemente hayan sido aprobadas por la Agencia Europea del Medicamento (EMA) para el tratamiento de fístulas complejas en enfermedad de Crohn. Como consecuencia de lo anterior, al igual que cualquier medicamento de uso humano, requieren de un sistema de normas que regule su producción, como son las Buenas Prácticas de Manufactura (BPM), cuyo objetivo es asegurar la eficacia y seguridad para los pacientes. En esta revisión se abordan aspectos relevantes en relación a las ventajas, aplicaciones clínicas y normas que rigen la producción de ASCs (AU)


Currently, cell therapy through the clinical use of stem cells (SC) has acquired relevance as a treatment for diseases involving tissue or organ repair, in which the organism is not able to properly respond. An area of recent interest is focused on the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) that exhibit advantages in comparison to the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-BM), which have been widely investigated. Multiple studies focused on the clinical applications of this type of cells have been promising and satisfying, which allowed their recent approval by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the treatment of complex fistulas in Crohn´s disease. In consequence, as for any human use medicine, they require a system of standards that regulate their production, as the good manufacturing practices (GMP), whose aim is to assure the efficacy and safety for the patients. This review addresses relevant aspects related to the advantages, clinical applications and standards that regulate ASCs production (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Adipócitos , Boas Práticas de Manipulação , Células-Tronco/classificação , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Segurança do Paciente , Lipectomia , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico
10.
J. physiol. biochem ; 72(2): 145-155, jun. 2016. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-168262

RESUMO

Adipogenic differentiation is characterized by an increase in two major transcription factors: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα). These two signals are influenced by C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ and cross-regulate each other’s expression during the initial stages of adipogenesis. Melatonin has been known to act as not only a direct scavenger of free radicals but also an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β). Here, we report that melatonin inhibits the adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) which is due to the regulations of C/EBPβ in the early stage of adipogenic differentiation. Melatonin reduced the lipid accumulation, adiponectin, and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) during the adipogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Since C/EBPβ has been associated with the activation of PPARγ and the consensus site of ERK/GSK-3β, PPARγ and β-catenin were detected by immunofluorescence staining after pretreatment of melatonin. Melatonin blocked the activation of PPARγ which induced the degradation of β-catenin. Melatonin also decreased the levels of cyclic adenosine-3,5-monophosphate (cAMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The cAMP triggered the activity of C/EBPβ which is a critical inducer of PPARγ and C/EBPα activation in the early stage of adipogenic differentiation, and this is further affected by ROS production. The adipogenic marker proteins such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, and pERK were also decreased by melatonin. In summary, melatonin inhibited the cAMP synthesis through ROS reduction and the phosphorylation of the ERK/GSK-3β site which is known to be responsible for C/EBPβ activation for adipogenic differentiation in hMSCs (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Ligantes , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Fosforilação , Ativação Enzimática
11.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 146(12): 541-543, jun. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-153192

RESUMO

La sustitución grasa de las células miocárdicas es un proceso degenerativo que afecta en mayor medida al ventrículo derecho y se encuentra en el 50% de las personas ancianas. El problema se origina cuando esta degeneración se produce en grado masivo, planteando la necesidad de realizar el diagnóstico diferencial con otras enfermedades. Se presenta el caso de un paciente que falleció de forma súbita y en su autopsia se encontró esta dolencia como única explicación del desenlace (AU)


The fat replacement of myocardial cells is a degenerative process that usually affects the right ventricle and is found in 50% of the elderly. The problem arises when this degeneration occurs to a massive degree, a differential diagnosis with other pathologies being necessary. We present the case of a patient who died suddenly and a massive cardiac lipomatosis was found on autopsy, as the only explanation of the outcome (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lipomatose/complicações , Lipomatose/mortalidade , Lipomatose/patologia , Autopsia/métodos , Morte Súbita/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Febre/complicações , Dispneia/complicações , Tosse/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes/complicações , Dislipidemias/complicações , Carcinoma/complicações , Neoplasias Laríngeas/complicações , Nó Sinoatrial/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Adipócitos/patologia
12.
J. physiol. biochem ; 71(4): 847-853, dic. 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-145735

RESUMO

The role of brown adipocytes and adipocytes of a new beige type in the energy metabolism of a healthy person and in the pathogenesis of obesity has extensively been discussed in recent years. The interest to these cells has been stimulated owing to the application of new noninvasive methods for studying the metabolic activity of tissues. Using these methods, the presence of thermogenically active adipocytes in adults and their reactivity to cold stimuli have been proved. These data, together with the results of animal experiments support the idea of thermogenic fat being a direct regulator of the energy balance of man. However, for several reasons there are some objections to this viewpoint. The main objection is that the total activity of the human thermogenic adipocytes is about 100 kJ/day, i.e., it is negligible. In addition, the burn of excessive nutrients is biologically inappropriate for an organism. Therefore, the idea that obesity is caused by the decreased activity of thermogenic adipocytes is erroneous. The statement that the causes of obesity are associated with the increased efficiency of energy-dependent processes seems more reasonable. The consequence is a reduction in energy expenditure to perform a unit of biological work. This results in excess of nutrients deposited in the form of fat (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Termogênese/fisiologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Desacopladores/farmacocinética , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/fisiologia
13.
Clin. transl. oncol. (Print) ; 17(10): 763-771, oct. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-140945

RESUMO

In the last few years, many prospective studies have demonstrated a clear association between obesity and cancers of the colon and rectum, breast in post-menopausal women, endometrium, kidney, oesophagus and pancreas. Obesity is also associated with a high risk of recurrence and cancer-related death. The pathophysiology of obesity involves various changes that may be implicated in the relationship between obesity and cancer, such as excess inflammatory cytokines and chronic inflammation, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, and raised leptin and oestrogens. The Spanish Society for the Study of Obesity and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology have signed a cooperation agreement to work together towards reducing the impact of obesity in cancer. Preventing obesity prevents cancer (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias do Colo/complicações , Neoplasias Retais/complicações , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Adipocinas/análise , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Sociedades Médicas/tendências , Sociedades Médicas , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adipócitos/patologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia
14.
J. physiol. biochem ; 71(3): 381-390, sept. 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-142437

RESUMO

S-resistin is a non-secretable resistin spliced variant, which is expressed mainly in the white adipose tissue from Wistar rats. Previous results confirmed that 3T3-L1 cells expressing s-resistin (3T3-L1-s-res) showed an inflammatory response and exhibited a decrease in glucose transport, both basal and insulin-stimulated. Here we present evidences demonstrating for the first time that s-resistin, like resistin, blocks insulin signalling pathway by inhibiting insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, protein kinase B/Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylation, and increasing the suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 levels being the later probably due to augmented of leptin expression. Thus, our data suggest that s-resistin could act by a still unknown intracrine pathway as an intracellular sensor, regulating the adipocyte insulin sensitivity (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Resistina/fisiologia , Insulina , Isoformas de Proteínas/análise , Adipócitos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Leptina
15.
J. physiol. biochem ; 71(3): 487-496, sept. 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-142445

RESUMO

Glitazones are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists widely used as antidiabetic drugs also known as thiazolidinediones. Most of them exert other effects such as anti-inflammatory actions via mechanisms supposed to be independent from PPARγ activation (e.g., decreased plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels). Recently, pioglitazone has been shown to inhibit the B form of monoamine oxidase (MAO) in mouse, while rosiglitazone and troglitazone were described as non-covalent inhibitors of both human MAO A and MAO B. Since molecules interacting with MAO might also inhibit semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), known as vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1), and since VAP-1/SSAO inhibitors exhibit anti-inflammatory activity, our aim was to elucidate whether VAP-1/SSAO inhibition could be a mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory behaviour of glitazones. To this aim, MAO and SSAO activities were measured in human subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies obtained from overweight women undergoing plastic surgery. The production of hydrogen peroxide, an end-product of amine oxidase activity, was determined in tissue homogenates using a fluorometric method. The oxidation of 1 mM tyramine was inhibited by pargyline and almost resistant to semicarbazide, therefore predominantly MAO-dependent. Rosiglitazone was more potent than pioglitazone in inhibiting tyramine oxidation. By contrast, benzylamine oxidation was only abolished by semicarbazide: hence SSAO-mediated. Pioglitazone hampered SSAO activity only when tested at 1 mM while rosiglitazone was inefficient. However, rosiglitazone exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in human adipocytes by limiting MCP-1 expression. Our observations rule out any involvement of VAP-1/SSAO inhibition and subsequent limitation of leukocyte extravasation in the anti-inflammatory action of glitazones (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacocinética , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Monoaminoxidase/farmacocinética , Técnicas In Vitro
16.
J. physiol. biochem ; 71(3): 537-546, sept. 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-142449

RESUMO

Obesity is defined as an excessive accumulation of adipose tissue that may lead to health complications. Mounting evidence indicates that obesity has a negative impact on fertility. Yet, the link between adipose tissue biology and infertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the communication between the adipose tissue and the reproductive system and the importance of this cross talk for the development of a receptive endometrium. To that end, we generated an in vitro model with endometrial and adipocyte cell lines. Sexual hormones, progesterone and estradiol, were used to decidualize endometrial cells and sensitize adipocytes. Decidualization produced a simultaneous increase of adipokine receptors in endometrial cells paralleling changes in their receptivity status. Furthermore, sensitization of 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased mRNA levels of leptin and resistin and decreased the expression of adiponectin and chemerin levels. This was accompanied by increased isoproterenol-induced lipolysis and reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Lastly, conditioned culture medium of those sensitized adipocytes was used to feed endometrial cells. This treatment resulted in (i) upregulation of genes previously identified as positive regulators of endometrial receptivity, such as leukemia inhibitory factor and glutathione peroxidase 3, and (ii) downregulation of interleukin-15 and mucin1, both genes negatively related with endometrial receptivity. Our results indicate that the endocrine communication between adipose tissue and the reproductive system is bidirectional and stress the importance of the adipose tissue to modulate the reproductive fitness (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Adipócitos , Endométrio/fisiopatologia , Infertilidade Feminina/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adipocinas/farmacocinética
17.
Nutr. hosp ; 32(2): 545-555, ago. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-139985

RESUMO

La principal función de los adipocitos es el almacenamiento de lípidos cuando hay exceso de energía y la movilización de la misma cuando hay deficiencia. Una de las características de la obesidad es el aumento de la cantidad y el tamaño de los adipocitos, lo que implica la diferenciación de preadipocitos (PAD). El tejido adiposo (TA) tiene su origen en la etapa prenatal y puede seguir expandiéndose durante la vida adulta a partir de células precursoras, ya que los adipocitos maduros no pueden multiplicarse por división celular. El presente estudio proveerá información reciente de los eventos que se producen durante el origen y diferenciación de los PAD, así como los factores implicados en la regulación de la adipogénesis y los mecanismos que regulan las funciones fisiológicas del TA (AU)


The main function of the adipocyte is lipid storage when there is a positive energy balance and lipid release when there is and energy deficiency. One characteristic of obesity is an increase in the number and size of adipocytes, which implies pre adipocyte (PAD) differentiation. The adipose tissue (AT) has its origins in the prenatal stage and may continue to expand during adulthood from precursor cells since mature adipocytes cannot multiply by cell division. This study provide updates on the events that occur during the origin and differentiation of PAD, the factors involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and mechanisms that regulate physiological functions of AT (AU)


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adipogenia , Tratamento Farmacológico/organização & administração , Fitoterapia/métodos , Adipócitos , Células-Tronco , Diferenciação Celular , Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Receptores de Citocinas , Receptores de Citocinas/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Antiobesidade/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Nelumbo
18.
Clin. transl. oncol. (Print) ; 17(7): 511-520, jul. 2015. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-138447

RESUMO

Introduction. In the mammary gland, the involution that occurs when lactation ends is an important period for cancer development. We have previously demonstrated stromal–epithelium interactions evaluating conditioned medium of adipose tissue on breast epithelial metalloproteases activity (Creydt et al., Clin Transl Oncol 15:124–131, 2013). Here, we evaluated the effects of conditioned medium of breast epithelial mammary cells on stromal cells. Materials and methods. Conditioned medium from normal murine mammary gland cell line (NMuMG) and conditioned medium proteins were obtained. Then, they were evaluated on modulation of adipocyte differentiation, using 3T3-L1 cell line. Results. We described, for the first time, that breast epithelial mammary cells could produce the enzyme galactose 3-O-sulfotransferase 2 (GAL3ST2). Importantly, GAL3ST2 is present in NMMuMG and two human breast cancer cell lines, and it is more strongly expressed in more metastatic tumors. When 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation was triggered in the presence of conditioned medium from NMuMG or GAL3ST2, triglyceride accumulation was decreased by 40 % and C/EBPβ expression by 80 % in adipocytes. In addition, the expression of FABP4 (aP2), another marker of adipocyte differentiation, was inhibited by 40 % in GAL3ST2-treated cells. Conclusions. Taken together, these results suggest that GAL3ST2 would interfere with normal differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes; raising the possibility that it may affect normal differentiation of stromal preadipocytes and be a link to tumor metastatic capacity (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Células 3T3-L1/citologia , Células 3T3-L1/patologia , Galactose/análise , Galactose/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/veterinária , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/patologia , Cromatografia , Cromatografia/veterinária , Western Blotting
19.
Nutr. hosp ; 31(6): 2352-2358, jun. 2015. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-142206

RESUMO

La obesidad es una enfermedad crónica de origen multifactorial con una elevada prevalencia a nivel mundial que se asocia a complicaciones potencialmente graves y que precisa de un enfoque multidisciplinar por su gran repercusión clínica y elevado coste sanitario. La evidencia más reciente apunta que comparte con otras patologías comunes y de complejo abordaje terapéutico la existencia de un estado de inflamación crónica de bajo grado que perpetúa la enfermedad y se asocia a múltiples complicaciones. El interés actual de la lipoinflamación o inflamación crónica asociada a la obesidad deriva del conocimiento de las alteraciones y remodelado que se produce en el tejido adiposo, con la participación de múltiples factores y elementos implicados en todo el proceso. Investigaciones recientes subrayan la importancia de algunas de estas moléculas, denominadas mediadores especializados en la resolución, como posible dianas terapéuticas para el tratamiento de la obesidad. En este artículo se revisa la evidencia publicada acerca de los mecanismos que regulan el proceso de remodelado del tejido adiposo y el estado de lipoinflamación en la obesidad así como en los mediadores implicados directamente en la aparición y resolución del proceso inflamatorio (AU)


Obesity is a chronic disease with multiple origins. It is a widespread global phenomenon carrying potentially serious complications which requires a multidisciplinary approach due to the significant clinical repercussions and elevated health costs associated with the disease. The most recent evidence indicates that it shares a common characteristic with other prevalent, difficult-to-treat pathologies: chronic, low-grade inflammation which perpetuates the disease and is associated with multiple complications. The current interest in lipoinflammation or chronic inflammation associated with obesity derives from an understanding of the alterations and remodelling that occurs in the adipose tissue, with the participation of multiple factors and elements throughout the process. Recent research highlights the importance of some of these molecules, called pro-resolving mediators, as possible therapeutic targets in the treatment of obesity. This article reviews the evidence published on the mechanisms that regulate the adipose tissue remodelling process and lipoinflammation both in obesity and in the mediators that are directly involved in the appearance and resolution of the inflammatory process (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/fisiologia , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Citocinas/fisiologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia
20.
Nutr. hosp ; 31(supl.1): 10-18, feb. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-133210

RESUMO

La obesidad es un importante problema de salud pública, ya que está relacionada con varias enfermedades crónicas, incluyendo diabetes tipo 2, hipertensión arterial, dislipemia, enfermedades cardiovasculares y cáncer, entre otras. La microbiota intestinal se considera uno de los nuevos factores que participan en la obesidad y los trastornos metabólicos. Animales y seres humanos obesos tienen alteraciones en la composición de la microbiota intestinal en comparación con sus homólogos delgados. Además, se ha observado en ratones libres de gérmenes que el trasplante de la microbiota procedente de ratones bien obesos o delgados influye en el peso corporal, lo que sugiere que el ecosistema intestinal juega un papel importante en el control ponderal. Asimismo, determinadas cepas de probióticos podrían regular el peso corporal al influir en las funciones metabólicas, neuroendocrinas e inmunológicas del hospedador. Con todo ello, nuestro conocimiento sobre la influencia que la microbiota intestinal tiene sobre la obesidad va avanzando, por lo que cabe considerar que la modulación de su composición mediante probióticos podría ofrecer una nueva vía para el tratamiento del sobrepeso y la obesidad (AU)


Obesity is a major public health issue as it is related to several chronic disorders, including type-2 diabetes, high blood pressure, dyslipemia, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, among others. Novel research shows that the gut microbiota is involved in obesity and metabolic disorders, revealing that obese animal and human subjects have alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota compared to their lean counterparts. Moreover, it has been observed in germ-free mice that transplantation of the microbiota of either obese or lean mice influences body weight, suggesting that the gut ecosystem is a relevant target for weight management. Certain strains of probiotics may regulate body weight by influencing the host’s metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune functions. Taken together, our knowledge about the influence of gut microbiota on obesity is progressing. Therefore, modulation of its composition through probiotics may provide new opportunities to manage overweight and obesity (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adipócitos/imunologia , Bacteroides fragilis , Lactobacillus , Prevotella
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