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1.
Rev. esp. enferm. dig ; 112(5): 383-388, mayo 2020. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-188376

RESUMO

Although SARS-CoV-2 may primarily enter the cells of the lungs, the small bowel may also be an important entry or interaction site, as the enterocytes are rich in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-2 receptors. The initial gastrointestinal symptoms that appear early during the course of COVID-19 support this hypothesis. Furthermore, SARSCoV virions are preferentially released apically and not at the basement of the airway cells. Thus, in the setting of a productive infection of conducting airway epithelia, the apically released SARS-CoV may be removed by mucociliary clearance and gain access to the GI tract via a luminal exposure. In addition, post-mortem studies of mice infected by SARS-CoV have demonstrated diffuse damage to the GI tract, with the small bowel showing signs of enterocyte desquamation, edema, small vessel dilation and lymphocyte infiltration, as well as mesenteric nodes with severe hemorrhage and necrosis. Finally, the small bowel is rich in furin, a serine protease which can separate the S-spike of the coronavirus into two “pinchers” (S1 and 2). The separation of the S-spike into S1 and S2 is essential for the attachment of the virion to both the ACE receptor and the cell membrane. In this special review, we describe the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with the cell and enterocyte and its potential clinical implications


Assuntos
Humanos , Diarreia/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Intestino Delgado/virologia , Serina Proteases/metabolismo , Enterócitos/virologia , Pandemias , Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Colite/virologia
2.
Rev. lab. clín ; 12(3): 137-146, jul.-sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187168

RESUMO

Las proteasas de serina son enzimas ampliamente distribuidas en la naturaleza, responsables de múltiples e importantes procesos biológicos. Durante las infecciones bacterianas los patógenos secretan y usan sus proteasas de serina como factores de virulencia para combatir contra el huésped, a través de diversos efectos como la desorganización de tejidos, la proteólisis de efectores inmunológicos o la inactivación de componentes relevantes para la fisiología del huésped; sin embargo, desde hace algunos años se ha observado que las proteasas de serina podían modular procesos fisiológicos por un mecanismo altamente específico, a través de la activación de los receptores activados por proteasas. En este artículo resumimos el conocimiento reciente sobre las proteasas de serina bacteriana y su relevancia en la fisiopatología de la infección, y destacamos la oportunidad de nuevas intervenciones antimicrobianas basadas en la inhibición de la interacción receptores activados por proteasas-proteasa


Serine proteases are enzymes widely distributed in nature, and are responsible for multiple and important biological processes. During bacterial infection, pathogens secrete and use their serine proteases as virulent factors to combat against the host, through diverse mechanisms, such as tissue disruption, proteolysis of immunological effectors or inactivation of relevant components for the host physiology. However, some years ago it was observed that serine proteases could modulate physiological processes by a highly specific mechanism, through the activation of protease activated receptors (PARs). In this paper, we review recent knowledge about bacterial serine proteases and their relevance in the pathophysiology of infection. The opportunity for new antimicrobial interventions based on the inhibition of PAR-protease interaction, is also highlighted


Assuntos
Humanos , Serina Proteases/análise , Bactérias/enzimologia , Infecções Bacterianas/fisiopatologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo Hidrolases/classificação , Fatores de Virulência
3.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 41(2): 117-120, feb. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-170949

RESUMO

Objetivo. Describir la evolución de una úlcera por presión (UPP) sacra de grado III aplicando la combinación del gel de proteasa activa y la TPN. Material y métodos. Descripción de caso clínico de paciente ingresada por perforación intestinal que requirió hemicolectomía derecha, confección de fístula mucosa e ileostomía terminal y colecistectomía. Debido a diversas complicaciones, desarrolló una UPP sacra de grado III. Se iniciaron curas habituales, desbridamiento cortante y, finalmente, se decidió tratamiento con combinación del gel de proteasa activa y TPN de un solo uso. Resultados. Tras desbridamiento quirúrgico de placa necrótica y esfacelos, se aplica gel de proteasa activa y TPN de un solo uso con hidrofibra de hidrocoloide. A los 7 días, la UPP presentó abundante tejido de granulación y mayor limpieza de esfacelo, así como una disminución de 1 cm de profundidad. Conclusiones. En este caso, el proceso de cicatrización de la lesión avanzó y, por lo tanto, la lesión mejoró, aunque no se pudo observar la resolución completa por el traslado de la paciente a otro centro sanitario. Sería conveniente realizar estudios comparativos de ambas terapias por separado para valorar su costeefectividad (AU)


Objective. To describe the evolution of a grade III sacral pressure ulcer (PU) by applying a combination of active protease gel and negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Material and methods. A clinical case of a patient admitted with intestinal perforation requiring right hemicolectomy, mucous fistula, terminal ileostomy and cholecystectomy. Due to several complications, the patient developed a stage III sacral pressure ulcer. Regular cures and debridement were performed. The final treatment of choice was a combination of active protease gel and single-use NPWT. Results. After surgical debridement of necrotic plaque and scrapings, active protease gel and single-use NPWT with hydrocolloid hydrofibre was applied. By the 7th day of treatment, the PU presented abundant granulation tissue, decreased depth by 1 cm. and presented cleaner slough. Conclusions. In this case, the wound’s healing process progressed to a more favorable stage and the injury improved. Unfortunately, the complete healing process couldn’t be followed due to the patient’s transfer to another health center. It would be desirable to conduct comparative studies of both therapies, applied combined and separately, to assess cost-effectiveness (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Lesão por Pressão/terapia , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa , Serina Proteases/uso terapêutico , Lesão por Pressão/enfermagem , Desbridamento/métodos , Cicatrização , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos/enfermagem , Fatores de Risco
4.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 45(6): 579-591, nov.-dic. 2017. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-168467

RESUMO

Proteolytic activity is fundamental to survival, so it is not surprising that all living organisms have proteases, especially seine protease. This enzyme in its numerous isoforms and homologues, constitutes the quintessential offence and defence factors, in the form of surface proteins, secreted molecules, gut digestive enzymes, venom in specialised glands or plant latex, among other manifestations. Occurring as trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, collagenase, thrombin, subtilisin etc., it mediates a diverse array of functions, including pathological roles as inflammatory, coagulatory to haemorrhagic. This review emphasizes that despite the superficial differences in mechanisms, most health issues, be they infectious, allergic, metabolic, or neural have a common conduit. This enzyme, in its various glycosylated forms leads to signal misinterpretations, wreaking havoc. However, organisms are endowed with serine protease inhibitors which might restrain this ubiquitous yet deleterious enzyme. Hence, serine proteases-driven pathogenesis and antagonising role of inhibitors is the focal point of this critical review (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Serina Proteases/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/imunologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacocinética , Glicosilação , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia
5.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 44(6): 580-593, nov.-dic. 2016. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-157881

RESUMO

Currently, mankind is afflicted with diversified health issues, allergies being a common, yet little understood malady. Allergies, the outcome of a baffled immune system encompasses myriad allergens and causes an array of health consequences, ranging from transient to recurrent and mild to fatal. Indoor allergy is a serious hypersensitivity in genetically-predisposed people, triggered by ingestion, inhalation or mere contact of allergens, of which mite and cockroaches are one of the most-represented constituents. Arduous to eliminate, these aeroallergens pose constant health challenges, mostly manifested as respiratory and dermatological inflammations, leading to further aggravations if unrestrained. Recent times have seen an unprecedented endeavour to understand the conformation of these allergens, their immune manipulative ploys and other underlying causes of pathogenesis, most importantly therapies. Yet a large section of vulnerable people is ignorant of these innocuous-looking immune irritants, prevailing around them, and continues to suffer. This review aims to expedite this field by a concise, informative account of seminal findings in the past few years, with particular emphasis on leading frontiers like genome-wide association studies (GWAS), epitope mapping, metabolomics etc. Drawbacks linked to current approaches and solutions to overcome them have been proposed (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Pyroglyphidae/patogenicidade , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/epidemiologia , Baratas/patogenicidade , Serina Proteases/imunologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Metabolômica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos
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