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Int. microbiol ; 22(4): 491-500, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185067


Hitherto, virtually nothing is known about the microbial communities related to the bird species in the family Corvidae. To fill this gap, the present study was conducted to provide a baseline description of the gut microbiota of wild red-billed choughs (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax). In this study, microbiota from four gastrointestinal locations (oropharynx, gizzard, small intestine, and large intestine) of three wild red-billed choughs were analyzed using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform by targeting the V4-V5 regions of the 16S rRNA genes. The gut microbiota of the red-billed choughs were dominated by the phylum Firmicutes (59.56%), followed by Proteobacteria (16.56%), Bacteroidetes (13.86%), and Actinobacteria (7.03%), which were commonly detected in avian gut ecosystems. Genus-level compositions were found to be largely dominated by Lactobacillus (18.21%), Weissella (12.37%), Erysipelatoclostridium (6.94%), Bacteroides (6.63%), Escherichia-Shigella (5.15%), Leuconostoc (4.60%), Proteus (3.33%), Carnobacterium (2.71%), Lactococcus (1.69%), and Enterococcus (1.63%). The overall intestinal microbiota was enriched with functions related to ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, DNA repair and recombination proteins, purine metabolism, ribosome, transcription factors, pyrimidine metabolism, peptidases, and two-component system. In terms of four different gastrointestinal locations, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal coordinate analysis showed that microbial communities of the oropharynx, gizzard, small intestine, and large intestine formed four separated clusters. A total of 825 OTUs and 382 genera were detected in all four gastrointestinal locations, which were considered as the major microbes in the intestines of red-billed choughs. Coexistence of lactic acid bacteria and potential pathogens in the gut environments of red-billed choughs required further investigations

No disponible

Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Aves/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Weissella/isolamento & purificação
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 34(4): 211-214, oct.-dic. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-168714


Background. The importance of pigeons as reservoirs and carriers of Cryptococcus neoformans and other species of this genus is well-known; however, less is known about their role as reservoirs and carriers of other yeasts that impact public health. Aims. The present study was performed on Gran Canaria Island to define yeasts other than Cryptococcus spp. that have been reported to impact public health and which could be carried by pigeons. Methods. Samples were obtained from 83 pigeon lofts (Columba livia); moreover, 331 crop samples, 331 cloacal samples and 174 dropping samples were collected. In addition, 17 dropping samples were taken from a total of 17 public squares. Samples were inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol. Results. Different yeast species, i.e. Candida guilliermondii (24.36%), Candida kefyr (1.21%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2.43%), and Trichosporon asahii (1.21%) were isolated for the first time from the cloaca. The most frequently isolated yeast from the crop, cloaca and dropping samples from lofts was C. guilliermondii (30.46%, 24.36% and 49.37%, respectively). In addition, for the first time, C. kefyr (3.65%), Candida pelliculosa (2.43%), Candida rugosa (1.21%), T. asahii (3.65%), Trichosporon mucoides (3.65%) and Prototheca wickerhamii (1.21%) were obtained from crop samples; Candida pelliculosa (1.20%), T. asahii (9.63%) and T. mucoides (7.22%) were isolated from dropping samples in the lofts. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated yeast in dropping samples collected in public squares. Conclusions. It can be assumed that pigeons and their droppings act as carriers and reservoirs of Candida spp. and other zoonotic yeasts (AU)

Antecedentes. Es bien conocido el papel que desempeña la paloma como reservorio y portadora de Cryptococcus neoformans y otras especies del género; sin embargo, se conoce poco sobre el papel que desempeña como reservorio y portadora de otras levaduras que repercuten en la salud pública. Objetivos. El presente estudio fue realizado en la isla de Gran Canaria para determinar otras levaduras diferentes del género Cryptococcus que podrían portar las palomas y que repercuten en la salud pública. Métodos. Se tomaron muestras en 83 palomares (Columba livia): 331 muestras de buche, 331 cloacales y 174 muestras de excrementos. También se tomaron 17 muestras de excrementos en 17 plazas públicas. Las distintas muestras se sembraron en agar glucosado de Sabouraud con cloranfenicol. Resultados. Se aislaron por primera vez de la cloaca diferentes especies de levaduras: Candida guilliermondii (24,36%), Candida kefyr (1,21%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2,43%), Trichosporon asahii (1,21%). La levadura más frecuentemente aislada de muestras de buche, cloaca y heces de palomares fue C. guilliermondii (30,46, 24,36 y 49,37%, respectivamente). A estas especies se suman otras aisladas por primera vez a partir de muestras de buche: C. kefyr (3,65%), Candida pelliculosa (2,43%), Candida rugosa (1,21%), T. asahii (3,65%), Trichosporon mucoides (3,65%) y Prototheca wickerhamii (1,21%). Se aislaron por primera vez de muestras de excrementos de palomares las especies C. pelliculosa (1,20%), T. asahii (9,63%) y T. mucoides (7,22%). Candida albicans fue la levadura más frecuentemente aislada de muestras de heces recogidas de plazas públicas. Conclusiones. Por todo ello, concluimos que la paloma y sus excrementos actúan como portadores y reservorios de especies de Candida y otras levaduras zoonóticas (AU)

Animais , Columbidae/microbiologia , Esterco/microbiologia , Micoses/transmissão , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/transmissão , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Zoonoses/transmissão
Nutr. hosp ; 34(3): 675-679, mayo-jun. 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-164126


Objective: To investigate the endemic characteristics of Metorchis orientalis (M. orientalis) in the Huainan area, Anhui province, China. Methods: The first-intermediate host, second-intermediate host and reservoir hosts were collected, and the endemic characteristics of M. orientalis were examined through field investigation and artificial infection. Results: Investigation was completed in 89 domestic ducks, 156 domestic chicken, 41 domestic geese, 20 domestic cats and 19 dogs. The infection rate of M. orientalis was 18.0% (16/89) in ducks, 12.2% (19/156) in chicken, 9. 8% (4/41) in geese, 5.0% (1/20) in cats and 5.3% (1/19) in dogs. Sixty-seven cercariae of M. orientalis were identified in 1,000 Parafossarulus striatulus, with a natural infection rate of 6.7%, and 19 cercariae occurred in 300 Pseudorasbora parva, with a natural infection rate of 6.33%. The activity of the cercariae of M. orientalis was associated with light intensity and temperature. The full life cycle of M. orientalis ranged from 120 to 140 days; it occurred approximately in 89 days in snails, 28 days in fish and 20 days in ducks. Conclusion: M. orientalis is prevalent in the Huainan area, and it may complete its life cycle in Parafossarulus striatulus, Pseudorasbora parva and natively raised ducks

Objetivo: investigar las características endémicas del Metorchis orientalis (M. orientalis) en el área de Huainan, en la provincia de Anhui, China. Métodos: fueron recogidos el primer huésped intermediario, el segundo huésped intermediario y el reservorio, y se examinaron las características endémicas del M. orientalis a través de investigación de campo e infección artificial. Resultados: la investigación se llevó a cabo en 89 patos domésticos, 156 gallinas domésticas, 41 gansos domésticos, 20 perros y 19 gatos domésticos. La tasa de infección del M. orientalis fue del 18,0% (16/89) en patos, 12,2% (19/156) en pollos, 9,8% (4/41) en gansos, 5,0% (1/20) en gatos y 5,3% (1/19) en perros. Sesenta y siete cercarias de M. orientalis fueron identificadas en 1.000 Parafossarulus striatulus, con una tasa de infección natural del 6,7%, y 19 en 300 Pseudorasbora parva, con una tasa de infección natural del 6,33%. La actividad de las cercarias de M. orientalis se asoció con la intensidad de la luz y la temperatura. El ciclo de vida completo del M. orientalis osciló entre 120 y 140 días, y se produjo aproximadamente en 89 días en caracoles, 28 días en peces y 20 días en patos. Conclusión: el M. orientalis es prevalente en el área de Huainan, y puede completar su ciclo de vida en Parafossarulus striatulus, Pseudorasbora parva y patos autóctonos (AU)

Animais , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Infecções/epidemiologia , Infecções/veterinária , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/dietoterapia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Patos , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/prevenção & controle
Nutr. hosp ; 34(1): 175-179, ene.-feb. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-161158


Background: To investigate the species of zoonotic trematodes and the endemic infection status in the domestic animals in Huainan areas, north Anhui province of China, we intent to provide evidences for prevention of the parasitic zoonoses. Methods: The livestock and poultry (definitive hosts) were purchased from the farmers living in the water areas, including South Luohe, Yaohe, Jiaogang and Gaotang Lakes, and dissected the viscera of these collected hosts to obtain the parasitic samples. Then the specimens were microscopically identified, with reference to the descriptions in previous literatures for counting the zoonotic species found in these areas. Results: A total of 41 species were detected in the domestic samples, in which 23 were zoonotic trematodes, and 18 were internal trematodes of animals. Of the 41 species, 38 were novel records in Huainan areas, and 12 were newly detected in Anhui province, including Metorchis anatinus, Echinostoma hortense, E. cinetorchis, E. angustitestis, E. lindoensis, E. nordiana, E. ilocanum, Metagonimus yokogawai, Prosthogonimus gracilis, P. skrjabini, P. anatinus and Trichobilharzia sp. which generally occurred in definitive hosts of chicken, ducks, geese, dogs, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and pigs, respectively. Conclusion: A large quantity of livestock and poultry are fed by the local farmers living along the river banks in Huainan area, suggesting that the population in that area are at higher risks of natural focus of zoonotic infections, since these animals are favorable definitive hosts to the zoonotic trematodes (AU)

Introducción: para investigar las especies de trematodos zoonóticos y el estado de infección endémica en los animales domésticos en áreas de Huainan, al norte de la provincia de Anhui, China, tenemos la intención de proporcionar evidencias para la prevención de enfermedades zoonóticas. Métodos: el ganado y las aves (hospedadores definitivos) fueron adquiridos a los campesinos que viven en las zonas con agua, incluyendo el sur de Luohe, Yaohe, Jiaogang y Gaotang Lagos, y se diseccionaron las vísceras de estos anfitriones recogidos para obtener las muestras parasitarias. Las muestras fueron identificadas microscópicamente, con referencia a las descripciones de la literatura revisada para contar las especies zoonóticas que se encuentran en estas áreas. Resultados: se detectaron un total de 41 especies en las muestras nacionales, de las que 23 eran trematodos zoonóticos y 18 eran trematodos internos de los animales. Estas especies representaron 22 géneros en 12 familias de 4 órdenes. De las 41 especies, 38 fueron registros nuevos en las áreas de Huainan y 12 fueron detectadas recientemente en la provincia de Anhui, incluyendo Metorchis anatinus, Echinostoma hortense, E. cinetorchis, E. angustitestis, E. lindoensis, E. nordiana, Euparyphium ilocanum, Metagonimus yokogawai, Prosthogonimus gracilis, P. skrjabini, P. anatinus y Trichobilharzia sp., generalmente producidos en huéspedes definitivos de pollo, patos, gansos, perros, vacas, búfalos, ovejas, cabras y cerdos, respectivamente. Conclusión: los agricultores locales que viven a lo largo de las orillas del río se alimentan de gran cantidad de ganado y aves de corral de la zona de Huainan, lo que sugiere que la población en esa área tiene mayor riesgo ante el foco natural de las infecciones zoonóticas, ya que estos animales son huéspedes definitivos favorables a los trematodos zoonóticos (AU)

Humanos , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/microbiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Zoonoses , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia
Int. microbiol ; 18(2): 91-97, jun. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-143386


Entomopathogenic fungi are potential tools to biocontrol cicadellids and delphacids, two groups of insects that cause extensive damage to agricultural crops. However, bacteria living on the host cuticle may inhibit fungal growth. In the present work, following the molecular characterization of 10 strains of Bacillus isolated from the integument of cicadellids and delphacids, we selected isolates of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae that are resistant to the antimicrobials secreted by these bacterial strains. The antagonistic activity of the 10 bacterial isolates belonging to the genus Bacillus (i.e., B. amyloliquefaciens, B. pumilus, and B. subtilis) against 41 isolates of Bea. bassiana and 20 isolates of M. anisopliae was investigated in vitro on tryptic soy agar using the central disk test. With this approach, isolates of Bea. bassiana and M. anisopliae resistant to antagonistic bacteria were identified that can be further developed as biological control agents (AU)

No disponible

Animais , Fungos/patogenicidade , Micoses/imunologia , Bacillus/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves/imunologia , Hemípteros/imunologia , Entomologia/métodos
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 26(2): 152-154, jun. 2009. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-75534


Se presenta el caso de una hembra de gacela dorca (Gazella dorcas neglecta) mantenida en condiciones decautividad en un zoológico español. El animal, perteneciente a un lote procedente de un centro de cría encautividad del sureste de Andalucía, comenzó con un cuadro de fiebre, letargia y cambios de comportamiento.Radiológicamente se detectaron varios cuerpos extraños en rumen y, en el tórax la presencia deuna neumonía con patrón nodular. Después de ser intervenida quirúrgicamente murió. En la necropsia, loshallazgos histopatológicos y microbiológicos demostraron la presencia de una histoplasmosis diseminadacon un patrón histológico de respuesta inflamatoria asociado a condiciones de inmunodepresión en el animal,similar a la de personas con graves inmunodeficiencias (sida y otras)(AU)

A 17 month old female gazelle dorca (Gazella dorcas neglecta), kept in captivity in a Spanish zoo, showedseveral symptoms of illness including fever, lethargy and behavioural changes. X-ray revealed ruminal“foreign bodies” and pneumonia with a nodular pattern. After surgical intervention, the animal died. Atnecropsy, histopathologic and microbiological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of disseminatedhistoplasmosis, with an inflammatory histological pattern associated with immunodepression in theanimal, similar to those observed in patients with severe immunodeficiency (AIDS and others)(AU)

Animais , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Histoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Histoplasmose/microbiologia , Histoplasma/patogenicidade , Histoplasmose/epidemiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência
Rev. toxicol ; 24(1): 31-35, ene.-abr. 2007. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-75355


En el presente estudio se han analizado las concentraciones de dos metales pesados (Hg y Pb) en el tejido hepático de dos especies de aves marinas (cormorán moñudo, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, y alcatraz, Morus bassanus), empleando para ello animales aparecidos muertos o moribundos a lo largo de la costa de Galicia. Los ejemplares considerados fueron divididos en dos grupos en función de si habían sido afectados o no por la marea negra causada por el vertido del 'Prestige' en noviembre de 2002, a fin de determinar si dicho vertido había afectado al contenido metálico de estas especies. Tras la digestión de las muestras por vía húmeda, el contenido de ambos metales fue determinado por medio de voltamperometría de redisolución anódica (Pb) y de un analizador directo de mercurio (DMA) (Hg). Considerando la diferencia interespecífica para el Hg total, las concentraciones en cormorán moñudo (media: 4,2-7,6 ppm) fueron siempre mayores que en alcatraz (media: 1,6-1,8 ppm), con un valor máximo superior a 20 ppm (peso húmedo), correspondiente a un animal afectado por la marea negra. Con respecto al Pb, el resultado fue contrario, con niveles ligeramente superiores en los alcatraces con respecto a los cormoranes moñudos, pero en ningún caso superándose el nivel de 0,01 ppm (peso húmedo). Al considerar los dos grupos establecidos (afectados o no por el accidente del 'Prestige'), se pudo evidenciar que el vertido de crudo no afectó de una manera estadísticamente significativa a los niveles de ambos contaminantes metálicos en el tejido hepático de los animales considerados (AU)

At the present work, heavy metal (Hg and Pb) concentrations in hepatic tissue from two seabird species (shag, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, and gannet, Morus bassanus) have been analyzed, by using collected animals which died or were dying along the Galician coast (NW Spain). The considered animals were divided in two groups, considering if they had been affected or not by the oil spill caused by the 'Prestige' in November 2002, and in order to determine if such spill had modified the heavy metal content of such seabird species. After sample wet digestion, heavy metal content was determined using anodic stripping voltammetry (Pb) and direct mercury analyzer (DMA) (Hg). When considering inter-specific differences for total Hg, hepatic concentrations from shag samples (mean: 4.2-7.6 ppm) were higher than those from gannet (mean: 1.6-1.8 ppm), with a maximum value reaching up to 20 ppm (wet weight), corresponding to an animal affected by the oil spill. With regards to Pb content, results were different, with slightly higher levels from gannet samples than those from shag, but never exceeding 0.01 ppm (wet weight). When considering both established groups (affected or not by the 'Prestige' accident), it could be established that the oil spill did not affect on a statistically significant manner the levels of both metallic contaminants on the hepatic tissue of the considered animals (AU)

Animais , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Doenças das Aves , Aves/microbiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/complicações , Fígado/patologia , Poluição do Ar , Poluição Ambiental , Poluição da Água
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 80(6): 621-630, nov.-dic. 2006. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-75317


La Influenza Aviar es una enfermedad infecciosa que afecta principalmentea las aves, producida por virus de la gripe A, en la mayoríade los casos de baja patogenicidad. Debido a la rápida mutaciónde estos virus a formas altamente patógenas, el nivel de riesgo parala sanidad animal y la salud pública puede ser alto. Desde el año2003, está teniendo lugar un brote de Influenza Aviar en aves producidopor el subtipo H5N1 de alta patogenicidad, con transmisión yafectación humana y que presenta un riesgo potencial de produciruna nueva pandemia de gripe. Ante estos brotes, es fundamental lacolaboración entre los sectores implicados de la Sanidad Animal ySalud Pública que permita localizar con precisión las zonas de actividadde la enfermedad en los animales e intensificar en ellas la vigilanciade los casos en humanos. Las medidas de control de la enfermedaden animales deben ser compatibles con la reducción del riesgode exposición humana.El objetivo de este artículo es hacer una revisión de las medidasgenerales desarrolladas contra la Influenza Aviar en aves, destacandolos aspectos de coordinación y comunicación entre las autoridadesde Sanidad Animal y Salud Pública, teniendo en cuenta que lalegislación está sujeta a una renovación rápida y constante en consonanciacon la dinámica de esta enfermedad(AU)

Avian influenza is an infectious disease that mainly affectsbirds, caused by influenza A type viruses, in most cases of lowpathogenecity. Rapid mutations of these viruses to highly pathogenicforms represent a serious risk for animal and public health. Since2003, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in birdsis taking place with transmission and resulting illness in humansand which is believed to be able to start a human influenza pandemic.To face these outbreaks, a joint effort between the animal andpublic health sector is needed to identify areas affected by animaldisease and to intensify surveillance of human cases in them. Controlmeasures in animals must be compatible with risk reduction ofhuman exposure.The aim of this article is to review the general control measuresdeveloped against avian influenza in birds, highlighting coordinationand communication aspects between Animal Health and PublicHealth, taking into account that legislation is constantly being updatedas the dynamic of the disease changes(AU)

Animais , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/tendências , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/análise
Rev. toxicol ; 23(2/3): 138-145, 2006. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-75223


Las aves rapaces son predadores situados en la cumbre de las cadenas alimenticias, por lo cual podrían ser consideradas como adecuados bioindicadores en los programas de biomonitorización del medio, a fin de evaluar la presencia y efecto de diversos contaminantes en los ecosistemas. En el presente trabajo se han determinado las concentraciones de diversos metales pesados y metaloides (As, Cd, Pb y Zn) en el tejido hepático de distintas especies de aves rapaces diurnas procedentes de Galicia y Extremadura, empleando para ello animales que llegaron muertos o se sacrificaron a su llegada a los Centros de Recuperación de Fauna Salvaje de ambas comunidades. Tras la digestión de las muestras por vía húmeda, el contenido de elementos inorgánicos fue determinado por medio de Espectrometría de Masas con fuente de plasma a copl ado por inducción (ICP-MS). L as concentraciones cuantificadas de los cuatro elementos se situaron en general dentro de los niveles considerados como normales para las aves, no causando efectos patológicos directos. Destaca el hecho de que de los cuatro elementos considerados , las concentraciones de Cd y Zn cuantificadas en Galicia fueron siempre ligeramente superiores a las obtenidas en Extremadura. Por otra parte, considerando la especie a estudio, destaca el hecho de que los valores más elevados de los cuatro elementos analizados se correspondieran con ejemplares de Busardo ratonero procedentes de Galicia (AU)

Raptors are predators located at the top of food chains, which offers the possibility of use these species as adequate bioindicators within the environmental biomonitoring programs, in order to assess the presence and effect of a broad spectrum of contaminants on the ecosystems. In the present work, heavy metal and metalloid (As, Cd, Pb and Zn) contents in liver of different raptor species from Galicia and Extremadura have been determined, using animals that arrived died or that were sacrificed after their arrival to the Wildlife Recovery Centres of both communities. After wet digestion of the sample, inorganic element content was determined using inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentrations of all the analyzed elements were in general close to those considered as normal in avian species, and therefore do not produce direct pathological effects. It must be emphasized that the hepatic concentrations of Cd and Zn quantified in Galicia were slightly higher than those corresponding to Extremadura. Moreover, and when considering the studied species, it must be signalled that the highest values for the four analyzed elements were observed in Common buzzard from Galicia (AU)

Animais , Metais Pesados/imunologia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Doenças das Aves , Aves , Aves Predatórias , Arsênico/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Cádmio , Fígado/química , Fígado/microbiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/complicações , Intoxicação por Chumbo/diagnóstico