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3.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 29(5): 239-243, oct. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-156277

RESUMO

Las especies incluidas en el género Clostridium son muy heterogéneas, tanto que desde un punto de vista fenotípico como filogenético. Los avances en la taxonomía polifásica y en particular en la filogenia están permitiendo resolver esta disfunción reclasificando a numerosas especies en otros géneros, aunque aún resta trabajo por hacer. Los cambios en las denominaciones genéricas son algo normal en taxonomía pero puede convertirse en un problema cuando afectan a especies con gran impacto clínico conocidas desde hace muchos años como es el caso de algunas especies tradicionales del género Clostridium. Tras conocerlos los microbiólogos clínicos, en cuyo quehacer la taxonomía es fundamental, deben valorar que está antes, la comunicación con los profesionales de la salud o la filogenia y valorar que quizás haya posibilidades de combinar ambos hechos. Este artículo revisa alguno de los cambios taxonómicos acaecidos en especies conocidas del género Clostridium, que genéticamente no pertenecen a este género, que pueden tener interés en clínica y evalúa, en lo posible, su trascendencia en la comunicación científica y sanitaria (AU)


The various species included in the genus Clostridium are very heterogeneous, both from a phenotypic and a phylogenetic point of view. The advances in polyphasic taxonomy, particularly in phylogeny, are allowing to resolve this dysfunction reclassifying several species in other genres, although there is still work to be done. Changes in generic denominations are quite normal in taxonomy, but can turn into a problem when they affect species with strong clinical impact and that have been recognised for a long time, as in the case of some traditional Clostridium species. After knowing these changes clinical microbiologists, in whose work taxonomy is an essential tool, should evaluate what matters most, if the communication with other health professionals or the phylogeny, and think about the possibility of combining both things. This paper reviews some of the taxonomic changes that have took place in well-known Clostridium species that can be clinically interesting and evaluates, as far as possible, their significance in the scientific and medical communication (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Clostridium difficile/classificação , Clostridium/classificação , Fenômenos Microbiológicos , Clostridiales/classificação , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/microbiologia , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos
5.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 82(6): 417-l425, jun. 2015. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-139817

RESUMO

Introducción: Clostridium difficile es la principal causa de diarrea nosocomial en adultos, y su incidencia está aumentado en los últimos años. Es difícil determinar su impacto en niños debido a las altas tasas de colonización. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo en menores de 15 años ingresados con diarrea a lo largo de un año. Se estudiaron las características epidemiológicas, clínicas, analíticas y la evolución de los niños con infección por Clostridium difficile (ICD) en comparación con otros aislamientos. Los factores predictores de ICD fueron determinados mediante análisis multivariante. Resultados: Se identificaron 250 niños con diarrea, realizándose estudio microbiológico completo en 174. En 79 (45,4%) se llegó al diagnóstico: 25,6% ICD (n=19; 13 enterotoxigénicos); 28,6% otras bacterias (n=21) y 45,8% virus (n=34; rotavirus n=31; adenovirus n=3). Un 68,4% fueron menores de 2 años, y un 15,8% fueron adquiridos en la comunidad. En comparación con otras causas de diarrea, la ICD se asoció a comorbilidad (p<0,0001), contacto reciente con el sistema sanitario (p<0,0001), estancia en UCI (p=0,003) y exposición reciente a antibióticos (p<0,0001). Los pacientes con ICD cursaron de forma oligosintomática. No hubo diferencias clínicas entre las ICD productoras o no de toxina, siendo la comorbilidad el principal asociado con la ICD (OR 40,02; IC 95% 6,84-232,32; p<0,0001). Conclusiones: El aislamiento de Clostridium difficile es frecuente en niños hospitalizados con diarrea en nuestro medio. La ICD resultó más frecuente en niños pequeños con comorbilidad y contacto reciente con el sistema sanitario, presentado, en su mayoría, un curso clínico oligosintomático. Se necesitan más estudios para conocer la epidemiología de esta infección en niños (AU)


Introduction: Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial and antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults, and its incidence has substantially risen over the last few years. The prevalence of this infection in children is difficult to assess due to the high rates of colonization in this setting. Material and methods: A one-year retrospective study was conducted on children under 15 years admitted to hospital with acute diarrhea. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory findings and outcome of children with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) were compared to other causes of diarrhea. Risk factors for CDI were identified by multivariate analysis. Results: Two hundred and fifty children with acute diarrhea were identified. A microbiological pathogen was identified in 79 (45.4%) of 174 patients who underwent complete testing: 19 CDI (25.6%, 13 of which were enterotoxin-producing), 21 other bacteria (28.6%), and 34 viruses (45.8%; rotavirus n=31; adenovirus n=3). The estimated incidence of CDI was 3 cases/1,000 admissions, with 68.4% of them occurring in children younger than 2 years. Overall, 15.8% were community-acquired. Compared to other causes of diarrhea, CDI was associated with comorbidity (P<.0001), recent contact with the health-care system (P<.0001) or intensive care unit stay (P=.003) and exposure to antibiotics in the previous month (P<.0001). The clinical course of children with CDI was less symptomatic. There were no clinical differences between Clostridium difficile toxin-producers and non-toxin producers. Comorbidity was identified as the main risk factor associated with CDI (OR 40.02, 95% CI 6.84-232.32; P<.0001). Conclusions: The isolation of Clostridium difficile is common in hospitalized children with diarrhea in our setting. CDI is more frequent in children with comorbidity and recent contact with the health-care system, presenting a mostly oligosymptomatic clinical course. Further studies are needed to understand the epidemiology of this infection in pediatrics, especially the percentage of asymptomatic carriers (AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Humanos , Disenteria/complicações , Disenteria/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/complicações , Gastroenterite/genética , Clostridium/citologia , Clostridium/metabolismo , Apoptose/genética , Disenteria/metabolismo , Disenteria/patologia , Gastroenterite/metabolismo , Gastroenterite/patologia , Clostridium/classificação , Clostridium/patogenicidade , Apoptose/fisiologia
7.
Int. microbiol ; 17(4): 195-204, dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-138143

RESUMO

The current energy model based on fossil fuels is coming to an end due to the increase in global energy demand. Biofuels such as ethanol and butanol can be produced through the syngas fermentation by acetogenic bacteria. The present work hypothesizes that formate addition would positively impact kinetic parameters for growth and alcohol production in Clostridium ljungdahlii PETC and Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 by diminishing the need for reducing equivalents. Fermentation experiments were conducted using completely anaerobic batch cultures at different pH values and formate concentrations. PETC cultures were more tolerant to formate concentrations than P7, specially at pH 5.0 and 6.0. Complete growth inhibition of PETC occurred at sodium formate concentrations of 30.0 mM; however, no differences in growth rates were observed at pH 7.0 for the two strains. Incubation at formate concentrations lower than 2.0 mM resulted in increased growth rates for both strains. The most recognizable effects of formate addition on the fermentation products were the increase in the total carbon fixed into acids and alcohols at pH 5.0 and pH 6.0, as well as, a higher ethanol to total products ratio at pH 7.0. Taken all together, these results show the ability of acetogens to use formate diminishing the energy demand for growth, and enhancing strain productivity (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Clostridium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridium/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Formiatos/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis/análise , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Butanóis/metabolismo , Clostridium/química , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética
8.
Int. microbiol ; 16(1): 53-62, mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-114745

RESUMO

To improve bacterial hydrogen production, ten hydrogen-producing strains belonging to Clostridium spp. were isolated from various sludges under low vacuum. Hydrogenogenesis by dark fermentation in batch cultures of these strains was optimal at about 35 ºC and an initial pH of 6.5, which for all strains gradually dropped to ca. pH 4 during the fermentation. Clostridium roseum H5 and C. diolis RT2 had the highest hydrogen yields per total substrate (120 ml H2/g initial COD). Substrate consumption alone by C. beijerinckii UAM and C. diolis RT2 reached 573 and 475 ml H2/g consumed COD, respectively. Butyric acid fermentation was predominant, with butyrate and acetate as the major by-products and propionate, ethanol, and lactate as secondary metabolites. The acetate: butyrate ratios and fermentation pathways varied depending on the strains and environmental conditions. Hydrogenogenesis was studied in greater detail in C. saccharobutylicum H1. In butyric acid fermentation by this representative strain, acetoacetate was detected as an intermediate metabolite. Hydrogenogenesis was also analyzed in an enrichment culture, which behaved similarly to the axenic cultures (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Hidrogênio/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fermentação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Acetoacetatos/análise , Cultura Axênica
11.
Nutr. hosp ; 27(1): 123-129, ene.-feb. 2012. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-104861

RESUMO

Introduction: Prebiotics positively affect gut microbiota composition, thus improving gut function. These properties may be useful for the treatment of constipation. Objectives: This study assessed the tolerance and effectiveness of a prebiotic inulin/partially hydrolyzed guargum mixture (I-PHGG) for the treatment of constipation in females, as well as its influence on the composition of intestinal microbiota and production of short chain fattyacids. Methods: Our study enrolled 60 constipated female health worker volunteers. Participants reported less than3 bowel movements per week. Volunteers were randomized to treatment with prebiotic or placebo. Treatment consisted of 3 weeks supplementation with 15 g/d IPHGG (fiber group) or maltodextrin (placebo group).Abdominal discomfort, flatulence, stool consistency, and bowel movements were evaluated by a recorded daily questionnaire and a weekly interview. Changes in fecal bacterial population and short chain fatty acids were assessed by real-time PCR and gas chromatography, respectively. Results: There was an increased frequency of weekly bowel movements and patient satisfaction in both the fiber and placebo groups with no significant differences. Total Clostridium sp significantly decreased in the fibergroup (p = 0.046) and increased in the placebo group (p =0.047). There were no changes in fecal short chain fatty acid profile. Conclusions: Consumption of I-PHGG produced clinical results comparable to placebo in constipated females, but had additional protective effects on gut microbiota by decreasing the amount of pathological bacteria of the Clostridium genera (AU)


Introducción: Los prebióticos influyen positivamente en la composición de la microbiota intestinal, mejorando así la función intestinal. Estas propiedades pueden ser útiles para el tratamiento del estreñimiento. Objetivos: Este estudio evaluó la tolerancia y la eficacia de una mezcla de prebiótico inulina con la goma guar parcialmente hidrolizada (I-PHGG) para el tratamiento de mujeres con estreñimiento, así como su influencia en la composición de la microbiota intestinal y la producción de ácidos grasos de cadena corta. Métodos: Nuestro estudio contó con la participación de60 mujeres voluntarias con estreñimiento y profesionales de la salud. Las participantes informaron tener menos de tres evacuaciones por semana y fueron asignadas aleatoriamente a tratamiento con prebióticos o placebo. El tratamiento consistió en 3 semanas de suplementación con 15 gd I-PHGG (grupo de fibras) o maltodextrina (grupo placebo). Malestar abdominal, flatulencia, consistencia de las heces, y los movimientos intestinales se evaluaron mediante un cuestionario de registro diario y una entrevista semanal. Cambios en la población de bacterias fecales y los ácidos grasos de cadena corta fueron evaluados por PCR entiempo real y cromatografía de gases, respectivamente. Resultados: Hubo un aumento en la frecuencia de las evacuaciones intestinales por semana y la satisfacción del paciente, tanto en la fibra y el grupo placebo, sin diferencias significativas. El total de Clostridium sp disminuyó significativamente en el grupo de fibras (p = 0,046) y aumentó en el grupo placebo (p = 0,047). No hubo cambios en el perfil fecal de ácidos grasos de cadena corta. Conclusiones: El consumo de I-PHGG ha producido resultados clínicos comparables a placebo en mujeres con estreñimiento, pero ofreció otros efectos protectores sobre la microbiota intestinal al disminuir la cantidad de bacterias patológicas de lo género Clostridium (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Constipação Intestinal/dietoterapia , Biota , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Inulina/farmacocinética , Cyamopsis , Clostridium , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise
12.
Cir. plást. ibero-latinoam ; 37(2): 165-169, abr.-jun. 2011. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-93159

RESUMO

La fascitis necrosante es una enfermedad de origen infeccioso que afecta a la fascia muscular y progresa rápidamente. Para el manejo de este tipo de pacientes es clave un diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento adecuado que combine antibioticoterapia y cirugía. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 77 años de edad con diagnóstico de fascitis necrosante de presentación atípica por la bilateralidad de las lesiones, la ausenciad e factores predisponentes y la presencia de un único germen causal (AU)


Necrotizing fasciitis is an infectious disease that involves muscular fascia and has a quickly progress. Early diagnosis and proper treatment that consists on antibiotic therapy and surgery are the key of patient management. We report the case of a 77 years old woman with necrotizing fasciitis diagnosis with atypical presentation due to bilateral skin lesions, lack of risk factors and only one germ as causal pathogen (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Fasciite Necrosante/cirurgia , Desbridamento/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Clostridium/patogenicidade
13.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. impr.) ; 36(10): 593-596, dic. 2010. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-82861

RESUMO

La colitis pseudomembranosa es una complicación grave de la diarrea asociada a Clostridium difficile que puede llegar a ser mortal. La diarrea asociada a Clostridium difficile es más frecuente a nivel hospitalario y se produce tras la toma previa de antibióticos en pacientes con factores de riesgo asociados, sin embargo desde la década de los 90 la incidencia de esta enfermedad en la comunidad ha aumentado. El Clostridium difficile puede llegar a producir desde colitis de intensidad variable hasta afectación de órganos extraintestinales. Describimos un caso de un varón de 89 años que presentó un episodio de diarrea con mala evolución a pesar del tratamiento que tenía como antecedente previo la toma de antibióticos (AU)


Pseudomembranous colitis is a serious complication of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea, which can be fatal. Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea is more common in hospitals and follows the previous antibiotic treatment in patients with associated risk factors. However, since the 90s the incidence of this disease in the community has increased. Clostridium difficile can produce colitis of varying intensity including extra-intestinal organ involvement. We describe a case of an 89 year-old man who had an episode of diarrhoea with an poor outcome despite treatment and previous antibiotic treatment (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/diagnóstico , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/terapia , Infecções por Clostridium/complicações , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Diarreia/complicações , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Radiografia Abdominal/métodos , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/fisiopatologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/complicações , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Clostridium difficile/patogenicidade , Hipertensão/complicações
14.
Gastroenterol. hepatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 31(supl.4): 42-46, oct. 2008.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-61285

RESUMO

Se presentaron alrededor de 1.000 comunicaciones sobreenfermedad inflamatoria intestinal en la DDW 2008. Nuestraintención en este trabajo es resumir lo más importantepresentado con respecto a métodos diagnósticos, tabaco,cáncer, en relación con las EII. La resonancia megnéticaparece que está adquiriendo cada vez más importancia enel diagnóstico de la enfermedad de Crohn. Siguen acumulándosedatos que demuestran que el tabaco influye negativamenteen la evolución de la enfermedad de Crohn tambiéncuando es tratada en unidades muy especializadas,incluso con dosis moderadas. Al incluir los estudios de basepoblacional, el cáncer colorrectal no es tan frecuente comoseñalan los estudios procedentes de centros de referencia.Sin embargo, su incidencia sigue justificando las medidasde vigilancia, aunque cada vez más datos sugieren que unbuen control de la inflamación es clave para disminuir laincidencia del cáncer(AU)


At DDW 2008 around 1000 abstracts on inflammatory boweldisease were presented. Our goal in this report is to sumariesthe most important new data on diagnosis, smokingand cancer related to IBD. MRI is emerging as a basic diagnostictool in Crohn’s disease. New data are accumulatingdemonstrating that smoking has a negative impacto on naturalhistory of CD even when treated in very specializedunits, and with moderate tobacco use. When population-basedstudies are considered, colorrectal cancer is not so a frequentcomplication as has been reported in referente centres.However, its incidente does fully justify surveillance,although more and more data show that the key point to disminshthe incidence of cancer is a good control of inflammation(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Clostridium/patogenicidade , Infecções por Clostridium/complicações , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , /métodos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética
15.
Rev. ortop. traumatol. (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 51(2): 80-83, mar.-abr. 2007. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-65531

RESUMO

Objetivo y caso clínico. Se expone el caso clínico de un paciente de 64 años de edad diagnosticado de leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) con aplasia medular que desarrolló un proceso compatible con una infección necrosante de partes blandas (INPB) en el muslo derecho en un plazo de 12 horas. Se realizó de urgencia una fasciotomía y desbridamiento radical de la extremidad afecta y se instauró tratamiento antibiótico con penicilina. A las cuatro horas de la intervención se produjo el fallecimiento del paciente. Conclusiones. La singularidad del caso presentado reside en el hallazgo en la necropsia de una mionecrosis de la extremidad inferior, producida por contigüidad a partir de una enterocolitis necrosante por Clostridium septicum en el contexto de un paciente inmunodeprimido, hecho que sin duda contribuyó al rápido desenlace del cuadro clínico, a pesar del tratamiento realizado


Purpose and clinical case. This is a clinical case of a 64 year-old patient diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with medullary aplasia who developed infectious soft tissue necrosis (ISTN) of the right thigh in a time-frame of 12 hours. An emergency fasciotomy and radical debridement of the affected limb were carried out and antibiotic treatment with penicillin was initiated. Four hours after surgery the patient died. Conclusions. The unique nature of this case lies in the fact that on autopsy lower limb myonecrosis was found, caused by contiguity to necrotizing enterocolitis caused by Clostridium septicum in an immunodepressed patient, a fact that undoubtedly contributed to the rapid clinical progress of the condition and its end-result, in spite of the treatment applied (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/complicações , Infecções por Clostridium/complicações , Clostridium/patogenicidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Desbridamento , Coxa da Perna
16.
Cir. Esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 81(2): 99-101, feb. 2007. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-051750

RESUMO

La mionecrosis clostrídica es una infección necrosante de partes blandas caracterizada por la necrosis muscular y, de forma diferida, también la de los tejidos subyacentes, con evolución rápida al shock séptico y la muerte si se produce un retraso en el tratamiento. En la práctica civil no es frecuente, pero tampoco es excepcional su desarrollo después de heridas traumáticas o como secuela séptica de determinadas intervenciones quirúrgicas. No es del todo infrecuente la aparición espontánea (producida con mayor frecuencia por el género Clostridium septicum), que se propaga principalmente desde el colon, en pacientes con neoplasias y con malas condiciones, por lo que ante una bacteriemia por C. septicum es obligado descartar una neoplasia oculta de colon. Presentamos un nuevo caso de mionecrosis de pared abdominal por C. septicum después de cirugía electiva de hernia inguinal (AU)


Clostridial myonecrosis is a necrotizing soft tissue infection characterized by muscular necrosis and, by extension, that of the surrounding tissue. If this infection develops quickly, it can cause septic shock and death if treatment is delayed. This infection does not occur frequently in civil medicine but nor is it exceptional after traumatic injuries or as a septic infection resulting from certain surgical interventions. Spontaneous development of clostridial myonecrosis is not uncommon (most commonly produced by the Clostridium septicum genus), propagated mainly from the colon in patients with neoplasia and in poor health. Consequently, in patients of bacteremia caused by C. septicum, colonic tumor must be ruled out. We present a new case of C. septicum myonecrosis of the abdominal after elective inguinal hernia repair (AU)


Assuntos
Masculino , Idoso , Humanos , Hérnia Inguinal/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/complicações , Clostridium/patogenicidade , Necrose , Parede Abdominal/microbiologia
19.
Int. microbiol ; 8(4): 251-258, dic. 2005. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-043474

RESUMO

The non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDHN, NADP+ -specific, EC 1.2.1.9) is present in green eukaryotes and some Streptococcus strains. The present report describes the results of activity and immunoblot analyses, which were used to generate the first survey of bacterial GAPDHN distribution in a number of Bacillus, Streptococcus and Clostridium strains. Putative gapN genes were identified after PCR amplification of partial 700-bp sequences using degenerate primers constructed from highly conserved protein regions. Alignment of the amino acid sequences of these fragments with those of known sequences from other eukaryotic and prokaryotic GAPDHNs, demonstrated the presence of conserved residues involved in catalytic activity that are not conserved in aldehyde dehydrogenases, a protein family closely linked to GAPDHNs. The results confirm that the basic structural features of the members of the GAPDHN family have been conserved throughout evolution and that no identity exists with phosphorylating GAPDHs. Furthermore, phylogenetic trees generated from multiple sequence alignments suggested a close relationship between plant and bacterial GAPDHN families (AU)


La gliceraldehído-3-fosfato deshidrogenasa no-fosforilante (GAPDHN, NADP+ -específica, EC 1.2.1.9) está presente en organismos eucariotas fotosintéticos y en algunas cepas de Streptococcus y Clostridium. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de los análisis de actividad e inmunotransferencia, que se utilizaron para la primera prospección de la distribución de GAPDHN bacteriana en diversas cepas de Bacillus, Streptococcus y Clostridium. Se han identificado genes putativos gapN mediante amplificación por PCR de secuencias parciales de 700 bp utilizando cebadores degenerados construidos a partir de regiones proteínicas muy conservadas. Las secuencias de aminoácidos de estos fragmentos se alinearon con las de otras secuencias conocidas de GAPDHN eucarióticas y procarióticas, lo que demuestra la presencia de residuos conservados que participan en la actividad catalítica y que no se han conservado en las aldehído deshidrogenasas, una familia de proteínas estrechamente relacionadas con las GAPDHN. Los resultados confirman que las características estructurales básicas de los miembros de la familia GAPDHN se han conservado durante la evolución y que no existe identidad con las GAPDH fosforilantes. Además, los árboles filogenéticos generados a partir de alineaciones de secuencia múltiples sugieren una estrecha relación entre las familias GAPDHN en plantas y bacterias (AU)


Assuntos
Bactérias Gram-Positivas/imunologia , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/análise , Streptococcus/imunologia , Bacillus/imunologia , Clostridium/imunologia , Análise de Sequência de Proteína
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