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1.
Eur. j. anat ; 23(6): 405-413, nov. 2019. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185083

RESUMO

Nicotine exposure during pregnancy is linked to multiple obstetrical, fetal, and developmental complications. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is an aromatic herb, which has well-known potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate, for the first time, the protective effect of parsley extract on alveolar stage of lung development in rats exposed to perinatal nicotine. Thirty Sprague-Dawley adult female rats were randomly divided into five main groups after being pregnant: control, sham control, parsley-treated (5mg /kg/day), nicotine-treated group (1mg /kg/day), and protected (nicotine + parsley extract) groups. Nicotine was injected subcutaneously, while parsley extract was given orally by gastric tube from the 7th day of pregnancy until the 21st day postnatally. At the end of the experiment, lungs of 21-day-old male offspring were subjected to biochemical, histological, and immuno-histochemical analyses. Our results revealed toxic effects of nicotine on alveolar stage of rat lung development. These were indicated by histopathological alterations, including poorly developed primary and secondary septa; interstitial tissue infiltration with inflammatory cells, atypical features appeared in some cells of bronchioles and blood vessels. In addition, a reduction in elastic fibers contents and in alpha smooth muscle expression, an increase in surfactant protein B expression, and changes of oxidative stress indices and tumor necrosis factor alpha level in lung tissue were detected. Co-administration of parsley extract ameliorated nicotine induced toxic alterations on the development of the lung. Therefore, parsley can be a promising candidate for the prevention of nicotine-induced toxicity in the developing lung


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Petroselinum/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/anatomia & histologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Imuno-Histoquímica , Projetos de Pesquisa , Análise de Variância , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
5.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 93: 0-0, 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189487

RESUMO

Objetivo: La Directiva de Productos del Tabaco (2014/40/EU) obliga a los fabricantes e importadores de productos de tabaco y relacionados a notificar a los Estados miembros la comercialización de estos productos, a través del Portal de Entrada Común de la UE (EU-CEG). El objetivo del estudio fue describir los principales datos disponibles en el EU-CEG en España, así como analizar sus implicaciones para las políticas de control del tabaquismo. Métodos: Se realizó un análisis transversal de los datos obtenidos en el EU-CEG para España. El acceso se realizó a través de archivos en formato xml o pdf, descargados del portal o consultados mediante su interfaz. Se describió la distribución de productos, de fabricantes, la presencia de aditivos prioritarios, y la concentración de nicotina en los líquidos. Resultados: En el portal EU-CEG para España existen actualmente 42.736 registros. El 83,7% correspondía a los dispositivos susceptibles de liberación de nicotina (67% de líquidos de recarga, principalmente con concentraciones de 3, 6, 12 y 18 mg). En productos de tabaco destacaron los cigarrillos (5%), los puros (5,9%) y el tabaco para pipa de agua (2,8%). Los productos de hierbas para fumar supusieron el 0,1%. Cinco de los aditivos prioritarios para su vigilancia estaban presentes en más del 75% de los cigarrillos y del tabaco de liar. Existían 44 registros de cigarrillos Slim y 9 de productos novedosos de tabaco. Conclusiones: El portal EU-CEG se ha convertido en una potente herramienta en el control del tabaco. Destacan los retos que requieren un abordaje conjunto e integral en aspectos como el etiquetado y los ingredientes, los cigarrillos Slim y las nuevas formas de consumo


Objective: The Tobacco Products Directive (2014/40/EU) obliges manufacturers and importers of tobacco products and related to notify Member States the commercialization of these products through the EU Common Entry Portal (EU-CEG). The objective of this study is to describe the main data available in EU-CEG in Spain and analyze its implications for smoking control policies. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of the data obtained in EU-CEG for Spain. The access is done through .xml or .pdf files, downloaded from the portal or consulted through its interface. It describes the distribution of products, manufacturers, presence of priority ingredients, Slim cigarettes and concentration of nicotine in liquids. Results: In the EU-CEG portal for Spain there are currently 42,736 records. 83.7% corresponds to the devices susceptible to nicotine release (67% of refill liquids, mainly with concentrations of 3, 6, 12 and 18 mg). In tobacco products, cigarettes (5%), cigars (5.9%) and water pipe tobacco (2.8%) stand out. Herbal products for smoking account for 0.1%. 5 of the priority ingredients for surveillance are present in more than 75% of cigarettes and rolling tobacco. There are 44 records of Slim cigarettes and 9 novel tobacco products. Conclusions: The EU-CEG portal has become a powerful tool in tobacco control. We highlight challenges that require a joint and comprehensive approach in aspects such as labeling and ingredients, Slim cigarettes and new forms of consumption


Assuntos
Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Vaping/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos Transversais , União Europeia , Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Espanha/epidemiologia , Tabaco/efeitos adversos
9.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 32(4): 393-395, jul.-ago. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-174168

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the validity of two questions about the perception of intensity of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home using as a reference environmental markers (airborne nicotine and benzene) and biomarkers of exposure (cotinine in saliva and urine). This was a cross-sectional study in a convenience sample of 49 non-smoking volunteers. We found a high correlation between self-reported SHS exposure and airborne nicotine (rsp=0.806, p<0.05), salivary cotinine (rsp=0.752, p<0.05), and urinary cotinine (rsp=0.626, p<0.05). We did not find differences between the score question and the conventional ones (p >0.05). In conclusion, the significant correlation of the two questions proposed with environmental markers and personal markers indicates their potential validity to assess exposure to SHS at home


El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la validez de dos preguntas sobre la exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco (HAT) en el hogar utilizando como referencia marcadores ambientales (nicotina y bencenos en el aire) y biomarcadores específicos (cotinina en saliva y orina) de la exposición pasiva al tabaco. Para ello se realizó un estudio transversal de una muestra de conveniencia de 49 voluntarios no fumadores mayores de edad de la ciudad de Barcelona. Se encontró una alta correlación entre la pregunta de intensidad de la exposición pasiva autodeclarada en casa y la nicotina en el aire (rsp=0,806, p <0,05), la cotinina en saliva (rsp=0,752, p <0,05) y la cotinina en orina (rsp=0,626, p <0,05). No encontramos diferencias entre las preguntas puntuables y las convencionales (p>0,05). En conclusión, la alta correlación de las preguntas propuestas con los marcadores ambientales y los biomarcadores indica su validez para evaluar la intensidad de la exposición pasiva al tabaco en el hogar


Assuntos
Humanos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Biomarcadores/análise , Cotinina/análise , Nicotina/análise , Estudos Transversais
11.
Av. odontoestomatol ; 34(2): 59-71, mar.-abr. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-172659

RESUMO

El color del órgano dental viene determinado desde el nacimiento, estando determinado por la tonalidad de la dentina aunada a la transparencia y capacidad de refracción de la luz del esmalte. Las descoloraciones den tales son un cambio en el tono, chroma, valor o en la translucidez del diente, puesto que el tejido adamantino es permeable, poco a poco se va tiñendo a causa de diferentes factores externos como pueden ser pigmentos (cromóforos) contenidos en alimentos o bebidas como los tomates, zanahorias, café, té o infusiones varias, que tienden adherirse a los tejidos orgánicos que ocupan los espacios interprismáticos mediante unión química a sus grupos hidroxilo y amino. Además la unión entre estas sustancias pigmentadas y los iones calcio forma nuevas moléculas que varían en tamaño y efecto óptico. Por otro lado numerosos estudios confirman que el tabaco es otro de los factores que alteran el color natural de los dientes, ya sea en cigarrillo, puros, pipa y aún no existe suficiente evidencia sobre el vapor de tabaco. El mecanismo de acción para la decoloración por el tabaco es similar al de los alimentos, salvo que en estos casos se trata de la nicotina, el grupo de alquitranes y el furufral, los cuales se depositan en la superficie dental o incluso llegan a penetrar en los túbulos dentinarios, siendo muy difícil su eliminación. Este tipo de decoloraciones se denominan extrínsecas. Técnicas de blanqueamiento en diferentes formas de aplicación, tiempo, compuestos y su concentración, han demostrado ser suficientes, aunque sin una suficiente evidencia clara y concisa, como vía de mejora del color del diente y lo que esto acarrea


The use of dental implants has become a routine treatment in the clinic. An important prerequisite to ensure proper bone-implant interface is adequate primary implant stability during healing. For clinical success in prosthetics and dental implants is essential a firm and lastinsthetics and dental implants is essential a firm and lasting cant interface cess in prosthetics and dental implants is essential a firm and lasting cant interface is adequate primary implant stability during healing. For clinical success in prosthetics and dental implants is essential a firm and lasting tal implants is essential a firm and lasting connecg cant interface is adequate primary implant stability during healing. For clinical success in prosthetics and dental implants is essential a firm and lasting cant interface cess in prosthetics and dental implants is essential a firm and lasting cant interface is adequate primary implant stability during healing. For clinical success in prosthetics and dental implants is essential a firm and lasting tal implants is essential a firm and lasting connection to the implant surface and bone. These surfaces can be modified using coatings, different abrasive blasting, or acid treatments, combination of several or all of them


Assuntos
Humanos , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Clareadores Dentários/análise , Descoloração de Dente/terapia , Descoloração de Dente/etiologia , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Furaldeído/efeitos adversos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico
13.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 30(1): 27-32, feb. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-172595

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have shown that smoking is associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impairment. In order to evaluate HRQoL in a sample of Spanish relapsers, a cross-sectional study was conducted. Method: The sample was made up of 775 smokers who had relapsed after a period of abstinence. HRQoL was evaluated using the Euro-Qol questionnaire (EQ-5D); through the descriptive profile, the EQ-5D index and the visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS). Results: Higher nicotine dependence was related to worse HRQL. According to the EQ-VAS, higher daily cigarette consumption and more years smoking were related to worse perceived health. In the EQ-5D those who had quit smoking in the previous year perceived worse health. Mobility and anxiety / depression are the dimensions affected by smoking. Those who are more nicotine dependent (OR = 2.29) and have been smoking for longer (OR = 4.12) are more likely to have mobility problems; and those who are nicotine dependent (OR = 1.85) and relapsed more than a year ago (OR = 0.63), are more likely to experience anxiety / depression. Conclusions: Nicotine dependence demonstrated a determining effect on HRQOL deterioration in smokers who have relapsed (AU)


Antecedentes: estudios previos demuestran que fumar produce un deterioro de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS). Para evaluar la CVRS en fumadores españoles que han recaído se realizó un estudio transversal. Método: la muestra estaba formada por 775 fumadores que habían recaído tras un período de abstinencia. La CVRS se evaluó mediante el cuestionario Euro-Qol 5D (EQ-5D), utilizando el perfil descriptivo, el índice EQ-5D y la escala visual-analógica (EQ-EVA). Resultados: a mayor dependencia de la nicotina peor CVRS. En la EQ-EVA, a mayor consumo diario de cigarrillos y más años consumiendo, peor estado de salud percibido. En el EQ-5D los que dejaron de fumar en el último año son los que perciben peor estado de salud. Movilidad y ansiedad/depresión son las dimensiones afectadas en esta muestra de fumadores que han recaído. Es más probable que tengan problemas en movilidad los que tienen dependencia (OR = 2,29) y llevan más años fumando (OR = 4,12), y es más probable que presenten ansiedad/depresión los dependientes (OR = 1,85) y los que recayeron hace más de un año (OR = 0,63). Conclusiones: la dependencia de la nicotina mostró un efecto determinante en el deterioro de la CVRS en fumadores que han recaído (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tabagismo/complicações , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Recidiva , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Nicotina/uso terapêutico
14.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 92: 0-0, 2018. ilus, tab, mapas, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177568

RESUMO

En este artículo se presenta la metodología de análisis de aguas residuales con fines epidemiológicos (wastewater-based epidemiology, WBE) y su potencial para abordar diversos aspectos relacionados con la salud pública. Esta metodología permite obtener datos a una escala temporal y espacial relativamente pequeña (típicamente datos diarios-semanales sobre un municipio) de hábitos de consumo de sustancias de abuso, ilegales (como la cocaína o el cannabis) o legales (como el alcohol) a través de la determinación de biomarcadores de consumo (el compuesto original no metabolizado o alguno de sus metabolitos) en el agua residual. Aparte de discutir los fundamentos, ventajas y limitaciones de WBE, se comentan los precedentes más relevantes a nivel internacional, y las actividades más destacables en España en este ámbito. Finalmente, se exponen, los objetivos de la Red Española de Análisis de Aguas Residuales con Fines Epidemiológicos (ESAR-Net), una "Red de Excelencia " que agrupa a investigadores españoles con amplia experiencia en el área de WBE, así como las perspectivas de futuro de esta metodología puede tener para mejorar las competencias de la Salud Pública en España


This manuscript introduces Wastewater-Based Epidemiology (WBE) and its potential in the assessment of diverse aspects related to public health. This methodology can provide data in a relatively short temporal and local scale (typically dialy-weekly at the municipal level) on consumption patterns of illicit drugs (e.g. cocaine or cannabis), licit substances of abuse (e.g. alcohol) by measuring their consumption biomarkers (i.e. the original unmetabolized substance or some of its metabolite) in wastewater. Besides discussing the fundaments, advantages and shortcomings of WBE, it reviews some of the main precedents at international level and most remarkable activities that have been taken place in this field in Spain. Finally, the Spanish Network of Wastewater-Based Epidemiology (ESAR-Net) as is presented. ESAR-Net is an Excellence Network that sums up the efforts of the most relevant Spanish researchers in the field of WBE, aiming to investigate future perspectives of this methodology and its impact on Public Health competences in Spain


Assuntos
Humanos , 24961 , Características Biológicas de Águas Residuárias/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Drogas Ilícitas/isolamento & purificação , Etanol/isolamento & purificação , Nicotina/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/análise , Problemas Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento de Procura de Droga/tendências , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
15.
Prev. tab ; 19(4): 170-174, oct.-dic. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171159

RESUMO

El tabaquismo es una enfermedad adictiva y crónica, siendo la primera causa de muerte evitable en los países desarrollados y estando directamente relacionado con diversos tipos de cáncer.Continuar fumando disminuye la eficacia del tratamiento, aumenta las complicaciones y los efectos secundarios para muchos tipos de cáncer, por ello los tratamientos para deshabituación tabáquica en pacientes oncológicos son muy importantes. Entre ellos se encuentra la terapia sustitutiva con nicotina (TSN), que es la droga que produce dependencia física del tabaco.Contamos el caso de un paciente diagnosticado y tratado de cáncer de colon que consiguió dejar de fumar tras 2 intentos, con tratamiento con parches y chicles de nicotina (AU)


Smoking habit is a chronic and additive disease, it being the first cause of avoidable death in developed countries and it is directly related with different types of cancer. To continue smoking decreases the efficacy of the treatment, increases the complications and side effects for many types of cancer. Thus, smoking cessation treatments in oncology patients are very important. Among these are nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), which is the drug that produces physical dependence of tobacco. We are reporting the case of a patient diagnosed and treated of colon cancer who was successful in stopping smoking after 2 attempts, with nicotine patches and gum (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabagismo/terapia , Neoplasias do Colo/complicações , Adesivo Transdérmico , Nicotina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 64(4): 221-231, abr. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171269

RESUMO

El tabaquismo es, junto con la diabetes mellitus, uno de los principales factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Los pacientes diabéticos presentan peculiaridades y características, algunas no bien conocidas, que hacen que el tabaquismo agrave los efectos de la diabetes y que el proceso de la deshabituación tabáquica en estos pacientes presente dificultades añadidas y que, por tanto, requiera un abordaje específico, más intensivo y con controles más rigurosos. En esta revisión se desgranan todos los aspectos conocidos que influyen en la interacción entre el tabaquismo y la diabetes, tanto en lo referente al incremento del riesgo de las complicaciones macrovasculares y microvasculares de la diabetes como a los factores que influyen en los resultados de los programas de deshabituación tabáquica. Así mismo se exponen las pautas de tratamiento de estos fumadores, incluyendo los algoritmos y pautas de tratamiento farmacológico que, basándose en evidencia científica, se han mostrado más eficaces (AU)


Smoking is, together with diabetes mellitus, one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Diabetic patients have unique features and characteristics, some of which are not well known, that cause smoking to aggravate the effects of diabetes and impose difficulties in the smoking cessation process, for which a specific and more intensive approach with stricter controls is required. This review details all aspects with a known influence on the interaction between smoking and diabetes, both as regards the increased risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes and the factors with an impact on the results of smoking cessation programs. The treatment guidelines for these smokers, including the algorithms and drug treatment patterns which have proved most useful based on scientific evidence, are also discussed (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Vareniclina/uso terapêutico , Tabagismo/tratamento farmacológico , Bupropiona/uso terapêutico , Nicotina/uso terapêutico , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Algoritmos , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle
17.
Eur. j. anat ; 21(2): 113-118, abr. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-163136

RESUMO

Nicotine forms the major addictive component of the tobacco smoke. The pancreas is one of the organs where the metabolic processes of tobacco take place. This work was designed to study the effect of nicotine administration and the effect of its withdrawal on the pancreas of albino rat. Twenty-five male albino rats were separated into two groups. Group I acted as control. Rats in group II received 1.5 mg/kg body weight of nicotine by subcutaneous injection day after day divided into two subgroups, each one containing ten rats. The first one received treatment for 4 months, and then the rats were sacrificed, while the second group received treatment for 4 months, and the rats were sacrificed after one month from treatment stoppage. The pancreases were removed and processed for histological examination and electron microscopy. Histopathological and electron microscopic examination of the pancreas of nicotinetreated rats showed degenerated and distorted pancreatic acini and β cells. These changes included pyknotic nucleus, cytoplasmic swelling, vacuolization and interstitial edema in pancreatic acinar cells. Some of the islets of Langerhans showed vaculation inside their cell and others did not show apparent changes. There was also a significant decrease in lipase and glucose levels. However, after withdrawal of nicotine, the pancreas showed more degenerated pancreatic acini and β cells. There was significant increase in blood glucose level and significant decrease in lipase of treated rats. Nicotine treatment for four months induced histopathological changes in both exocrine and endocrine pancreatic tissue that resemble the picture of chronic pancreatitis. These changes persisted long after cessation of nicotine exposure


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Pâncreas , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Tabagismo/diagnóstico , Pancreatite Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Pâncreas Exócrino , Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Células Acinares/patologia
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