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1.
J. physiol. biochem ; 71(3): 435-454, sept. 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-142441

RESUMO

This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the centella triterpene saponins (EXT) on cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced hepatotoxicity and immunosuppression in rats. The phytochemical profile of EXT was analyzed for centella saponins by using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC). Therapeutic efficacy of EXT (250 mg/kg/day p.o) on hematological profile of blood, liver function markers, and cytokine profiles in CYP (10 mg/kg/day p.o)-treated rats. In addition, weights of immune organs (spleen and thymus) and histopathological changes in the liver, intestine, and spleen were also evaluated. The active principles in EXT were identified as madecassoside, asiaticoside, and asiatic acid by HPLC analysis. Upon administration of EXT, enhanced levels of glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lipid peroxidation were found reduced while the levels of reduced glutathione and hematological parameters and relative weights of immune organs were restored to normal in CYP-treated rats. The hepatic mRNA level of TNF-α, which was increased during CYP administration, was significantly decreased by the EXT treatment. The decreased levels of mRNA expression of other cytokines like IFN-γ, IL-2, GM-CSF, after CYP treatment, were also found elevated upon administration of the EXT. Histopathological examination of the intestine, liver, and spleen indicated that the extract could attenuate the CYP-induced hepatic and immune organ damage. These results indicated that EXT modulated the immune and hepatic system function of rats against CYP-induced immunosuppression and hepatotoxicity by restoring the cytokine production, antioxidant system, and multiorgan injury. Thus, triterpene saponins may provide protective and/or therapeutic alternative against the immune-mediated liver diseases (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Centella , Terpenos/farmacocinética , Saponinas/farmacocinética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunossupressão
2.
Rev. fitoter ; 15(1): 21-35, jul. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-141664

RESUMO

Cistus ladanifer L. (Cistaceae), comúnmente llamado jara pringosa, es un arbusto espontáneo de la región mediterránea occidental, que se extiende de Marruecos y Portugal hasta la Costa Azul y Argelia. Los preparados obtenidos de C. ladanifer L. (extratos, aceite esencial y lábdano) tienen una composición compleja y presentan propiedades farmacológicas que sugieren posibles aplicaciones terapéuticas. Ante la ausencia de monografía comunitaria de la Agencia Europea del Medicamento (EMA, European Medicines Agency) o de otros documentos de referencia, es de gran importancia la realización de trabajos que completen la necesaria información sobre C. ladanifer. El presente trabajo está destinado a proporcionar información acerca de la caraterización, hábitat, distribución geográfica de la jara pringosa y los estudios publicados acerca de su bioatividad. También se presentan los preparados obtenidos de C. ladanifer y se analiza su composición, mayoritariamente formada por fenoles, terpenos, lípidos y vitaminas. Se presentan los usos descritos en la medicina tradicional, así como los efectos farmacológicos basados en estudios in vitro e in vivo, destacando las acciones antioxidante, antitumoral, antiinflamatoria, antimicrobiana, antifúngica, antiprotozoaria, antiagregante plaquetaria, antidepresiva, antiespasmódica, inmunomoduladora y anTihipertensiva (AU)


Cistus ladanifer L. (Cistaceae), comúnmente llamado jara pringosa, es un arbusto espontáneo de la región mediterránea occidental, que se extiende de Marruecos y Portugal hasta la Costa Azul y Argelia. Los preparados obtenidos de C. ladanifer L. (extratos, aceite esencial y lábdano) tienen una composición compleja y presentan propiedades farmacológicas que sugieren posibles aplicaciones terapéuticas. Ante la ausencia de monografía comunitaria de la Agencia Europea del Me-dicamento (EMA, European Medicines Agency) o de otros documentos de referencia, es de gran importancia la realización de trabajos que completen la necesaria información sobre C. ladanifer. El presente trabajo está destinado a proporcionar información acerca de la caraterización, hábitat, distribución geográfica de la jara pringosa y los estudios publicados acerca de su bioatividad. También se presentan los preparados obtenidos de C. ladanifer y se analiza su composición, mayoritariamente formada por fenoles, terpenos, lípidos y vitaminas. Se presentan los usos descritos en la medicina tradicional, así como los efectos farmacológicos basados en estudios in vitro e in vivo, destacando las acciones an-tioxidante, antitumoral, antiinflamatoria, antimicrobiana, antifúngica, antiprotozoaria, antiagregante plaquetaria, antidepresiva, antiespasmódica, inmunomoduladora y antihipertensiva


Cistus ladanifer L. (Cistaceae), commonly referred as rock-rose, is a spontaneous shrub of western Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Portugal to French Riviera and Algeria. With complex composition, the preparations based on C. ladanifer (extracts, essential oil and labdanum) show pharmacological properties that make it interesting its future application. The absence of community onograph on this plant from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) or other reference documents makes of great importance to compile and analyze the existing information on C. ladanifer. This work is intended to provide information regarding characterization, habitat, and geographical distribution of rockrose, as well as on the bioactivity studies published. In addition, the herbal preparations obtained from C. ladanifer are also described, together with its composition, mainly formed by phenols, terpenes, lipids and vitamins. The uses described in traditional medicine and the pharmacological effects based on in vitro and in vivo studies are also reported, thereby highlighting the antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-protozoal, anti-aggregating, antidepressant, antispasmodic, immunomodulatory and antihypertensive actions (AU)


Assuntos
Cistus , Óleos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Óleos Voláteis/farmacocinética , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacocinética , Compostos Fenólicos , Terpenos/análise , Fitoterapia/métodos
3.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 103(6): 456-477, jul.-ago. 2012. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-101203

RESUMO

La dermatitis alérgica por contacto debida a plantas es común. Se pueden encontrar plantas y productos vegetales potencialmente alergénicos en muchos entornos habituales como el hogar, el jardín, el lugar de trabajo y ambientes recreativos. Mejorando nuestro conocimiento de los compuestos químicos alergénicos derivados de plantas estaremos en una mejor posición para identificar alérgenos nuevos. Revisamos los alérgenos químicos que contribuyen de manera más relevante a la dermatitis alérgica por contacto por plantas y proponemos un sistema de clasificación clínica basado en 5 principales familias de sensibilizadores químicos: alfa−metilen-epsilon-butirolactonas, quinonas, derivados fenólicos, terpenos y estructuras misceláneas (disulfuros, isotiocianatos y derivados poliacetilénicos). Describimos también los diferentes cuadros clínicos de dermatitis alérgica por contacto por plantas y revisamos los materiales de pruebas epicutáneas actualmente disponibles. Un mejor entendimiento de los alérgenos específicos involucrados en la dermatitis alérgica por contacto por plantas ayudará a predecir reacciones cruzadas entre diferentes especies o familias de plantas (AU)


Allergic contact dermatitis due to plants is common. Potentially allergenic plants and plant products are found in many everyday environments, such as the home, the garden, the workplace, and recreational settings. By improving our knowledge of allergenic plant-derived chemical compounds, we will be better positioned to identify novel allergens. We review the most relevant chemical allergens that contribute to plant allergic contact dermatitis and propose a clinical classification system based on 5 major families of chemical sensitizers: alpha-methylene-epsilon-butyrolactones, quinones, phenol derivatives, terpenes, and miscellaneous structures (disulfides, isothiocyanates, and polyacetylenic derivates). We also describe the different clinical pictures of plant allergic contact dermatitis and review currently available patch test materials. A better understanding of the specific allergens involved in plant allergic contact dermatitis will help to predict cross-reactivity between different plant species or families (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Plantas/efeitos adversos , Antígenos de Plantas/classificação , Antígenos de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Acil-Butirolactonas/efeitos adversos , Quinonas/efeitos adversos , Terpenos/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos
4.
Rev. fitoter ; 12(1): 53-63, jul. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-110274

RESUMO

El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una revisión sobre la especie Salvia lavandulifolia, conocida como salvia española, perteneciente a la familia de las Lamináceas y característica de la zona mediterránea. Presenta una gran complejidad taxonómica, reflejada en las cinco subespecies que se conocen: lavundulifolia, vellerea, oxyodon, blancoana y mariolensis. En su composición química es característica la presencia de polifenoles y terpenos, especialmente monoterpenos como alpha-pineno, 1,8-cineol y alcanfor, frecuentemente en elevado porcentaje en su aceite esencial. Esta especie forma parte de un importante género de plantas aromáticas aclimatadas en todo el mundo por su uso en medicina tradicional (antibacteriano, digestivo, reforzador de la memoria) y también con proósitos culinarios. Se han publicado diversos estudios relacionados con su actividad farmacológica que demuestran sus propiedades antioxidante, antiinflamatoria, estrogénica, inhibidora de la acetilcolinesterasa, así como su eficacia en afecciones del sistema nervioso central, como trastornos cognitivos (AU)


The aim of this paper es to review Salvia lavandulifolia, known as Spanish sage, belonging to the Lamiaceae family and characteristic of the Mediterranean área. It shows high taxonomic complexity reflected in the five known subspecies: lavandulifolia, vellerea, oxyodon, clancoana and mariolensis. Its chemical composition is characterized by the presence of polyphenols and terpenes, particularly monoterpenes such as alpha-pinene, 1,8-cineole, and camphor, which are often found in high percentage in the essential oil. This species belongs to an important genus of aromatic plants acclimated worldwide and used traditionally in medicine (as antibacterial, digestive and memory enhacer) as well as for culinary purposes- There are several pharmacological studies showing its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and acetylcholinesterase inhibition properties, as well as its efficacy in central nervous system diseases as cognitive disorders (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Salvia/química , Salvia/imunologia , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Cânfora/química , Cânfora/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia/métodos , Fitoterapia , Terpenos/uso terapêutico , Lamiaceae/química , Lamiaceae/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Terpenos/farmacocinética , Medicina Tradicional/tendências , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico
5.
Rev. fitoter ; 11(2): 149-153, dic. 2011. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-125880

RESUMO

Las enfermedades parasitarias constituyen un importante problema de salud, y muchas de ellas están emergiendo en países donde se consideraban erradicadas. La leishmaniasis, la enfermedad del sueño y la enfermedad de Chagas, causadas por los parásitos Leishmania spp, Trypanosoma brucei y Trypanosoma cruzi, respectivamente, se encuentran entre las enfermedades parasitarias más prevalentes. La principal alternativa para tratarlas es la quimioterapia. Sin embargo, los tratamientos actuales se encuentran lejos de ser satisfactorios. La toxicidad de los fármacos, la vía de administración, la duración de los tratamientos y la aparición de resistencias hacen necesario el desarrollo de nuevas moléculas activas, más seguras y eficaces. Estudios recientes ponen de manifiesto la actividad leishmanicida y tripanocida in vivo de una amplia variedad de compuestos fenólicos, alcaloides y terpenos. En este artículo se revisan los productos naturales activos frente a leishmaniasis, enfermedad del sueño y enfermedad de Chagas (AU)


Diseases caused by protozoan parasites are still an important human health problem, since many of them are becoming “emerging” infectious sickness in geographical areas where they were considered eradicated. Leishmaniasis, African sleeping sickness and Chagas disease, caused by the parasites Leishmania spp, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi, respectively, are among the most important parasitic diseases. The main alternative to control such parasitosis is chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the current drug treatments are far from being satisfactory. Toxic side effects, route of administration, long-term treatments and the apparition of resistance, highlight the urgent need of developing new active molecules, more safe and effective. Recent studies report the leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities of a wide variety of phenolic compounds, alkaloids and terpenes that have shown activity in vivo. This review outlines the current understanding of natural products against leishmaniasis, African sleeping sickness and Chagas disease (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Leishmaniose/terapia , Doença de Chagas/terapia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Terpenos/farmacologia , Terpenos/farmacocinética , Terpenos/uso terapêutico , Tripanossomíase/terapia , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacocinética , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Fitoterapia
6.
Rev. fitoter ; 9(2): 133-145, dic. 2009. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-77477

RESUMO

El género Sideritis L. abarca un conjunto de especies vegetales pertenecientes a la familia Lamiáceas ampliamente distribuidas por la región mediterránea, tanto europea y africana como asiática. Tradicionalmente se utilizan por sus propiedades antiinflamatorias, digestivas y antimicrobianas. Desde el punto de vista botánico, este género presenta dificultades en su clasificación debido a la tendencia a la hibridación entre sus numerosas especies. La parte utilizada en medicina tradicional es la sumidad florida, que contiene como principios activos más destacados flavonoides, terpenos y aceite esencial, siendo todos ellos responsables de sus actividades farmacológicas. Estudios recientes demuestran estas actividades y avalan tanto su uso tradicional como posibles nuevas aplicaciones terapéuticas (AU)


The genus Sideritis L., comprises several plant specie belonging to the Lamiaceae family that are widely distributed in the European, African and Asiatic Mediterranean region. Several species are used in folk medicine because of its anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and antimicrobial properties. From the botanical point of view, the genus Sideritis has been difficult to classify because of the strong tendency of a number of species to hybridaze. The part used in traditional medicine are the flowering tops. They contain flavonoids, terpenes and essential oil that are responsible of the pharmacological activities. Recent studies prove these activities that support both their traditional uses and their potential new therapeutic applications (AU)


Assuntos
Sideritis , Sideritis/imunologia , Lamiaceae , Lamiaceae/imunologia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Terpenos/administração & dosagem , Terpenos/antagonistas & inibidores , Terpenos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/imunologia , Terpenos/imunologia , Terpenos/uso terapêutico
8.
Int. microbiol ; 4(2): 93-102, jun. 2001. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-163499

RESUMO

Echinocandins, the lipopeptide class of glucan synthase inhibitors, are an alternative to ergosterol-synthesis inhibitors to treat candidiasis and aspergillosis. Their oral absorption, however, is low and they can only be used parenterally. During a natural product screening program for novel types of glucan synthesis inhibitors with improved bioavailability, a fungal extract was found that inhibited the growth of both a wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and the null mutant of the FKS1 gene (fks1::HIS). The mutant strain was more sensitive to growth inhibition, suggesting that the fungal extract could contain an inhibitor of glucan synthesis. A novel acidic steroid, named arundifungin, was purified from a fungal extract obtained from a liquid culture of Arthrinium arundinis collected in Costa Rica. Arundifungin caused the same pattern of hallmark morphological alterations in Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae as echinocandins, further supporting the idea that arundifungin belongs to a new class of glucan synthesis inhibitors. Moreover, its antifungal spectrum was comparable to those of echinocandins and papulacandins, preferentially inhibiting the growth of Candida and Aspergillus strains, with very poor activity against Cryptococcus. Arundifungin was also detected in nine other fungal isolates which were ecologically and taxonomically unrelated, as assessed by sequencing of the ITS1 region. Further, it was also found in two more Arthrinium spp from tropical and temperate regions, in five psychrotolerant conspecific isolates collected on Macquarie Island (South Pacific) and belonging to the Leotiales, and in two endophytes collected in central Spain (a sterile fungus belonging to the Leotiales and an undetermined coelomycete) (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Fungos/classificação , Fungos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana , Triterpenos , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe , Fungos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/farmacologia
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