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1.
Int. microbiol ; 22(4): 501-509, dic. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185068

RESUMO

Singleplex and duplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were developed for detecting Vibrio anguillarum, a major bacterial pathogen of fish, and Vibrio alginolyticus, a pathogen of fish and humans, separately and simultaneously from contaminated seawater by targeting the groEL gene of V. anguillarum, which encodes a molecular chaperone protein, and the fklB gene of V. alginolyticus, which encodes a 22 kilodalton (kDa) peptidyl prolyl isomerase. The optimal reaction conditions to produce consistent results were 65°C for 30 min, 63°C for 30 min, and 63°C for 40 min for the groEL (singleplex for V. anguillarum), fklB (singleplex for V. alginolyticus), and groEL + flkB (duplex) LAMP assays, respectively, analyzed via visual detection methods (use of calcein, and SYBR Green I) and agarose gel electrophoresis. The assays were found to be species-specific, as closely related Vibrio spp. were not detected. The limits of detection (LoDs) of the LAMP assays for DNA template from pure culture and artificially contaminated seawater were 10 and 14 fg (groEL assay; for V. anguillarum), 12.5 and 17 fg (fklB assay; for V. alginolyticus), and 50 and 70 fg (duplex assay) per reaction, respectively, which were much better than the LoDs of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Singleplex and duplex LAMP assays were found to be rapid, species-specific, and sensitive for the detection of V. anguillarum and V. alginolyticus and are applicable to laboratory and field diagnostics


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Vibrio alginolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Vibrio/química , Vibrio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/microbiologia , Água do Mar/análise , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
2.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(extr.1): 98-101, jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184954

RESUMO

Objetivos: el objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar las bases de la gastronomía de las Islas Baleares y buscar los patrones de alimentación, así como los perfiles nutricionales y sanitarios actuales. Métodos: búsqueda bibliográfica sobre la gastronomía y nutrición de las Islas Baleares. Resultados: el modelo gastronómico tradicional de las Islas Baleares es rico y variado y cuenta con productos de calidad reconocida bajo sellos europeos y nacionales. En la actualidad, el consumo de cereales, huevos, verduras y hortalizas, frutas, legumbres, carnes, pescados y mariscos es menor que el observado para la media nacional. Sin embargo, el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas y no alcohólicas es muy superior a esta media. Conclusiones: el consumo de alimentos actual está muy alejado del modelo mediterráneo tradicional. El perfil nutricional y sanitario es preocupante. El reto de la gastronomía balear es aunar la tradición con el saber actual para conseguir una evolución nutricionalmente aceptable y saludable


Objectives: the objective of this work was to study the basis of the gastronomy of the Balearic Islands and to look for the feeding patterns as well as the current nutritional and health profiles. Methods: bibliographic search on Balearic gastronomy and nutrition. Results: the traditional gastronomic model of the Balearic Islands is rich and varied and has products of recognized quality under European and national labels. Currently, the consumption of cereals, eggs, vegetables, fruits, pulses, meats, fish and seafood is lower than that observed for the national average. However, the consumption of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages is much higher than this average. Conclusions: current food consumption is very far from the traditional Mediterranean model. The nutritional and health profile is worrisome. The challenge of Balearic gastronomy is to combine tradition with current knowledge to achieve a nutritionally acceptable and healthy evolution


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Bebidas/provisão & distribução , Dieta/normas , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Preferências Alimentares , Nível de Saúde , Estado Nutricional , Ovos , Peixes , Frutas , Carne , Produtos Pesqueiros , Espanha , Verduras
3.
J. investig. allergol. clin. immunol ; 29(6): 414-421, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-189777

RESUMO

Fish allergy is one of the most common food allergies. It is usually considered to be IgE-mediated and correlates well with diagnostic tests such as prick tests and/or determination of specific IgE. Avoidance is the recommended treatment and is generally extended to all fish species. However, new clinical presentations have been described. These include non-IgE-mediated disease, monosensitization, and new syndromes that are sometimes associated, surprisingly, with cross-reactivity. Advances in molecular allergy have provided insights into new allergens and have increased our understanding of cross-reactivity. This paper focuses on recent publications providing information for clinicians involved in the management of fish allergy


La alergia al pescado es una de las alergias alimentarias más frecuentes. Constituye habitualmente una alergia IgE mediada que se identifica correctamente mediante las pruebas cutáneas y/o la IgE específica in vitro. El tratamiento recomendado es la evitación de la ingesta habitualmente de todo tipo de pescados. Sin embargo, hay otras formas de presentación como la alergia no-IgE mediada, monosensibilizaciones y nuevos síndromes asociados a otros tipos de reactividad cruzada. Los avances en el diagnóstico molecular han descrito nuevos alérgenos y aumentado nuestro conocimiento sobre la reactividad cruzada. Este artículo analiza las publicaciones recientes que proporcionan nueva información para el tratamiento de la alergia a pescados


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Peixes , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Reações Cruzadas , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Manipulação de Alimentos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia
5.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 46(4): 394-396, jul.-ago. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-177872

RESUMO

We describe two case reports presenting some novel information on fish FPIES. Fish FPIES to one fish does not always start at the same time to other fish. Additionally, development of tolerance to the index fish do not necessarily imply tolerance to other reactive fish. This reflects on the best management of children with FPIES fish


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Enterocolite/imunologia , Produtos Pesqueiros/efeitos adversos , Peixes/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia
7.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 45(3): 297-304, mayo-jun. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-162394

RESUMO

With the exception of tilapia tropomyosin, other anecdotic reports of tropomyosin recognition of vertebrate origin are generally not accompanied by clinical significance and a dogmatic idea is generally accepted about the inexistence of allergenicity of vertebrate tropomyosins, based mainly on sequence similarity evaluations with human tropomyosins. Recently, a specific work-up of a tropomyosin sensitised patient with seafood allergy, demonstrated that the IgE-recognition of tropomyosin from different fish species can be clinically relevant. We hypothesise that some vertebrate tropomyosins could be relevant allergens. The hypothesis is based on the molecular evolution of the proteins and it was tested by in silico methods. Fish, which are primitive vertebrates, could have tropomyosins similar to those of invertebrates. If the hypothesis is confirmed, tropomyosin should be included in different allergy diagnosis tools to improve the medical protocols and management of patients with digestive or cutaneous symptoms after fish intake (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Tropomiosina/imunologia , Tropomiosina/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Receptores de IgE/imunologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Peixes/imunologia , Vertebrados/imunologia , Invertebrados/imunologia
9.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 44(2): 167-169, mar.-abr. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-150664

RESUMO

Background: Fish is a potent food allergen. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that dogfish, a small shark, has low allergenicity in both its clinical tolerance as well as its molecular structure. Methods: We present a study of 34 paediatric patients with IgE-mediated immediate reactions after eating fish. The diagnosis of several fish allergies was demonstrated by skin prick techniques and determination of specific IgE, in all the cases excluding sensitisation to Anisakis simplex. Open oral challenge test was checked with dogfish. Analysis was by SDS-PAGE of dogfish and other fish (megrim, shark, hake, sole, cod, anchovy and tuna) and Western-blot with "pool" of patients polysensitised sera against extracts of dogfish and other fish, and ELISA - inhibition with the "pool" sera. Results: The prick-prick with raw dogfish was slightly positive in six patients, however cooked was negative in 34 cases. The specific IgE showed in the 34 cases class ≥2 for megrim, hake, sole, cod and anchovy, class 0 for tuna in 26 patients, class 0 for emperor in 18 patients and class 0 to Anisakis simplex in all cases. The IgE binding capacity for proteins of allergenic extracts of tested fish revealed, in immunoblotting, the absence of IgE-mediated recognition abstract dogfish by the "pool" of polysensitised patient sera. Conclusions: Testing in vivo and in vitro demonstrated the low allergenicity of dogfish. Dogfish brings an alternative to eating fish in polysensitised patients (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Peixes , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Tolerância Imunológica
10.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 33(1): 13-20, ene.-mar. 2016. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-149369

RESUMO

Background. Several fungal species represent a potential risk to embryos of Odontesthes bonariensis (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1835), a euryhaline freshwater fish that lives in the Pampean inland waters and has potential economic relevance. Aims. To identify two fungi isolated from O. bonariensis eggs exposed to saline conditions and to characterize their pathogenicity and tolerance to sodium chloride solutions. Methods. The isolates were identified by morphological features, and a preliminar phylogenetic analysis using sequences of translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CAM) was performed. Koch's postulates were tested to identify the causative agent of fungal infection. The influence of NaCl on the fungal growth was evaluated in in vitro assays. Results. The isolates LPSC 1001 and 1002 were identified as representatives of the genus Fusarium, and belonging to the Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti species complex (FIESC) and the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), respectively. Histological observations on eggs exposed in vitro to both isolates in infectivity assays confirmed the ability of the fungal isolates to penetrate to egg's chorionic membrane, leading to the death of embryos. Increasing NaCl concentration in the culture medium reduced the growth of the isolates LPSC 1001 and 1002, being completely inhibited at 160 and 120 g/l NaCl respectively. Conclusions. The isolates LPSC 1001 (FIESC) and 1002 (FSSC) were identified as fungal pathogens to O. bonariensis eggs. The use of NaCl solutions as antifungal treatment was not effective to control the infection with these strains (AU)


Antecedentes. Diversas especies de hongos pueden representar un riesgo importante para los embriones de Odontesthes bonariensis (Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835), un pez de agua dulce eurihalino que vive en las aguas interiores pampeanas y tiene una relevancia económica potencial. Objetivos. Identificar dos especies de hongos de huevos de O. bonariensis expuestos a condiciones salinas y caracterizar su patogenicidad y tolerancia a las soluciones de cloruro de sodio. Métodos. Se identificaron los aislamientos por sus características morfológicas, y se realizó un análisis filogenético preliminar utilizando secuencias de traslación del factor 1 alfa elongación (EF- 1α) y calmodulina (CAM). Se llevaron a cabo los postulados de Koch para identificar el agente causante de la infección fúngica. La influencia de NaCl sobre el crecimiento fúngico se evaluó en ensayos in vitro. Resultados. Se identificaron los aislamientos LPSC 1001 y 1002 como representantes del género Fusarium, y pertenecientes al complejo de especies Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti (FIESC) y al complejo de especies de Fusarium solani (FSSC), respectivamente. Las observaciones histológicas en los huevos expuestos in vitro a ambos aislamientos en los ensayos de infectividad confirmaron la capacidad de estos para penetrar en la membrana coriónica, lo que condujo a la muerte de los embriones. El aumento de la concentración de NaCl en el medio de cultivo redujo el crecimiento de los aislamientos LPSC 1001 y 1002, quedando completamente inhibidos a 160 y 120 g/l de NaCl, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Se identificaron los aislamientos LPSC 1001 (FIESC) y 1002 (FSSC) como hongos patógenos para los huevos de O. bonariensis; el uso de soluciones de NaCl como tratamiento antifúngico no resultó eficaz para el control de la infección con estas cepas (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Peixes/microbiologia , Embrião não Mamífero/microbiologia , Embrião não Mamífero/patologia , Ovos/análise , Ovos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Peixes/embriologia , Calmodulina , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/veterinária , Cloreto de Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio/isolamento & purificação , Perda do Embrião/microbiologia , Perda do Embrião/patologia , Perda do Embrião/veterinária , Eletroforese/métodos
11.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 43(5): 498-506, sept.-oct. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-141113

RESUMO

Excessive accumulation of histamine in the body leads to miscellaneous symptoms mediated by its bond to corresponding receptors (H1–H4). Increased concentration of histamine in blood can occur in healthy individuals after ingestion of foods with high contents of histamine, leading to histamine intoxication. In individuals with histamine intolerance (HIT) ingestion of food with normal contents of histamine causes histamine-mediated symptoms. HIT is a pathological process, in which the enzymatic activity of histamine-degrading enzymes is decreased or inhibited and they are insufficient to inactivate histamine from food and to prevent its passage to blood-stream. Diagnosis of HIT is difficult. Multi-faced, non-specific clinical symptoms provoked by certain kinds of foods, beverages and drugs are often attributed to different diseases, such as allergy and food intolerance, mastocytosis, psychosomatic diseases, anorexia nervosa or adverse drug reactions. Correct diagnosis of HIT followed by therapy based on histamine-free diet and supplementation of diamine oxidase can improve patient's quality of life (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Histamina/efeitos adversos , Histamina/toxicidade , Histamina/biossíntese , Peixes , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/biossíntese , Agonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico , Contaminação de Alimentos , Tolerância Imunológica , Dietoterapia/métodos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata
12.
Eur. j. anat ; 19(2): 145-153, abr. 2015. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-141204

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to describe the histological, histochemical and ultrastructural features of pancreas of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), one of the common herbivorous freshwater fish of Egypt. The pancreas is divided into exocrine and endocrine portions. Exocrine pancreatic tissues consists of scattered serous acini, and is observed in two forms: 1) disseminated in the spleen tissue, in mesentery around intestine and intestinal bulb, and 2) intrahepatically, around the branches of the portal vein. Two alveolar cell types are present in pancreatic acini; centroacinar cells and typical pyramidal acinar cells. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) are demonstrated in the perivascular and the periacinar space of the pancreas. The pancreatic acini gave positive reaction to PAS, Best's carmine, and osmium tetraoxide, and negative to alcian blue. The acini also show high lipase and alkaline phosphatase activity, and moderate activity for acid phosphatase. Scanning electron microscopy show apical microvilli of the acinar cells, and branched PSC extend their processes between the pancreatic cells. Ultrastructure of pancreatic acini reveals well-developed rER, membrane-bound zymogen granules, and abundant lipid droplets. The duct system is composed of intralobular duct, interlobular pancreatic duct and main duct opened in the intestinal bulb. The endocrine parts of the pancreas are organized as lightly staining Langerhan’s islets between exocrine acinar cells found in the liver, in mesenteries around the intestinal bulb and the intestine, and consisted of three cell types. Alpha cells were the most dominant cells, and were ovoid in shape. Beta cells were polyhedral in shape, and they grouped in small clusters. Delta cells were small fusiform, argyrophilic cells. In conclusion, the present study revealed that the exocrine portion of the pancreas of the grass carp had two forms, disseminated and intrahepatic, with characteristic cellular and histochemical components, and an endocrine portion that consisted of Alpha, Beta and Delta cells


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Pâncreas/ultraestrutura , Carpas/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Histocitoquímica , Microscopia de Varredura por Sonda
13.
Nutr. hosp ; 31(2): 928-935, feb. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-133488

RESUMO

Los ácidos grasos insaturados son de interés en la actualidad por su potencial para reducir enfermedades cardiovasculares, primera causa de muerte en el mundo. Por su contenido de ácidos grasos esenciales, el pescado es uno de los productos alimenticios de mayor demanda entre la población. Uno de los procesos más populares para el consumo de pescado en la Península de Yucatán, México es la fritura. Sin embargo, estudios demuestran que la fritura de alimentos genera cambios en la composición de lípidos generando ácidos grasos trans. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos del Mero (Epinephelus morio) crudo y procesado con diferentes tipos de aceite comercial. Los resultados mostraron un contenido graso en E. morio crudo de 1.68%. El porcentaje de aceite extraído y absorbido por el producto al ser frito con aceite de maíz, girasol/canola, soya y cártamo se encontró en un rango de 2.3-3.93 y 26.95- 57.25%, respectivamente. El perfil lipídico obtenido por CG-MS sugirió la formación de ácidos grasos trans por isomerización y efecto de la temperatura de freído. Sin embargo ácidos grasos esenciales como el oleico y linoleico fueron absorbidos por E. morio al ser frito con aceite de cártamo y girasol/canola, respectivamente (AU)


Unsaturated fatty acids are of current interest for their potential to reduce cardiovascular disease, the first cause of death worldwide. By its content of essential fatty acids, fish is one of the food products most in demand among the population. One of the most popular processes for fish consumption in Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico is frying. However, studies show that frying food causes changes in the composition generating trans fatty acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid profile of Mero (Epinephelus morio) crude and processed with different types of commercial oil. The results showed a fat content in raw E. morio of 1.68%. The percentage of oil extracted and absorbed by the product to be fried with corn oil, sunflower/canola, soybean and safflower was found in a range of 2.3-3.93 and 26.95-57.25%, respectively. The lipid profile obtained by GC-MS suggested the formation of trans fatty acids by isomerization and effect of temperature frying. However essential fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acids were absorbed by E. morio being fried in sunflower oil and safflower/ canola, respectively (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Óleos de Peixe/análise , Perciformes/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Culinária , Peixes , Peixes/análise , México
14.
Nutr. hosp ; 31(1): 1-15, ene. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132578

RESUMO

Los efectos beneficiosos del consumo de pescado son bien reconocidos. Sin embargo, existe preocupación a nivel mundial sobre los niveles de metilmercurio en el pescado, por lo que muchos países como Estados Unidos, Australia, Nueza Zelanda, Canadá y muchos países europeos han realizado recomendaciones de consumo de pescado a la población , especialmente a los grupos vulnerables con el fin de reducir la ingesta de metilmercurio. La sangre y el pelo son las mejores muestras biológicas para medir el metilmercurio. El método de análisis más empleado ha sido la espectroscopia de absorción atómica con la técnica del vapor frío, aunque existen también métodos directos que se basan en la descomposición térmica de la muestra. En los últimos años han aumentado los laboratorios que miden el mercurio por espectrometría de masas con plasma acoplado por inducción. Además, se puede diferenciar las distintas especies de mercurio acoplando métodos de separación cromatográficos. Es necesario que los laboratorios que analizan mercurio en muestras biológicas participen en programas de garantía externa de la calidad. Aunque se logre reducir las emisiones de mercurio, el mercurio del medio ambiente altodavía puede permanecer muchos años, por lo que es fundamental el consejo dietético para disminuir la exposición. No es aconsejable el uso de terapia quelante con fines diagnósticos o en pacientes asintomáticos. Es preciso proponer medidas de salud pública encaminadas a la disminución de la exposición al mercurio y que se evalúe también los beneficios de las mismas desde el punto de vista económico y social (AU)


The beneficial effects of fish consumption are well-known. Nevertheless, there is worldwide concern regard methylmercury concentrations in fish, which is why many countries such as the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and numerous European countries have made fish consumption recommendations for their populations, particularly vulnerable groups, in order to México methylmercury intake. Blood and hair are the best biological samples for measuring methylmercury. The most widely-used method to analyse ethylmercury is cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, although there are also direct methods based on the thermal decomposition of the sample. In recent years, the number of laboratories that measure mercury by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has increased. In addition, the different kinds of mercury can be distinguished by coupling chromatography methods of separation. Laboratories that analyse mercury in biological samples need to participate in external quality control programmes. Even if mercury emissions are reduced, mercury may remain in the environment for many years, so dietary recommendations are fundamental in order to reduce exposure. It is necessary to propose public health measures aimed at decreasing mercury exposure and to evaluate the benefits of such measures from the economic and social standpoints (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Peixes , Análise Custo-Benefício
16.
Nutr. hosp ; 30(5): 989-1007, nov. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132304

RESUMO

Los efectos beneficiosos del consumo de pescado tanto en niños como en adultos han sido bien reconocidos. Sin embargo, se ha referido que la ingesta excesiva de metilmercurio procedente del pescado contaminado produce toxicidad neurológica en los niños afectando a la función cognitiva, la memoria, la función visual-motora y al lenguaje. Después de las intoxicaciones de Minamata e Iraq, se realizaron grandes estudios epidemiológicos en Nueva Zelanda, las islas Féroe y las islas Seychelles y se establecieron recomendaciones internacionales sobre el consumo de pescado y marisco en las mujeres embarazadas y niños pequeños. En España, el proyecto Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) ha estudiado los efectos del medio ambiente y de la dieta sobre el desarrollo fetal e infantil en diversas zonas geográficas de España. Los estudios realizados nacionales e internacionales muestran que la concentración de mercurio depende principalmente del consumo de pescado, aunque existe una variabilidad entre los países que podría explicarse no solo por la cantidad de pescado consumida, sino también por el tipo o especies de pescados que se consumen, así como por otro tipo de factores. Aunque los efectos perjudiciales del metilmercurio mejor documentados son los que se producen sobre el desarrollo del sistema nervioso en el feto y en el recién nacido, cada vez hay más estudios que indican que también puede afectar a la función cognitiva, reproducción y especialmente al riesgo cardiovascular en la población adulta. Sin embargo, son necesarios más estudios para confirmarlo y establecer la existencia de una relación causal (AU)


The benefit of fish consumption in children and adults is well-known. However, it has been pointed out that excessive methylmercury intake due to consumption of contaminated fish leads to neurological toxicity in children, affecting cognitive function, memory, visual-motor function and language. After the intoxications in Minamata and Iraq, wide-ranging epidemiological studies were carried out in New Zealand, the Faroe Islands and the Seychelles andinternational recommendations were established for fish consumption in pregnant women and small children. In Spain, the Childhood and Environmental project (INMA, its Spanish acronym) has studied the effects of diet and the environment on fetal and childhood development in different geographic areas of Spain. National and international sudies have demonstrated that mercury concentrations are mainly dependent on fish consumption, although there are variations among countries which can be explained not only by the levels of fish consumption, but also by the type or species of fish that is consumed, as well as other factors. Although the best documented adverse effects of methylmercury are the effects on nervous sytem development in fetuses and newborns, an increasing number of studies indicate that cognitive function, reproduction and, especially, cardiovascular risk in the adult population can also be affected. However, more studies are necessary in order to confirm this and establish the existance of a causal relationship (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Animais , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Peixes , Intoxicação por Mercúrio , Alimentos Marinhos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/etiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , 24439
17.
Nutr. hosp ; 30(5): 1135-1143, nov. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132321

RESUMO

Introducción: En las poblaciones occidentales el consumo de pescado es menor que el de carnes y esto puede influir en la calidad de la dieta total. Objetivo: Comprobar si la relación entre el consumo de pescado y carne está vinculada con la adecuación y calidad de la dieta en un grupo de mujeres universitarias. Participantes y métodos: En este estudio participaron un total de 47 mujeres de la Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU) con una edad media fue de 19,6+/-1,2 años. La ingesta dietética se evaluó con un cuestionario de frecuencias de consumo validado. A partir de los datos cuantitativos de consumo se calculó la ingesta de energía y nutrientes, utilizando el programa CESNID. Se estimaron dos índices de calidad de la dieta: el índice pescado/ carne y el Índice de Alimentación Saludable para población española (IASE). El análisis estadístico se realizó con el programa SPSS versión 21.0. Resultados: El índice pescado/carne fue de 0,4 y la mayoría de las participantes (91,5%) consumían más carnes que pescado. Las universitarias que tenían mayores ingestas de pescado consumían más fruta y menos dulces. El índice pescado/carne se asoció positivamente con mayores puntuaciones en muchos de los componentes del IASE y con mayor adecuación en la ingesta de algunos nutrientes: proteínas, niacina, potasio, hierro, zinc, vitamina D, E, tiamina, riboflavina, piridoxina, vitamina B12 y C. Conclusión: Un mayor consumo de pescado que de carne está relacionado con un mejor perfil dietético en el consumo de ciertos alimentos y nutrientes, en la muestra estudiada (AU)


Introduction: In Western populations fish consumption is lower than meat consumption and this fact can influence on the total diet quality. Objective: Verify if the relationship between the ratio of fish to meat consumption and diet adequacy and quality in a group of women university students. Participants and methods: 47 women of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) took part in this study; the mean age was 19.6+/-1.2 years. Dietary intake was evaluated with a food frequency questionnaire validated. From quantitative data on food, energy and nutrients intake were estimated by CESNID software. Two diet quality indices were also calculated: the ratio of fish to meat consumption and the Healthy Eating Index for Spanish diet (HEISD). Statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS 21.0 software package. Results: The ratio of fish to meat was 0.4 and the majority of the participants (91.5%) eaten more meat than fish. The university students with a high intake of fish were eating more fruit and less sweets. The ratio fish/ meat was associated positively with the scores of some components of the HEISD and with the intake of some nutrients: proteins, niacin, potassium, iron, zinc, vitamin D, E, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, vitamin B12 and C. Conclusion: A higher consumption of fish than meat was associated with a better dietary profile in the consumption of some foods and nutrients, in the sample studied (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Animais , Dieta , Peixes , Carne , Estudantes , Métodos de Alimentação , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Universidades , Comportamento Alimentar
18.
Rev. toxicol ; 30(2): 193-197, jul.-dic. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-126299

RESUMO

Las micotoxinas son metabolitos secundarios producidos por hongos filamentosos, principalmente Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp. y Penicillium spp. Fusarium puede producir las denominadas micotoxinas emergentes: beauvericina y eniatinas (eniatina A, eniatina A1, eniatina B y eniatina B1), entre otras. Estas micotoxinas están presentes en piensos destinados a peces de piscifactoría que incluyen cereales en su composición. Además, estas micotoxinas,alseringeridas, puedenaparecerenelmúsculodelos animales, suponiendo un riesgo potencial para la salud humana, por lo que en el presente trabajo se propone el estudio de la presencia de las micotoxinas emergentes de Fusarium (beauvericina y eniatinas) en pescado. La extracción se realiza con acetonitrilo usando ultrasonidos. Las micotoxinas son identificadas y cuantificadas mediante cromatografía líquida y espectrometría de masas con triple cuadrupolo. Se analizaron un total de diecinueve muestras de pescado, dieciséis de ellas (lubina y dorada) procedentes de piscifactorías y tres muestras procedentes de la pesca extractiva (bacalao, caballa y merluza), todas ellas adquiridas en diferentes supermercados de Valencia. Se detectaron niveles de eniatina A1, eniatina B y eniatina B1 del orden de μg/kg en muestras de pescado procedente de piscifactoría. La presencia de estas micotoxinas en el tejido de los peces puede ser debida a la ingesta de éstas con el pienso. Los resultados mostraron que las muestras correspondientes a peces procedentes de piscifactoría estaban contaminadas con micotoxinas, mientras que en las muestras de pesca extractiva no se detectó contaminación. Eniatina A y beauvericina no se detectaron en las muestras analizadas, mientras que la eniatina B fue la micotoxina más prevalente (AU)


Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi, mainly Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp.Fusarium also produce the emerging mycotoxins: beauvericin and enniatins (enniatin A, enniatin A1, enniatin B and enniatin B1), among others. These mycotoxins are present in feed for farmed fish because they include cereals in its composition. Furthermore, these mycotoxins, when ingested, can appear in the animal muscle, assuming a potential risk to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of emerging mycotoxins (beauvericin and enniatins) in fish. Mycotoxins extraction is performed with acetonitrile using ultrasound. Mycotoxins are identified and quantified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole. A total of nineteen fish samples were analyzed, sixteen fishes from fish farms (sea bass and sea bream) and three from extractive fishing (cod, mackerel and hake), but all of them were acquired in different supermarkets located in Valencia. Levels of enniatin A1, enniatin B and enniatin B1 were detected in the order of μg/kg in samples of farmed fish. The presence of these mycotoxins in fish tissue may be due to the intake of them in feed manufactured from raw materials containing these mycotoxins. Results showed that samples corresponding to aquaculture fishes showed mycotoxin contents, while samples from extractive fishing showed no presence of mycotoxins. Enniatin A and beauvericin were not detected in samples analyzed, while enniatin B was the most prevalent mycotoxin (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Micotoxicose/epidemiologia , Micotoxicose/prevenção & controle , Micotoxinas/análise , Micotoxinas/química , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Fusarium/química , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Peixes , Medicina Preventiva , Análise Espectral/métodos
19.
J. investig. allergol. clin. immunol ; 23(7): 462-470, nov.-dic. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-117661

RESUMO

Background: Chironomids seem to be the main cause of occupational allergy to aquarium fish food. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of occupational sensitization to 3 different arthropod species used as components of aquarium fish food. Methods: The study sample comprised 8 workers from a fish food packing department. The control group comprised 40 atopic patients (20 of whom were allergic to mites). We performed prick tests with extracts of red midge larva (Chironomus thummi), freshwater shrimp (Gammarus species), earthworm (Tubifex species), and other arthropod species and a battery of common inhalant allergens. We measured peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E and performed a methacholine challenge test, nasal challenge test, and immunoblotting. Cross-reactivity analyses were completed using immunoblotting and CAP inhibition. Results: Prick test results were positive to red midge larvae in 7 patients (87.5%), Gammarus in 5 (62.5%), Tubifex in 3 (37.5%), and mites in 6 (75%). In the mite-allergic controls, 30% had positive prick test results to red midge larvae. PEFR decreased 􀀪20% during the packing process in all patients, and in 1 patient it indicated a dual asthmatic response. Methacholine challenge test results were positive in all participants. Nasal challenge tests were performed in 4 patients, and the results were positive. Specific IgE to red midge larvae was detected in 62.5%, Gammarus in 50%, and Tubifex in 16%. Bands of approximately 14-15 kDa and 31 kDa were observed in Gammarus and red midge larvae extracts. Cross-reactivity assays demonstrated that Gammarus totally inhibited red midge larvae, while Tubifex did so partially. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus showed very low inhibitory capacity. Conclusions: Aquarium fish food arthropods are potent allergens with an elevated prevalence of sensitization and variable degree of cross-reactivity. This is the first report of occupational allergy to Tubifex. More data are necessary to identify and characterize the responsible allergens (AU)


Introducción: Los quironómidos parecen ser la principal causa de alergia ocupacional a la comida para peces de acuario. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el patrón de sensibilización ocupacional a tres diferentes especies de artrópodos que componen la comida para peces de acuario en 8 de 10 trabajadores expuestos con rinitis y asma en el lugar del trabajo. Métodos: Se realizaron prick-tests con extractos de Chironomus thummi, Gammarus y Tubifex, otras especies de artrópodos y batería de alérgenos inhalantes comunes. Cuarenta pacientes atópicos (20 de ellos alérgicos a ácaros) fueron utilizados como controles. Se realizaron mediciones de peak-flow, test de metacolina, pruebas de provocación nasal, determinación de IgE específica e inmunoblotting. El estudio de la reactividad cruzada se completó mediante inmunoblotting y CAP-inhibición. Resultados: 87.5% de los pacientes presentaron prick-tests positivos a larva roja (Chironomus thummi), 62.5% a Gammarus y 37.5% a Tubifex. El prick-test fue también positivo a ácaros en el 75% de los pacientes. El 30% de los pacientes controles alérgicos a ácaros tuvieron prick-tests positivos a larva roja. El peak-flow cayó ≥ 20% en todos los pacientes durante el proceso de empaquetado. En un paciente el peak-flow demostró una respuesta asmática dual. El test de metacolina fue positivo en todos. Las provocaciones nasales fueron realizadas en cuatro pacientes con resultados positivos. 62.5% de los pacientes tuvieron IgE específica positiva a larva roja, 50% a Gammarus y 16% a Tubifex. Se observaron bandas de 14-15 y 31 kDa en los extractos de Gammarus y larva roja. Las pruebas de reactividad cruzada demostraron que Gammarus inhibía totalmente a larva roja mientras que Tubifex solo lo hacía parcialmente y el extracto de D. pteronyssinus demostró muy baja capacidad de inhibición. Conclusiones: Los artrópodos componentes de la comida para peces de acuario son potentes alérgenos con una elevada prevalencia de sensibilización. Presentan un grado variable de reactividad cruzada. Es el primer caso descrito de alergia ocupacional a Tubifex. Se necesitan más datos para identificar los alérgenos responsables y su naturaleza (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Anelídeos/patogenicidade , Ração Animal , Peixes , Testes Cutâneos , Apresentação Cruzada/imunologia
20.
Nutr. hosp ; 28(3): 934-942, mayo-jun. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-120074

RESUMO

Objetivo: Determinar los niveles de mercurio total (THg) en leche de mujeres del Noroeste de México y su posible asociación con factores maternos, la dieta y el tabaco. Método: El estudio se realizó en leches donadas por 108 mujeres de Baja California Sur. Se estratificaron en tres grupos de 36 donantes según el número de gesta. Se exploraron datos generales, hábito tabáquico, exposición al humo de tabaco ambiental, ingesta de mariscos y pescados. Los niveles de THg fueron cuantificados utilizando espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. La diferencia entres grupos se evaluó con estadística no paramétrica. Para explicar la posible asociación de las diferentes variables estudiadas y las concentraciones de THg en la leche, se realizaron modelos lineales generalizados. Resultados: Los niveles de THg fueron desde 1.23 ?g/L en las primigestas (GI) a 2,96 ?g/L para las mujeres con 3 o más gestas (GIII) (p = 0,07). En el grupo de GI encontramos una concentración del THg 175% mayor (p = 0,02) entre las mujeres que no comen pescado, en comparación con las que si comen pescado. En el modelo lineal generalizado ajustado por las concentraciones de THg, las variables fueron: edad, número de embarazos, duración de la lactancia y exposición al tabaco (p =?0,05). Conclusiones: El consumo de pescado fue el factor que mejor ajustó los modelos en relación a los niveles de THg. El aporte de Hg por la dieta que se pudo asociar fue bajo, por lo que el consumo de pescado de las costas de Baja California Sur es seguro. El tabaco, incrementa las concentraciones de Hg en la leche materna, por lo que debe de limitarse su hábito durante el embarazo y la lactancia (AU)


OBJECTIVE: To determine THg levels in milk of women from Northwest Mexico and its potential association with maternal factors such as diet and tobacco smoke. METHOD: The study was performed in 108 milk samples donated by women in Baja California Sur. Data were stratified into three groups of 36 donors by number of pregnancies. General data, smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and seafood intake were explored. THg levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The difference between groups was evaluated with non-parametric statistics. To explain the possible association of the different variables with THg concentrations in milk, generalized linear models were performed. RESULTS: THg levels ranged from 1.23 μg/L in single-pregnancy women (GI) to 2.96 μg/L for women with 3 or more pregnancies (GIII) (p = 0.07). In the GI group THg concentration was 175% higher (p = 0.02) in women who do not eat fish, compared to those who eat fish. In the generalized linear model to adjust THg concentrations, the variables were: age, number of pregnancies, breastfeeding duration and exposure to tobacco smoke (p ≤ 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Fish consumption was the factor that better adjusted models, relative to THg levels. The contribution associated to this factor was low; therefore, consumption of fish from the coast of Baja California Sur is safe. Tobacco increased Hg concentrations in breast milk; it is necessary to avoid the smoking habit during pregnancy and breast-feeding (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Leite Humano/química , Mercúrio/isolamento & purificação , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Peixes , Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos
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