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2.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(3): 161-166, jun. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182725

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evaluar si la exposición a episodios de polvo sahariano predice los ingresos hospitalarios de los pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca aguda (ICA) atendidos en un servicio de urgencias hospitalario (SUH). Método: Estudio unicéntrico, de cohorte retrospectiva, de pacientes con ICA atendidos en un SUH. La población de estudio se dividió en 2 grupos: pacientes ingresados por ICA y pacientes con ICA dados de alta directa a domicilio desde el SUH. Se analizaron las concentraciones medias de material partículado (PMx) (respirables, diámetro aerodinámico, da < 10 µm), PM2,5 (finas, da < 2,5 µm) y PM2,5-10 (gruesas, da 2,5-10 µm) desde el día de la llegada al SUH hasta 5 días previos. Se definió exposición intensa al polvo sahariano cuando las concentraciones medias diarias de PM10 estaban entre 50 y 200 µg/m3. La relación para estimar el riesgo de ingresar por ICA en función de la exposición de PMx durante los 5 días previos a su llegada a urgencias se analizó mediante análisis multivariable. Resultados: Se incluyeron 1.097 pacientes con ICA, ingresaron 318 pacientes (29%), 779 (71%) se dieron de alta. Los pacientes ingresados por ICA tenían mayor edad, elevada comorbilidad y mayor proporción de pacientes expuestos a episodios intensos de polvo sahariano (p < 0,0001). En el análisis multivariable la exposición a episodios de polvo sahariano intensos se relacionó con el ingreso hospitalario en los pacientes con ICA (OR = 2,36; IC 95% 1,21-4,58; p = 0,01). Conclusiones: En ausencia de estudios prospectivos, los resultados obtenidos de la serie analizada sugieren que la presencia de concentraciones elevadas de polvo sahariano (PM10: 50-200 µg/m3) puede constituir un factor precipitante de ingreso por ICA


Objective: To explore whether episodes of exposure to atmospheric Saharan dust is a risk factor for hospitalization in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) attended in a hospital emergency department (ED). Methods: Single-center retrospective study of patients with AHF. The cohort was analyzed in 2 groups: ED patients hospitalized with AHF and patients discharged home from the ED. Air pollution on the 5 days leading to ED admission for AHF was recorded as the average concentration of breathable particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of no more than 10 µm (PM10) in the following ranges: fine PM (diameter less than 2.5 µm) or coarse PM (diameters between 2.5 and 10 µm). High Saharan dust pollution exposure was defined by mean daily PM10 concentrations between 50 and 200 µg/m3. Multivariable analysis was used to estimate risk for AHF in relation to PM10 exposure in the 5 days before the ED visit. Results: A total of 1097 patients with AHF were treated in the ED; 318 of them (29%) were hospitalized and 779 (71%) were discharged home. Hospitalized patients were older, had more concomitant illnesses, and more episodes of exposure to Saharan dust (P < .0001). Multivariable analysis confirmed the association between Saharan dust exposure and hospital admission in these patients (odds ratio, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.21-4.58; P = .01). Conclusions: In the absence of prospective studies, the results of this series suggest that exposure to high levels of Saharan dust (PM10 concentrations between 50 and 200 µg/m3) may be a precipitating factor for hospitalization in AHF episodes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , 19045/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Hospitalização/tendências , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 46(6): 599-606, nov.-dic. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-177901

RESUMO

Introduction and Objectives: Aeroallergens are airborne organic substances which are responsible for allergenic diseases in hypersensitive individuals. People are exposed to their allergens either directly or after their entrance into the interiors. The spatio-temporal pattern of aeroallergens and their relationship with weather variability in Abuja and Nassarawa, North-Central Nigeria was studied. Materials and Methods: Aerosamples were trapped with modified Tauber-like pollen traps. Samples were collected monthly and centrifuged at 2500 rpm for 5 min and subjected to acetolysis. Meteorological data were collected from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency. Results and Conclusion: Aeroallergens concentration were unequivocally regulated by weather variables in both locations, indicating the possible use of aeroallergens especially pollen and spores as bio-indicators of weather variations and change. Aeroallergens encountered were fungal spores, pollen, diatom frustules, fern spores, algal cyst/cells in decreasing order of dominance. Among pollen group, Poaceae, Amarathaceae/Chenopodiaceae and Hymenocardia acida dominated. Spores of Smut species, Puccinia, Curvularia and Nigrospora were major contributors among aeromycoflora. Fungal spores morphotype dominated during the rainier months and were major contributors of the aeroallergen spectrum with those belonging to Deuteromycete preponderant. Aeroallergens which were previously identified as triggers of conjunctivitis, asthma, allergic sinusitis and bronchopulmonary allergic diseases were frequently present in both locations. Pollen prevailed more during the harmattan, influenced by northeast trade wind. Pollen component differed and was based on autochthonous source plants, indicating difference in sub-vegetational types


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Asma/imunologia , Material Particulado/imunologia , Pólen/imunologia , Esporos Fúngicos/imunologia , Alérgenos/química , Diatomáceas/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/química , Poaceae/imunologia , Pólen/química , Estações do Ano , Esporos Fúngicos/química , Ustilago/imunologia
5.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 46(2): 160-166, mar.-abr. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-172175

RESUMO

Background: This paper sought to evaluate individual exposure to air pollution by quantifying the carbon in alveolar macrophages (AMs) and its relationship to lung function. We also examined the proximity of participants' residences to the Presidente Dutra highway (PDH) in adolescents with asthma from Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: This descriptive study examined fifty 13- to 14-year-old adolescents with asthma identified by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) in Taubaté. These adolescents underwent spirometry and sputum induction via the inhalation of 3% hypertonic saline (HSS). Sputum was collected after each nebulisation, and forced expiratory flow in one second (FEV1) was measured. The collected sputum was stored and transported to the laboratory; it was then processed and analysed for ultrafine particles (≤100 nm). This analysis was correlated with the residence location and FEV1 of each adolescent. Results: A total of 39 adolescents completed the study. The comparison of the carbon fraction within macrophages (CA/MA) showed no differences according to residence in relation to the PDH (p=0.758). After adjustment, a mixed linear model with FEV1 as the dependent variable and CA/MA, location, and evaluation condition as the predictors found that the interactions among the variables were not significant. Conclusions:T he amount of carbon present within the AMs of adolescents with asthma was not correlated with either lung function or residence location. Evaluations of the topograghy and local climatic conditions in Taubaté should be considered in future studies (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/isolamento & purificação , Asma/epidemiologia , Fuligem/isolamento & purificação , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/epidemiologia , Fuligem/efeitos adversos , Geografia Médica
7.
Arch. bronconeumol. (Ed. impr.) ; 53(11): 616-621, nov. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-168679

RESUMO

Objetivos: La enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica es una enfermedad de alta prevalencia y una de las principales causas de muerte a nivel mundial. El presente trabajo analiza la relación de esta enfermedad con las variables meteorológicas y los niveles de contaminantes atmosféricos en Santander, atendiendo al origen y trayectoria de las masas de aire. Métodos: Se recogieron datos diarios de visitas a urgencias en el Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla de un periodo de 8 años, así como la concentración de los principales contaminantes atmosféricos y de las variables meteorológicas. Posteriormente se calcularon las retrotrayectorias con destino en Santander, a una altura de 1.500m sobre el nivel del terreno. Finalmente, se elaboró un modelo de correlación para evaluar el efecto de los contaminantes sobre las urgencias por EPOC. Resultados. Existe una asociación directa entre los niveles de PM10 y las urgencias por EPOC. Por cada 10 μg/m3 de aumento del contaminante, las urgencias incrementan un 3,34% (p = 0,00005), y el efecto se intensifica en las personas mayores de 74 años. Cuando los niveles de PM10 son dependientes de masas de aire procedentes del Sur, así como ante situaciones de recirculación, el efecto es mayor. Con el resto de contaminantes la relación con las urgencias no es estadísticamente significativa. Conclusiones: La exposición a PM10 provoca descompensaciones en los pacientes con EPOC. Atendiendo al patrón de circulación atmosférica se puede estimar si los niveles de PM10 van a ser elevados, y también se obtiene información sobre los componentes de las partículas (AU)


Objectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common respiratory condition and one of the leading causes of death. Our aim was to analyze the association between emergency room visits due to this disease and meteorological variables and atmospheric contaminant levels in Santander, depending on the origin and trajectory of air masses. Methods: Data from emergency room visits at Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla were collected on a daily basis during an 8-year period. Data on concentrations of the main atmospheric pollutants and meteorological variables were also recorded. Retro trajectories leading to Santander at a height of1,500 meters above sea level were then calculated. Finally, a correlation model was produced to evaluate the effect of the contaminants on emergency visits due to COPD. Results: There is a direct association between PM 10 levels and the number of visits to the emergency room due to COPD. For every 10μg/m3 increase in pollutant levels, emergency visits increase by 3.34% (p = 0.00005), and this effect is enhanced in individuals over 74 years of age. This effect is heightened when PM10 levels depend on air masses from the South and when air recirculation occurs. There is no association between other pollutants and the number of visits to the emergency room. Conclusions: Exposure to high levels of PM10 causes exacerbations in COPD patients. By studying the atmospheric circulation pattern, we can predict whether PM10 levels will be inappropriately high, and we can also obtain information about the particle components (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Climatografia
8.
J. physiol. biochem ; 72(4): 643-656, dic. 2016. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-168372

RESUMO

Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We argue whether the potentiating effect of PM2.5 over the development of T2DM in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice would be related to modification in cell stress response, particularly in antioxidant defenses and 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70) status. Male mice were fed standard chow or HFD for 12 weeks and then randomly exposed to daily nasotropic instillation of PM2.5 for additional 12 weeks under the same diet schedule, divided into four groups (n = 14-15 each): Control, PM2.5, HFD, and HFD + PM2.5 were evaluated biometric and metabolic profiles of mice, and cellular stress response (antioxidant defense and HSP70 status) of metabolic tissues. Extracellular to intracellular HSP70 ratio ([eHSP72]/[iHSP70]), viz. H-index, was then calculated. HFD + PM2.5 mice presented a positive correlation between adiposity, increased body weight and glucose intolerance, and increased glucose and triacylglycerol plasma levels. Pancreas exhibited lower iHSP70 expression, accompanied by 3.7-fold increase in the plasma to pancreas [eHSP72]/[iHSP70] ratio. Exposure to PM2.5 markedly potentiated metabolic dysfunction in HFD-treated mice and promoted relevant alteration in cell stress response assessed by [eHSP72]/[iHSP70], a relevant biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammatory state and T2DM risk (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP72/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco , Administração Intranasal , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Resistência à Insulina , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase
9.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 147(11): 481-487, dic. 2016. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-158467

RESUMO

Fundamentos y objetivo: La enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) es la segunda dolencia neurodegenerativa más frecuente y su etiología en las formas esporádicas es desconocida. El presente estudio analiza las variaciones temporales y geográficas en la mortalidad por EP en España a lo largo de los últimos 14 años, y la relación entre la mortalidad por EP y los niveles de plomo en las partículas del aire. Método: Se ha realizado un estudio ecológico en el que se han analizado las muertes por EP por grupos de edad, en las 50 provincias españolas entre 2000 y 2013. La tendencia anual de la mortalidad por EP se calculó mediante el test no paramétrico Rho de Spearman. Finalmente, se analizó la asociación entre los niveles de plomo y la mortalidad por EP. Resultados: Entre 2000 y 2013 fallecieron en España 36.180 pacientes con EP. Existe una tendencia ascendente en la mortalidad por EP a lo largo del período estudiado (p < 0,0001). La Rioja, Asturias, el País Vasco y el valle del Bajo Ebro acumulan la mayor incidencia de mortalidad por EP. En las regiones con más plomo, la tasa de mortalidad por EP en mayores de 64 años es superior (p = 0,02). Conclusiones: En la última década la mortalidad por EP ha aumentado en España, siendo la mitad norte del país la que registra una mayor incidencia. La mortalidad en varones fue mayor que en mujeres. Además, se encuentra una asociación entre los niveles de plomo en el aire y la tasa de mortalidad por EP (AU)


Background and objective: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and the etiology of its sporadic form is unknown. The present study analyzes the temporal and spatial variations of mortality by PD in Spain over a period of 14 years and its relationship with lead concentration levels in the atmosphere. Method: An ecological study was performed, in which deaths by PD and age group in 50 Spanish provinces between 2000 and 2013 were analyzed. The annual trend of PD mortality was assessed using the nonparametric Spearman’s Rho test. Finally, the relationship between lead concentration levels in the air and mortality by PD was evaluated. Results: Between 2000 and 2013, 36,180 patients with PD died in Spain. There is an increasing trend in mortality through PD over the study period (P < 0,0001). La Rioja, Asturias, Basque Country and the Lower Ebro valley were the regions with the highest values of PD mortality. Those regions with the highest lead concentrations also showed higher mortality by this disease in people over 64 (P = .02). Conclusions: Over our period of study, there has been an increase in mortality through PD in Spain, with the northernmost half of the country registering the highest values. Mortality in men was higher than mortality in women. Moreover, a direct correlation was found between lead levels in the air and mortality through PD (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/mortalidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
10.
Int. microbiol ; 19(2): 69-80, jun. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-158061

RESUMO

The air we breathe contains microscopic biological particles such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and pollen, some of them with relevant clinic importance. These organisms and/or their propagules have been traditionally studied by different disciplines and diverse methodologies like culture and microscopy. These techniques require time, expertise and also have some important biases. As a consequence, our knowledge on the total diversity and the relationships between the different biological entities present in the air is far from being complete. Currently, metagenomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) may resolve this shortage of information and have been recently applied to metropolitan areas. Although the procedures and methods are not totally standardized yet, the first studies from urban air samples confirm the previous results obtained by culture and microscopy regarding abundance and variation of these biological particles. However, DNA-sequence analyses call into question some preceding ideas and also provide new interesting insights into diversity and their spatial distribution inside the cities. Here, we review the procedures, results and perspectives of the recent works that apply NGS to study the main biological particles present in the air of urban environments (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Contaminação Biológica/análise , Metagenômica/métodos , Área Urbana , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Viral/análise , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
11.
Int. microbiol ; 19(1): 1-13, mar. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-157079

RESUMO

The first part of this review (‘Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 1: Importance, variability and ratios’) describes the current knowledge on the major biological particles present in the air regarding their global distribution, concentrations, ratios and influence of meteorological factors in an attempt to provide a framework for monitoring their biodiversity and variability in such a singular environment as the atmosphere. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, pollen and fragments thereof are the most abundant microscopic biological particles in the air outdoors. Some of them can cause allergy and severe diseases in humans, other animals and plants, with the subsequent economic impact. Despite the harsh conditions, they can be found from land and sea surfaces to beyond the troposphere and have been proposed to play a role also in weather conditions and climate change by acting as nucleation particles and inducing water vapour condensation. In regards to their global distribution, marine environments act mostly as a source for bacteria while continents additionally provide fungal and pollen elements. Within terrestrial environments, their abundances and diversity seem to be influenced by the land-use type (rural, urban, coastal) and their particularities. Temporal variability has been observed for all these organisms, mostly triggered by global changes in temperature, relative humidity, et cetera. Local fluctuations in meteorological factors may also result in pronounced changes in the airbiota. Although biological particles can be transported several hundreds of meters from the original source, and even intercontinentally, the time and final distance travelled are strongly influenced by factors such as wind speed and direction (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Biológicos , 32418/análise , Contaminação Biológica/análise , Genômica/métodos , Contagem de Partículas/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Biota , Aerossóis/análise , Mudança Climática
12.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 41(6): 369-373, nov.-dic. 2013. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-117066

RESUMO

Background: The immunological mechanism in aetiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) shows significant differences from other allergic diseases. Allergen inhalation exacerbates AD lesions and AD patients’ complaints decrease in house dust mite (HDM) low level environments, which reveals the importance of inhalant allergens. Objective: We evaluated the skin prick test (SPT) and atopy patch test (APT) positivity rates with aeroallergens and studied the effect of test results, and aimed to determine the value of allergic test reactivity on the clinical characteristics of children with AD. Methods: Forty-five children aged 2–15 years with AD were included to study between May 2006 and May 2007 in GATA Haydarpasa Teaching Hospital, Allergy Department. The reactivity to inhalant allergens using SPT and APT was evaluated. The severity of AD, which was assessed with SCORAD, was compared with aeroallergen hypersensitivity. Results: The highest positivity of APT was seen against HDM (48.9%). HDM SPT positivity and subjective symptoms score were statistically correlated (P < 0.05). Patients with strong SPT positivity to HDM had a higher total SCORAD score (P < 0.05). Although there was no statistical correlation between HDM APT and SCORAD parameters, APT positive patients had generally higher SCORAD parameters. The statistical significance was only shown between the extent of the disease and strong APT positive reactions to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Conclusion: HDM allergens play an important role in determining the clinical severity of AD and strong APT positivity could be more meaningful clinically (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Testes do Emplastro , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Testes Cutâneos
13.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 41(6): 381-386, nov.-dic. 2013. mapa, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-117068

RESUMO

Background: Exposure to house dust mites (HDMs) is a major risk factor for the development of allergic symptoms. HDMs are worldwide in distribution. Assessing these allergens in each area is a critical step in evaluating the risk of sensitisation and controlling allergic symptoms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the level of major HDMs, Der p 1 and Der f 1, in various parts of Iran. Methods: In 2009, 257 dust samples were obtained from living rooms’ carpets in seven cities throughout Iran with different geoclimatic conditions. The level of Der p 1 and Der f 1 was measured by commercial ELISA. Results: Detectable level of Der p 1 and Der f 1 levels were only found in Gorgan and Sari, two cities near the Caspian Sea with moderate temperatures and high relative humidity. In both of these cities, Der f 1 was more frequent than Der p 1 (100% vs. 85%) and was found to be at a higher level than Der p 1 (geometric mean 3128 vs. 439 ng/g dust, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study confirm that house dust mites in Iran are restricted to the Caspian Sea coastal areas, and in other parts, due to seasonal variations of temperature and humidity mites are not able to grow well and therefore are not an important risk factor for sensitisation and respiratory allergies (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Poeira/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Pyroglyphidae/patogenicidade , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 31(4): 217-221, abr. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-112047

RESUMO

Introduction In order to assess the relationship between the concentrations of airborne fungi and particles, particle counting was combined with fungal air sampling in several rooms of a hospital. Methods Concentrations of ≥0.5μm particles (P05) and ≥1μm particles (P1) were measured using a particle counter; fungal air sampling was performed with volumetric air samplers, which impacted air on Rodac plates with Sabouraud chloramphenicol agar. Particle counts were categorised according to ISO 14644-1 standard cut-off points; their association with fungal detection was assessed with Fisher's exact test. Results Forty-two simultaneous samplings were carried out: 24 in operating rooms, 13 in rooms for burns or haematology patients, 3 in pharmacy clean rooms, and two in other procedure rooms. Filamentous fungi were recovered in 5 samples, which also had higher particle counts. No fungi were detected in 12 samplings with both P05 and P1 concentrations below the maximum for class 6 clean rooms; 4 of 7 samplings with both concentrations within the range for class 8 clean rooms were positive for fungi. The association between fungal detection and higher particle counts was statistically significant, both for P05 (p=.004) and P1 (p=.003). There was a partial overlap between the concentrations of particles of samplings which were positive or negative for fungi. Conclusions There is a relationship between the concentrations of P05 and P1 and airborne fungi in hospital rooms. When both P05 and P1 concentrations are below the maximum for class 6 clean rooms, a negative fungal detection can be predicted (AU)


Introducción Para evaluar la relación entre las concentraciones de esporas de hongos y de partículas vehiculados por aire, el recuento de partículas se añadió al estudio microbiológico del aire de varias salas de un hospital. Métodos Las concentraciones de partículas ≥0,5μm (P05) y ≥1μm (P1) se midieron con contador de partículas; el muestreo para estudio microbiológico se efectuó con aspiradores volumétricos que impactaban aire sobre placas Rodac con agar Sabouraud cloranfenicol. Los recuentos de partículas se categorizaron según puntos de corte de norma ISO 14644-1; su asociación con la detección de hongos se evaluó con la prueba exacta de Fisher. Resultados Se realizaron 42 muestreos simultáneos: 24 en quirófanos, 13 en habitaciones para pacientes quemados o hematológicos, 3 en salas blancas de farmacia y 2 en salas para otros procedimientos. Se aislaron hongos filamentosos en 5 muestreos, cuyas concentraciones de partículas fueron superiores. No se detectaron hongos en 12 muestreos con concentraciones de clase 6 de P05 y P1; sí se detectaron en 4 de 7 muestreos con concentraciones de ambas partículas de clase 8. La asociación entre detección de hongos y recuentos elevados de partículas fue estadísticamente significativa para P05 (p=0,004) y P1 (p=0,003). Hubo una superposición parcial de las concentraciones de partículas de los muestreos con y sin detección de hongos. Conclusiones En salas hospitalarias hay una asociación entre concentraciones de P05, P1 y hongos en aire. Concentraciones de P05 y P1 inferiores al máximo para salas de clase 6 pueden predecir ausencia de detección de hongos (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Análise do Ar , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , /métodos , Carga Bacteriana/métodos , Poluição do Ar
15.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 39(6): 330-336, nov.-dic. 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-92339

RESUMO

Background: A previous survey on allergens used by Mexican allergists in their skin prick test (SPT) panel showed wide variation. Humidity varies in different zones of Mexico. This might lead to differences in natural exposure and allergic sensitisation throughout the country. We aim to describe the SPT sensitivity patterns in the different climatic zones in Mexico and to show the usefulness of a structured SPT chart-review including multiple clinics in obtaining these allergen sensitisation patterns. Methods: A retrospective, structured chart-review of SPT results was undertaken in allergy clinics throughout Mexico. Ratios of SPT positivity were calculated for individual allergens, per climatic zone and nation-wide. Per allergen group the most important allergens were identified. Statistically significant differences between zones and the nation-wide data were tested with Pearson's Chi-squares test. Results: 4169 skin test charts were recollected. The most important allergens causing sensitisation were very similar in different zones, despite climate variation. The allergen with highest ratio of SPT positivity was Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (51%), with trees (Ash-27%, Alder-22%, Oak19%), and Bermuda grass (26%) as second and third. In the hot zones (humid and dry) Aspergillus was statistically significant more frequently than in more temperate zones. Cockroaches thrive in big cities and humid zones and Mesquite and Poplar in dry zones. Weeds are less important. Conclusion: Mexico has its own SPT sensitisation pattern, which is different from America and Europe. A structured chart-review of SPT results is able to show this and might be a tool for allergists in other countries (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Testes Cutâneos/estatística & dados numéricos , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/diagnóstico , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Pyroglyphidae/patogenicidade
16.
Arch. prev. riesgos labor. (Ed. impr.) ; 14(2): 88-95, abr.-jun. 2011. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-88587

RESUMO

Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la asociación entre la exposición a polvo de tiza y trastornos respiratoriosen un colectivo de maestros.Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado entre enero y mayo de 2010 a una muestra de 420 maestros de siete colegios delas provincias de Barcelona, Girona, Navarra y Valencia que contestaron un cuestionario auto-cumplimentado sobre factoresdeterminantes de la exposición a polvo de tiza y trastornos respiratorios. Se evaluaron las asociaciones entre seis variablesindicadoras de exposición a polvo de tiza y siete variables relacionadas con efectos adversos sobre el aparato respiratorio.Se calcularon odds ratio de prevalencia (ORP) e intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC95%) mediante regresión logísticamultivariada, ajustando por las variables sexo, edad, hábito tabáquico e índice de masa corporal.Resultados: La tasa de respuesta fue del 96,7%. El 68% de los maestros usaban tiza durante al menos una hora al díay un 24% sacudía el borrador en clase. Los trastornos más prevalentes fueron afonía, sintomatología frecuente de vías altas(SFRS) y bronquitis crónica. Sacudir y/o usar frecuentemente el borrador y/o usar tiza en clase se asoció significativamentea una mayor prevalencia de sibilancias (ORPa=4,04; IC95%=1,73-9,42), infecciones respiratorias frecuentes (IRF)(ORPa=5,64; IC95%=1,32-24,04), SFRS (ORPa=2,42; IC95%=1,33-4,43) y afonía (ORPa=1,75; IC95%=1,01-3,04). Parasibilancias, IRF, SFRS y afonía la prevalencia disminuyó con la edad.Conclusiones: Los trastornos respiratorios se asocian a la exposición al polvo de tiza. La relación inversa con la edadpara sibilancias, IRF, SFRS y afonía sugiere un efecto de selección, debiéndose investigar si hay maestros que abandonan laprofesión por motivos de salud respiratoria(AU)


Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between exposure to chalk dust and respiratory tractsymptoms and diseases in a sample of school teachers.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and May 2010, in a sample of 420 teachers of sevenschools from Barcelona, Girona, Navarra and Valencia who answered a self-administrated questionnaire, focused on determinantsof chalk dust occupational exposure, respiratory disorders and demographic variables. We evaluated the associationsbetween six variables related with determinants of chalk dust occupational exposure and seven respiratory tract symptomsand diseases. Odds ratio of prevalence (ORP) and confidence intervals 95% (IC 95%) were calculated using multivariatelogistic regressions to assess the associations, adjusting by the variables sex, age, smoking and body mass index (BMI).Results: Overall survey response rate was 96.7%. The percentage of teachers who used chalk for at least an hour a day was68% and 24% indicated shaking the eraser in class to eliminate the adhered dust. The most prevalent disorders were hoarseness,frequent upper respiratory tract symptoms (FURS) and chronic bronchitis. Shaking and/or frequent use of the eraser and/or using chalk in class was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of wheezing (ORPa=4.04;IC95%=1.73-9.42),frequent respiratory infections (FRI) (ORPa=5.64;IC95%=1.32-24.04), FURS (ORPa=2.42;IC95%=1.33-4.43), and hoarseness(ORPa=1.75;IC95%=1.01-3.04). The prevalence of wheezing, FRI, FURS and hoarseness decreased with age.Conclusions: Respiratory disorders are associated with exposure to chalk dust among teachers. The inverse relationshipwith age for wheezing, FRI, FURS and hoarseness suggests a selection effect, and justifies research to determine whetherteachers are leaving the profession because of respiratory health(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Riscos Ocupacionais , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Caulim/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Respiratórios/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Risco , Exposição Ocupacional , Docentes
17.
Arch. bronconeumol. (Ed. impr.) ; 47(4): 190-194, abr. 2011. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-88809

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evaluar la contaminación por humo ambiental de tabaco mediante la medición de PM2.5 enuna muestra de locales de hostelería de la ciudad de Zaragoza, Espa˜na.Material y métodos: Estudio transversal observacional realizado entre octubre de 2006 y abril de 2008en locales de hostelería de Zaragoza. Para las mediciones de partículas PM2.5 se empleó un monitorSidePack Aerosol Monitor (modelo AM510). Se realizó una medición en el interior y otra en el exterior,y se recogieron las siguientes variables observacionales: se˜nalización sobre la permisividad de fumar;división (física o funcional) entre áreas de fumadores y no fumadores; porcentaje de personas que fumanrespecto al total; presencia de ceniceros, colillas o personas fumando en zonas y locales de no fumadores.Resultados: Se incluyeron 111 locales. La concentración de partículas fue casi 8 veces mayor en loslocales de fumador que en los de no fumadores y superior a la del exterior. La correlación encontradaentre concentración de partículas y porcentaje de fumadores fue de 0,61 (p < 0,01). La concentración departículas en las zonas de no fumadores de los locales sin separación física (separación funcional) fue eldoble que en el exterior y similar a la de las zonas de fumadores cuando hay separaciones físicas.Conclusión: Las separaciones funcionales no protegen frente al humo de tabaco ambiental, sólo los lugarestotalmente libres de humo son eficaces para disminuir este riesgo. La medición de PM2.5 puede serun método sencillo para evaluar la existencia de humo ambiental de tabaco(AU)


Objective: To estimate the levels of small breathable suspended particles (PM2.5) as atmospheric markersof environmental tobacco smoke in catering establishments in Zaragoza, Spain.Material and method: An observational study was conducted between October 2006 and April 2008 invarious catering establishments in Zaragoza. A SidePack Aerosol Monitor (AM510 model) was used tosample and record the levels of breathable suspended particles (PM2.5) indoors and outdoors, and thefollowing variables were collected: smoking policy (smoking allowed, completely banned, or partiallybanned with non-smoking sections, physically separated or not); percentage of smokers and presence ofcigarette ends, ashtrays or smokers in non-smoking sections.Results: A total of 111 venues were sampled. The level ofPM2.5 was eight times higher in smoking venuesthan in non-smoking ones and also higher than outdoors. The correlation between the level of particlesand percentage of smokers was 0.61 (P < .01). In the non- smoking sections without physical separationthe level of particles was twice as much as outdoors and similar to physically separated smokers sections.Conclusion: Only a complete ban on smoking in all workplaces, including leisure venues, has been shownto have a positive effect on workers and customers health. The measurement of PM2.5 can be a simplemethod to assess the presence of environmental tobacco smoke(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/métodos , Material Particulado/estatística & dados numéricos , Condições de Trabalho , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Estudos Transversais , Sinais e Sintomas , Análise Estatística , Saúde Ambiental/tendências
18.
Med. oral patol. oral cir. bucal (Internet) ; 16(2): 210-214, mar. 2011. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-92988

RESUMO

Objective: A review is made of the publications on bone regeneration using particulate grafts, with an evaluationof the success of implants placed in such regenerated areas.Material and Method: A Medline search using different key words was made of the articles published between1999-2009 involving at least two patients subjected to grafting with autologous, homologous or xenogenic bone,non-bony substitutes, or a combination of these grafts for the placement of dental implants. Studies involvingblock grafting were excluded. A total of 11 studies were evaluated.Results: These grafts are indicated in cases of small or peri-implant bone defects such as dehiscences and fenestrations,with the possibility of combining a barrier membrane. However, some authors have used particulate blockgrafts to secure vertical or horizontal increments of the alveolar process. In most of these cases, graft healing untilimplant placement lasted 6-9 months. The most frequent complications in the receptor zone were wound dehiscenceswith exposure of the membrane. In almost all cases, prosthetic loading of the implants took place more thanthree months after their placement. The implant survival rate varied from 90.9% to 100%, with an implantationsuccess rate of 85.7% to 100%.Conclusions: Although our sample is small, due to the difficulty of finding homogeneous studies, it can be concludedthat particulate grafts are effective in correcting localized defects of the alveolar process. The complicationsof particulate grafting are few, and the success rate of implants placed in the reconstructed areas varies from85.7% to 100% (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Regeneração Óssea/fisiologia , Transplante Ósseo , Implantação Dentária/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Material Particulado/uso terapêutico
19.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 24(6): 466-472, nov.-dic. 2010. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-97547

RESUMO

Objetivo Evaluar la eficiencia predictiva de modelos estadísticos paramétricos y no paramétricos para predecir episodios críticos de contaminación por material particulado PM10 del día siguiente, que superen en Santiago de Chile la norma de calidad diaria. Una predicción adecuada de tales episodios permite a la autoridad decretar medidas restrictivas que aminoren la gravedad del episodio, y consecuentemente proteger la salud de la comunidad. Método Se trabajó con las concentraciones de material particulado PM10 registradas en una estación asociada a la red de monitorización de la calidad del aire MACAM-2, considerando 152 observaciones diarias de 14 variables, y con información meteorológica registrada durante los años 2001 a 2004. Se ajustaron modelos estadísticos paramétricos Gamma usando el paquete estadístico STATA v11, y no paramétricos usando una demo del software estadístico MARS v 2.0 distribuida por Salford-Systems. Resultados Ambos métodos de modelación presentan una alta correlación entre los valores observados y los predichos. Los modelos Gamma presentan mejores aciertos que MARS para las concentraciones de PM10 con valores <240μg/m3 para el año 2001, y los modelos MARS presentan mejores aciertos para aquellas que exceden los 240μg/m3 de PM10 para todos los años. Conclusiones Los modelos MARS son más eficientes para predecir episodios graves de alta contaminación por PM10 y posibilitan a la autoridad sanitaria adoptar restricciones preventivas que aminoren su efecto sobre la salud de la población. Esto se explicaría porque MARS corrige las variaciones de la serie a lo largo del tiempo, ajustando mejor la curva asociada a la concentración de PM10 (AU)


Objective To evaluate the predictive efficiency of two statistical models (one parametric and the other non-parametric) to predict critical episodes of air pollution exceeding daily air quality standards in Santiago, Chile by using the next day PM10 maximum 24h value. Accurate prediction of such episodes would allow restrictive measures to be applied by health authorities to reduce their seriousness and protect the community’s health. Methods We used the PM10 concentrations registered by a station of the Air Quality Monitoring Network (152 daily observations of 14 variables) and meteorological information gathered from 2001 to 2004. To construct predictive models, we fitted a parametric Gamma model using STATA v11 software and a non-parametric MARS model by using a demo version of Salford-Systems. Results Both models showed a high correlation between observed and predicted values. However, the Gamma model predicted PM10 values below 240μg/m3 more accurately than did MARS. The latter was more efficient in predicting PM10 values above 240μg/m3 throughout the study period. Conclusion MARS models are more efficient in predicting extreme PM10 values and allow health authorities to adopt preventive methods to reduce the effects of these levels on the population’s health. The reason for this greater accuracy may be that MARS models correct variations in the series over time, thus better fitting the curve associated with PM10 concentrations (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Modelos Ambientais/métodos , Qualidade Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Previsões/métodos
20.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 23(3): 192-197, mayo-jun. 2009. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-110739

RESUMO

Introducción: La Organización Mundial de la Salud establece como valor límite anual para la concentración de partículas PM2,5 en el aire el valor de 10µg/m3. No obstante, en algunas grandes ciudades, como Madrid, este valor prácticamente se duplica, con el consiguiente impacto sobre la morbimortalidad. Objetivo: Analizar y cuantificar el impacto que las PM2,5 tienen sobre los ingresos hospitalarios diarios en la ciudad de Madrid en niños menores de 10 años. Material y métodos: Se analizan los ingresos diarios en el servicio de urgencias del Hospital Gregorio Marañón de Madrid, por todas las causas menos accidentes (CIE-10: A00-R99) en el período 2003-2005, tanto para menores de 10 años como de un año. La metodología de análisis es la regresión de Poisson. Se controla por contaminación atmosférica química, acústica y polínica, así como por autocorrelación, tendencias, estacionalidades, días de la semana y epidemias de gripe. Resultados: Las PM2,5 son el único contaminante primario que aparece relacionado con los ingresos hospitalarios en la modelización. El riesgo relativo asociado a un incremento de 10µg/m3 fue de 1,03 (intervalo de confianza [IC95%]: 1,00-1,05) para el grupo de menores de 10 años y de 1,03 (IC95%]: 1,00-1,06) para menores de un año. Los riesgos atribuibles fueron del 2,7 y el 2,8%, respectivamente. Conclusión: Las PM2,5 son un excelente indicador de los efectos en salud de contaminantes primarios. Se pone de manifiesto la necesidad de implementar medidas para la reducción de PM2,5 en la atmósfera de las grandes ciudades (AU)


Introduction: The last report of World Health Organization's Air Quality Guidelines establishes a value of 10µg/m3 as the annual mean particulate PM2.5 concentration. However, in large cities such as Madrid, this value is doubled and consequently an association between PM2.5 values and effects on morbidity and mortality is to be expected. Objective: To analyze and quantify the influence of PM2.5 concentrations on daily hospital admissions in 0-10-year-olds in Madrid. Material and methods: We analyzed the daily number of emergency hospital admissions for all causes (ICD-10: A00-R99) except traumatisms to the Gregorio Marañón General University Hospital in Madrid from 2003 to 2005. The age groups analyzed were 0-10 years and 0-1 year. A longitudinal ecological analysis of time series was performed using Poisson Regression Models. Seasonalities, trends, days of the week, and autocorrelation between morbidity series were controlled. Influenza epidemics, air pollutants, and noise and pollen concentrations were used as control variables. Results: The only primary pollutant found to be statistically significant in the models was PM2.5 concentration. The relative risk associated with an increase of 10µg/m3 in PM2.5 concentration was 1.03 (95%CI 1.00-1.05) for children less than 10 years old and 1.03 (95%CI 1.00-1.06) for infants less than 1 year old. The attributable risk was 2.7 and 2.8%, respectively. Conclusions: PM2.5 concentrations are an excellent indicator of the health impact of primary pollutants in Madrid. The results obtained demonstrate the need to implement measures to reduce PM2.5 concentrations in the atmosphere in large cities (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos de Séries Temporais , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança Hospitalizada/estatística & dados numéricos
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