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1.
Rev. esp. enferm. dig ; 111(12): 941-945, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190538

RESUMO

Background: interleukin-37 (IL-37) is as a natural suppressor of the innate inflammatory and immune responses. It has also been reported to be involved in carcinogenesis and metastasis. The present case-control study was designed to investigate the role of serum levels of IL-37 in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: serum IL-37 levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 180 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and 100 healthy controls. The association between IL-37 levels and clinical factors was assessed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the prognostic significance of these parameters in gastric cancer. Results: serum IL-37 levels in gastric cancer patients (5.606 +/- 0.837 pg/ml) were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (2.364 +/- 0.210 pg/ml, p < 0.001). High serum IL-37 levels were related to a poorly differentiated histologic type (p = 0.046) and advanced T stage (p = 0.003). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the high-IL-37 group had a poorer overall survival and progression-free survival (overall survival [OS]: 39.0 months vs 13.0 months, p < 0.001, progression-free survival [PFS]: 25.0 months vs 10.0 months, p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses showed serum IL-37 to be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients (OS: hazard ratios [HR] = 1.842, 95% CI: 1.190-2.854, p = 0.006; PFS: HR = 1.547, 95% CI: 1.014-2.359, p = 0.043). Conclusions: in conclusion, serum IL-37 levels were associated with poor overall survival and progression-free survival in gastric cancer patients. IL-37 may be a potential predictor of prognosis in gastric cancer


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Interleucinas/análise , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Prognóstico , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 47(5): 506-512, sept.-oct. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-186526

RESUMO

Hypersensitivity occurs when the body is stimulated by an antigen, resulting in an immune response, and leads to a physiological disorder or abnormal tissue trauma. Various immune cells, cytokines, and inflammatory mediators are involved in the immune responses related to allergic diseases, which are the core of anaphylaxis. Estrogen receptors are widely distributed in immune cells, which combine with estrogen and participate in allergic responses by affecting immune cells, cytokines, and inflammatory factors. We aimed to summarize the association between estrogen and allergic reactions to provide a scientific basis for understanding and studying the mechanisms of allergic diseases


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Anafilaxia/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Mastócitos/imunologia , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Células Th2/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Imunidade Celular , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Rev. esp. enferm. dig ; 111(10): 744-749, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190446

RESUMO

Introducción: para el correcto manejo de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) precisamos de marcadores no invasivos, fiables y sencillos que permitan detectar la actividad inflamatoria de forma precoz. Uno de estos marcadores biológicos podría ser la calprotectina sérica (CS). Material y métodos: inclusión prospectiva de pacientes con EII que iban a realizarse una colonoscopia por práctica clínica habitual. Se determinaron: CS, calprotectina fecal (CF) y parámetros analíticos convencionales. Se realizaron los índices clínicos (Harvey y Walmsley) así como los endoscópicos correspondientes en cada escenario (Simple Endoscopic Score Crohn Disease [SES-CD] y Mayo). Resultados: se incluyeron 53 pacientes; el 51% (27 pacientes) con colitis ulcerosa (CU) y el 49% (26 pacientes) con enfermedad de Crohn (EC). En CU los valores de CS fueron significativamente superiores con actividad endoscópica Mayo 2/3 (mediana 10,39 mg/ml [IQR: 7,4-12,2]) frente aquellos con Mayo 0/1 (mediana 4,07mg/ml [IQR: 2,9-7,2]) (p = 0,01). El área bajo la curva ROC (AUCROC) fue 0,85, obteniendo para un punto de corte de CS de 4,4 mg/dl una sensibilidad y especificidad del 83,3% y 81,25%, respectivamente. Además, al comparar con otros marcadores serológicos de actividad (proteína C reactiva [PCR], velocidad de sedimentación globular [VSG], hemoglobina [Hb] y plaquetas) se obtuvo un AUCROC superior. Cuando comparamos la CS con los hallazgos endoscópicos en EC, no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas (SES CD > 3: 20,1 [IQR: 16,8-23,4] vs. SESC ≤ 3:6,25 [IQR: 5,4-7,1]) (p = 0,8). Conclusiones: la CS es un buen marcador indirecto de la actividad inflamatoria y existe correlación con los hallazgos endoscópicos en CU, aunque sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas en EC


Introduction: simple, reliable and non-invasive biomarkers are needed to enable the early detection of inflammatory activity for the correct management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). One of these biomarkers may be serum calprotectin (SC). Material and methods: a prospective study was performed of patients with IBD due to undergo a colonoscopy as part of the common clinical practice. The study parameters included SC, fecal calprotectin (FC) and conventional blood test parameters. Clinical indices (Harvey and Walmsley) and relevant endoscopic scores were completed for each scenario (Simple Endoscopic Score Crohn Disease [SES-CD] and Mayo). Results: fifty-three patients were included in the study, 51% (27 patients) with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 49% (26 patients) with Crohn's disease (CD). The CS values in UC were significantly higher with an endoscopic Mayo score 2/3 (median score 10.39 mg/ml [IQR: 7.4-12.2]) compared to those with a Mayo score of 0/1 (median 4.07 mg/ml [IQR: 2.9-7.2]) (p = 0.01). The area under the ROC curve (AUCROC) was 0.85 and the sensitivity and specificity were 83.3% and 81.25%, respectively, for a SC cut-off point of 4.4 mg/dl. Furthermore, a higher AUCROC was obtained in comparison with other serological markers for activity (C-reactive protein [CRP], erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], hemoglobin [Hb] and platelets). There were no statistically significant differences in the comparison between SC and endoscopic findings in CD (SES CD > 3: 20.1 [IQR: 16.8-23.4] vs SESC ≤ 3:6.25 [IQR: 5.4-7.1]) (p = 0.8). Conclusions: SC is a good indirect marker of inflammatory activity and there was a correlation with endoscopic findings in UC. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the case of CD


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Colite Ulcerativa/fisiopatologia , Doença de Crohn/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Colonoscopia/métodos , Valores de Referência , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 72(9): 767-773, sept. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189136

RESUMO

Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) son una manifestación clínica de la ateroesclerosis, una enfermedad inflamatoria que se agrava en presencia de diferentes factores de riesgo como la dislipemia o la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Los eventos cardiovasculares agudos son resultado de un proceso inflamatorio crónico no resuelto que facilita la rotura de placas inestables. Los tratamientos existentes reducen los factores de riesgo, pero no previenen los eventos isquémicos recurrentes en pacientes con riesgo residual inflamatorio caracterizado por altas concentraciones de proteína C reactiva. Una mejor comprensión del papel de la inmunidad innata y adaptativa en la ateroesclerosis ha llevado a la investigación de tratamientos antiinflamatorios para la ECV. Algunos ensayos clínicos consisten en la evaluación de dosis bajas de fármacos diseñados para otras enfermedades inflamatorias sistémicas con alto riesgo de ECV, como la artritis reumatoide y la soriasis. Otras investigaciones son estudios restrospectivos y metanálisis de la incidencia de ECV en ensayos clínicos que han evaluado diferentes fármacos en las enfermedades. Otras terapia, sin embargo, se basan en ensayos preclínicos, como las vacunas. En este manuscrito se resumen las principales estrategias antiinflamatorias y los mecanismos moleculares asociados que se están evaluando en ensayos clínicos o preclínicos


Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease promoted by several risk factors such as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and smoking. Acute CVD events are the result of an unresolved inflammatory chronic state that promotes the rupture of unstable plaque lesions. Of note, the existing intensive therapies modify risk factors but do not prevent life-threatening recurrent ischemic events in high-risk patients, who have a residual inflammatory risk displayed by increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Better understanding of the role of innate and adaptive immunity in plaque development and rupture has led to intensive investigation of anti-inflammatory strategies for CVD. Some of them are being tested in specific clinical trials and use lower doses of existing medications originally developed for other inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, which have high CVD risk. Other investigations are retrospective and meta-analyses of existing clinical trials that evaluate the incidence of CVD in these inflammatory diseases. Others are based on preclinical testing such as vaccines. In this article, we summarize the main anti-inflammatory strategies and associated molecular mechanisms that are being evaluated in preclinical or clinical CVD studies


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/complicações , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 72(6): 487-494, jun. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188410

RESUMO

En los últimos años ha emergido un interés creciente sobre la relación entre el cáncer y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. El aumento de la esperanza de vida de ambas enfermedades ha condicionado su coexistencia cada vez más frecuente en un mismo paciente, con lo cual se ponen de relieve reacciones adversas farmacológicas que suponen un mayor riesgo para los pacientes. Esto es especialmente relevante en el caso de la ateroesclerosis, que parece compartir un sustrato fisiopatológico común con el cáncer. En esta revisión se analizan estos factores de riesgo comunes y de forma específica la relación entre los diferentes tratamientos del cáncer y el riesgo de enfermedad coronaria o cerebrovascular, así como la evidencia científica actual sobre la posible relación entre la terapia antiagregante y el riesgo de cáncer. Se repasan también de manera bidireccional la incidencia y el pronóstico del cáncer en pacientes con ateroesclerosis y viceversa, documentado en la información de los últimos estudios publicados en el campo de la cardiooncología


In the last few years, there has been growing interest in the relationship between cancer and cardiovascular disease. The increase in life expectancy in both diseases has led to their frequent coexistence in the same patient, which can lead to adverse drug reactions that increase patient risk. This is especially relevant in the case of atherosclerosis, which seems to share a common pathophysiological substrate with cancer. In this review, we analyze these common risk factors, and specifically analyze the relationship between different cancer treatments with the risk of coronary or cerebrovascular disease, as well as the current scientific evidence on the possible relationship between antiplatelet therapy and cancer risk. We also review the incidence and prognosis of cancer in patients with atherosclerosis and vice versa, based on the information reported in the most recently published studies in the field of cardio-oncology


Assuntos
Humanos , Aterosclerose/complicações , Neoplasias/complicações , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/complicações , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Hiperlipidemias/complicações , Incidência
7.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 47(3): 209-213, mayo-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-186479

RESUMO

Introduction: There is accumulated evidence supporting a beneficial role of Mediterranean diet (MD) in the control of asthma symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between adherence to MD and serum levels of certain cytokines namely, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-17 known to have a pathogenetic role in the airway changes associated with asthma. Methods: We measured serum IL-4, IL-33, and IL-17, in 44 asthmatic and 26 healthy children, 5-15 years old. Their adherence to MD was estimated with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents (KIDMED) score. Results: KIDMED score did not differ between the two groups (P = 0.59) and was not correlated with any of the three measured cytokines. However, when the analysis was restricted only to asthmatic children, the KIDMED score was correlated with IL-4, IL-33, and IL-17 (Beta: -0.56, P = 0.007; Beta: 0.57, P = 0.010; Beta: -0.62, P = 0.017, respectively). Conclusion: Our results indicate that MD can modulate the production of some of the main inflammatory mediators of asthma, in asthmatic children


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Asma/dietoterapia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Asma/epidemiologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Interleucina-17/sangue , Interleucina-4/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 47(2): 185-193, mar.-abr. 2019. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-180808

RESUMO

Introduction: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of myrtenol on the inflammatory indices in the pulmonary parenchyma and airways and on the inflammatory and oxidative indices of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of asthmatic rats. Methods: The allergic asthma was induced by sensitization (two weeks) followed by the inhalation of ovalbumin (four weeks). Animals were divided into two main groups: (1) Histopathology, and (2) measurement of inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers in the BALF. Each main group was subdivided into four subgroups: Control, Asthma, Asthma+Dexamethasone and Asthma + Myrtenol. (-)-Myrtenol (50 mg/kg) or Dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally once a day for one week, at the end of the inhalation period. On day 50, lung histopathologic parameters and inflammatory indices in BALF including INF-gamma, IL-10, IL-1Beta, and TNF-alfa and oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD, and GPX) were measured. Result: In the Asthma group, leukocyte infiltration, the thickness of smooth muscle and epithelium of airways wall and the number of goblet cells increased. Myrtenol reduced all of the above-mentioned indices except the epithelium thickness. It also inhibited the increase in BALF IL-1Beta, TNF-alfa and MDA and increased the levels of INF-gamma, IL-10 and SOD. Conclusion: Our results suggest that myrtenol reduced damage caused by experimental asthma by reducing the inflammatory indices, normalizing the level of interleukins and balancing oxidative stress in the lungs. It also prevented airway remodeling. Myrtenol may be suggested as a potent herbal medicine for the treatment of allergic asthma


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Células Caliciformes/patologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Monoterpenos/uso terapêutico , Movimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Rev. senol. patol. mamar. (Ed. impr.) ; 32(1): 17-25, ene.-mar. 2019. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187029

RESUMO

A pesar de los avances conseguidos en el tratamiento del cáncer de mama, todavía sigue siendo una causa importante de mortalidad en las mujeres. Por tanto, resulta necesario plantear nuevos enfoques de la fisiopatología de la enfermedad que contribuyan a realizar una mejor evaluación pronóstica, y a la mejora de las estrategias terapéuticas. Para ello, deberíamos considerar que el cáncer no es solo una transformación maligna de las células epiteliales y su progresión meramente autónoma; sino que, hoy en día, existen datos que apoyan el concepto del cáncer como un ecosistema basado en una sociología de diferentes tipos celulares, con sus interacciones complejas. Entre los diversos tipos de células que conforman el estroma tumoral, y que tienen un papel relevante en la progresión del cáncer de mama, se encuentran los fibroblastos asociados al cáncer, las células inflamatorias y las células endoteliales. Existen diferentes factores moleculares expresados por esas células que se asocian con el desarrollo de metástasis, tales como las metaloproteasas de matriz y sus inhibidores tisulares, citoquinas o receptores tipo toll. En base a la expresión de todos ellos, aquí proponemos 2 fenotipos de estroma del cáncer de mama con influencias marcadamente diferentes sobre el pronóstico de las pacientes. También analizamos los mecanismos involucrados en la interrelación tumor-estroma que pueden llevarnos a mejorar las estrategias terapéuticas en el cáncer de mama


Despite advances in the treatment of breast cancer, it remains an important cause of mortality in women. Therefore, it is necessary to propose new approaches to the pathophysiology of the disease that could help to improve prognostic evaluation and therapeutic strategies. To do this, we should consider that cancer is not only a malignant transformation of the epithelial cells or their purely autonomous growth; nowadays, there are data that support the concept of cancer as a system based on a sociology of different cell types, with complex interactions. Among the various types of cells that make up the tumour stroma and which play an important role in the progression of breast cancer are cancer-associated fibroblasts, inflammatory cells and endothelial cells. Several molecular factors expressed by these cells are associated with the development of metastases, such as matrix metalloproteases and their tissue inhibitors, cytokines or toll-like receptors. Based on the expression of all of these factors, here we propose two types of stroma from breast cancer that display markedly different influences on patient prognosis. We also analyse mechanisms involved in the tumour-stroma interrrelationship that could help to improve therapeutic strategies in breast cancer


Assuntos
Humanos , Células Estromais/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Prognóstico , Receptores Toll-Like/análise , Junções Intercelulares/patologia
10.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 47(1): 16-23, ene.-feb. 2019. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-180766

RESUMO

Background: The effects of rosmarinic acid (RA) on immunological and inflammatory mediator levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as lung pathological changes in asthmatic rats were investigated. Methods: The levels of IFN-gama, IL-4, IFN-gama/IL-4 ratio, IgE, PLA2, and total protein (TP) in BALF and pathological changes in the lung were evaluated in control group (C), asthma group (sensitized to ovalbumin) (A), asthma groups treated with RA and dexamethasone. Results: Compared to the control group, asthmatic rats showed increased levels of IL-4, IgE, PLA2, and TP as well as all pathological scores with decreased levels of IFN-gama and IFN-gama/IL-4 ratio (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). The levels of IL-4, IgE, PLA2, and TP significantly reduced in groups treated with all concentrations of RA compared to asthma group (P < 0.001 for all cases). IFN-gama was significantly decreased in groups treated with two lower concentrations of RA but IFN-gama/IL-4 ratio was increased in groups treated with two higher concentrations of RA compared to asthma group (P<0.05 to P < 0.001). Treatment with all doses of RA led to significant improvement in pathological scores in asthmatic animals (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Most measured parameters were also significantly improved in dexamethasone-treated animals (P<0.01 to P < 0.001) but IFN-gama/IL-4 ratio and the scores of interstitial fibrosis, bleeding and epithelial damage did not change in this group. Conclusion: The results indicated a preventive effect for RA on immunological and inflammatory mediators as well as lung pathological changes in asthmatic rats which were comparable or even more potent than that of dexamethasone


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Cinamatos/uso terapêutico , Depsídeos/uso terapêutico , Alérgenos/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Ratos Wistar
12.
Rev. int. androl. (Internet) ; 16(4): 137-142, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-178041

RESUMO

Introduction: The mean platelet volume (MPV) is an extensively employed laboratory indicator related to platelet volume and function in inflammatory circumstances. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between inflammation and mean platelet volume in varicocele pathophysiology. Methods: We conducted a recent study, which included 131 varicocele subjects and 82 healthy controls. The identification of varicocele was based on the results from both physical examination and color Doppler ultrasound. We analyzed some laboratory markers including haemogram tests in two groups. Results: There were no significant differences in the two groups in terms of baseline characteristics. MPV values were statistically higher in the varicocele group (9.73±0.86fL) than in the control group (9.03±0.70fL) (p<0.001). However, no significant relationship between MPV and varicocele grade was found. Furthermore, the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis suggested the optimum MPV cut-off value for patients with varicocele as 9.05, with a sensitivity and specificity of 77% and 50%, respectively (p<0.001). Conclusion: MPV can offer information on varicocele pathophysiology. Increased MPV levels in varicocele patients may be associated with inflammation


Introducción: El volumen plaquetario medio (VPM) es un indicador de laboratorio ampliamente empleado en relación con la función plaquetaria y el volumen plaquetario en contextos inflamatorios. El objetivo de este estudio es estudiar la relación entre inflamación y volumen plaquetario medio en la patofisiología del varicocele. Métodos: Se lleva a cabo un estudio en el que se incluyen 131 casos de varicocele y 82 controles sanos. El diagnóstico de varicocele se basa en los hallazgos de la exploración física y los resultados del eco-Doppler color. Se analizan distintos marcadores de laboratorio, incluyendo hemograma, en los 2 grupos. Resultados: No se encuentran diferencias significativas en las características basales de los 2 grupos estudiados. El valor VPM fue más elevado en el grupo de pacientes con varicocele (9,73±0,86fL) en comparación con el grupo control (9,03±0,70fL) (p<0,001). Sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre el VPM y el grado de varicocele. Por otro lado, el análisis de la curva ROC sugiere que el valor de corte óptimo para el VPM para los pacientes con varicocele fue de 9,05 con una sensibilidad y especificidad del 77 y 50%, respectivamente (p>0,001). Conclusión: El VPM puede ofrecer información sobre la fisiopatología del varicocele. Los niveles altos del VPM pueden estar asociados con la inflamación


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Varicocele/fisiopatologia , Contagem de Plaquetas/estatística & dados numéricos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Rev. lab. clín ; 11(4): 227-237, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176922

RESUMO

La enfermedad renal es un problema de salud pública por su incidencia, prevalencia y morbimortalidad. La inflamación y fibrosis son el motor de toda alteración del daño renal, independientemente de su origen. El proceso inflamatorio y fibrótico se caracteriza por infiltración de células inflamatorias, liberación de citoquinas, activación de fibroblastos, de señales químicas y vías de señalización. Este proceso conlleva la generación de células efectoras productoras de matriz extracelular o de complejos de ataque que desemboca en el daño orgánico. Ninguna terapia ha demostrado eficacia total frente al daño inflamatorio o fibrótico. Muchos fármacos, en desarrollo experimental, ejercen su inmunomodulación a través de la regulación de la actividad de muchos tipos de células inmunes y presentan un perfil antiinflamatorio y fibrótico. El objetivo es ser conocedores de la importancia de los procesos que son capaces de provocar el proceso inflamatorio y fibrótico dado que podría tratarse de marcadores diagnósticos y dianas terapéuticas


Chronic kidney disease is a serious public health problem, due to its high incidence and prevalence, as well as its significant morbidity and mortality. Inflammation and fibrosis are the final step in renal failure. The inflammatory and fibrotic process is highlighted by infiltration by inflammatory cells, cytokine release, fibroblast accumulation, and activation of numerous chemical signals. Those processes involve the generating of immunomodulatory cells that produce an extracellular matrix and attack complex, leading to organ damage. There is no an effective therapy against fibrotic and inflammatory damage. There are different drugs that have shown to be beneficial over inflammation and fibrosis in experimental and in vitro studies. The aim is to be aware of the processes that are able to trigger fibrosis and inflammation, given that they could be used as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets


Assuntos
Humanos , Insuficiência Renal/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Fibrose/fisiopatologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Imunomodulação
14.
Clin. transl. oncol. (Print) ; 20(12): 1548-1556, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-173761

RESUMO

Purpose: Elevated markers of host inflammation, a hallmark of cancer, have been associated with worse outcomes in several solid tumors. Here, we explore the prognostic role of the derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), across different tumor subtypes, in patients with early breast cancer. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 1246 patients with lymph node-positive, operable early breast cancer enrolled in the GEICAM/9906 trial, a multicenter randomized phase 3 study evaluating adjuvant chemotherapy. dNLR was calculated as the ratio of neutrophils and the difference between total leukocytes and neutrophils in peripheral blood before chemotherapy. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival were explored using a Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results: The analysis comprised 1243 (99.8%) patients with dNLR data, with a median follow-up of 10 years. Data on intrinsic subtypes were available from 818 (66%) patients (luminal A 34%, luminal B 32%, HER2-enriched 21% and basal-like 9%). Median dNLR was 1.35 [interquartile range (IQR) 1.08-1.71]. In the whole population, dNLR was not prognostic after adjustment for clinico-pathological factors. However, dNLR ≥ 1.35 was independently associated with worse DFS in the hormone receptor-negative/HER2+ population (HR 2.86; p = 0.038) and in patients with one to three lymph node metastases (HR 1.32, p = 0.032). There was a non-significant association with worse DFS in non-luminal and in HER2-enriched tumors (HR 1.40, p = 0.085 and HR 1.53, p = 0.067). No significant interaction was observed between the treatment arm and dNLR. Conclusion: Elevated dNLR appears to be an adverse prognostic factor in hormone receptor-negative early breast cancer


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neutrófilos , Linfócitos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Fatores de Risco
15.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 53(5): 279-284, sept.-oct. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178090

RESUMO

El proceso de envejecimiento se caracteriza por la pérdida gradual de la reserva funcional, lo cual, asociado a la adopción de hábitos de vida sedentarios y al incremento de factores de riesgo, se traduce en un deterioro de la defensa antioxidante y en un aumento de los niveles circulantes de marcadores inflamatorios y oxidativos. Estos fenomenos incrementan el estado de inflamacion cronica de bajo grado, denominado inflamm-aging, presente en la etiopatología de cuadros crónicos y procesos de deterioro cognitivo asociados a la edad. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir el efecto modulador antioxidante y antiinflamatorio del ejercicio físico de moderada intensidad y volumen durante el envejecimiento. Se presenta evidencia de su efectividad como herramienta no farmacológica, orientada a aminorar los efectos deletéreos del envejecimiento, debido en gran parte a su acción neuroprotectora, incremento de marcadores antiinflamatorios circulantes y mejora de la defensa antioxidante derivados de su práctica


Aging is characterised by a gradual loss of the functional reserve. This, along with the fostering of sedentary habits and the increase in risk factors, causes a deterioration of antioxidant defences and an increase of the circulatory levels of inflammatory and oxidative markers, boosting a low-rate chronic inflammation, defined as inflamm-aging. This phenomenon is present in the aetiopathology of chronic diseases, as well as in cognitive deterioration cases associated with aging. The objective of this review is to describe the modulation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of physical exercise of moderate intensity and volume in the elderly. Evidence of its effectiveness as a non-pharmacological resource is presented, which decreases some deleterious effects of aging. This is mainly due to its neuroprotective action, the increase in circulating anti-inflammatory markers, and the improvement of antioxidant defence derived from its practice


Assuntos
Humanos , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia
16.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 151(6): 231-235, sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-173924

RESUMO

Background and objective: The objective of the study was to determine the ability of faecal calprotectin to differentiate functional and organic intestinal diseases in paediatric patients, and to evaluate the correlation between inflammatory parameters and levels of faecal calprotectin. Patients and methods: This retrospective study involved clinical data from 129 paediatric patients with symptoms of intestinal pathology. Faecal calprotectin was determined by quantitative immunoassay. Patients were classified into three groups: functional (32.8% of patients); organic non-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, 53.9%); and organic IBD (13.3%). Results: Calprotectin levels were significantly different among the three groups; between patients with IBD and the others, and also between patients with non-organic IBD and functional. Positive associations were found between high levels of calprotectin and higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (rho=0.497), C-reactive protein (rho=0.460), and platelet count (rho=0.232). Nevertheless, an inverse correlation was found between high levels of calprotectin and transferrin saturation (rho=−0.310), albumin (rho=−0.412), and haemoglobin levels (rho=−0.309). Discussion: Determination of faecal calprotectin is a complementary tool in clinical practice for discriminating between functional and organic IBD, avoiding, according to the levels of calprotectin, unnecessary invasive procedures in paediatric patients


Antecedentes y objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la capacidad de la calprotectina fecal para diferenciar las enfermedades funcionales y orgánicas en los pacientes pediátricos, y evaluar la correlación entre los parámetros inflamatorios y los niveles de calprotectina fecal. Pacientes y métodos: Este estudio retrospectivo incluyó los datos clínicos de 129 pacientes pediátricos con síntomas de enfermedad intestinal. Se determinaron los valores de calprotectina fecal mediante inmunoensayo cuantitativo. Se clasificaron los pacientes en 3 grupos: funcionales (32,8% de pacientes), enfermedad intestinal inflamatoria no orgánica (EII, 53,9%) e EII orgánica (13,3%). Resultados: Los niveles de calprotectina fueron significativamente diferentes entre los 3 grupos; entre los pacientes con EII y el resto, y también entre los pacientes con EII no orgánica e EII funcional. Se encontraron asociaciones positivas entre los niveles altos de calprotectina y la tasa de sedimentación eritrocítica alta (Rho=0,497), proteína C reactiva (Rho=0,460) y recuento plaquetario (Rho=0,232). Sin embargo, se encontró una correlación inversa entre los niveles altos de calprotectina y la saturación de transferrina (Rho=−0,310), albúmina (Rho=−0,412) y niveles de hemoglobina (Rho=−0,309). Discusión: La determinación de la calprotectina fecal es una herramienta complementara en la práctica clínica para discriminar entre EII funcional y EII orgánica, y evitar con arreglo a los niveles de calprotectina, los procedimientos invasivos innecesarios en pacientes pediátricos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Doenças Funcionais do Colo/fisiopatologia , Fezes/citologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico
17.
Rev. psiquiatr. salud ment. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 11(3): 130-140, jul.-sept. 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176742

RESUMO

Introducción: Diversos estudios han encontrado un aumento de los parámetros de estrés oxidativo en pacientes con esquizofrenia. Los objetivos de este estudio han sido identificar potenciales biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo en pacientes con esquizofrenia estables, durante los primeros 10 años de enfermedad, y determinar si se asocian con dimensiones clínicas específicas. Material y métodos: Se evaluaron 73 pacientes clínicamente estables y 73 controles sanos pareados por edad y sexo. Se recogieron datos sociodemográficos, clínicos y parámetros biológicos. Los biomarcadores sanguíneos incluyeron homocisteína, porcentaje de hemólisis, subproductos de peroxidación lipídica y, como biomarcador antioxidante, actividad de la catalasa en eritrocitos. Resultados: Los análisis comparativos tras controlar por tabaquismo y síndrome metabólico evidenciaron un aumento significativo en la actividad de la catalasa en pacientes. Asimismo, niveles inferiores de peroxidación lipídica se asociaron de manera significativa con la sintomatología negativa. Conclusiones: Como conclusión, los mecanismos compensatorios antioxidantes podrían estar aumentados en pacientes con esquizofrenia estables durante las fases iniciales. Además, podría existir una relación inversa entre el estrés oxidativo y la dimensión negativa


Introduction: Several studies have described increased oxidative stress parameters in patients with schizophrenia. The objectives of the current study were to identify potential oxidative stress biomarkers in stable patients during first 10 years of schizophrenia and determine if they are associated with specific clinical dimensions. Material and methods: Seventy-three clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia and 73 sex and age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Sociodemographic, clinical and biological data were collected at enrollment. Blood biomarkers included homocysteine, the percentage of hemolysis, lipid peroxidation subproducts, and as an antioxidant biomarker, catalase activity in erythrocytes. Results: Comparative analyses after controlling for smoking and metabolic syndrome evidenced a significant increase in catalase activity in patients. Also, lower lipid peroxidation levels showed an association with negative symptoms. Conclusions: In conclusion, compensatory antioxidant mechanisms might be increased in stable patients with schizophrenia at early stages. Furthermore, there may be an inverse relationship between oxidative stress and negative dimension


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Catalase/análise , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Estudos Longitudinais
18.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 18(71): 413-421, sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180222

RESUMO

El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la respuesta inflamatoria y antiinflamatoria a un esfuerzo agudo e intenso de natación, durante la fase preparatoria para los campeonatos nacionales absolutos brasileños. Participaron 20 nadadores. Se determinaron las concentraciones plasmáticas de IL-6, TNF-α, sTNFR1, IP-10 y MCP-1, antes y 40 minutos después de 2 series de 4 repeticiones de 50 metros nadados a la máxima intensidad con 3 minutos de recuperación entre cada repetición y una recuperación activa nadando 1500m a intensidad suave después de cada una de las dos series. En respuesta al ejercicio agudo únicamente la concentración sTNFR1 se redujo, no presentando cambios en IP-10, IL-6 ni TNF-α. Por tanto el ejercicio agudo en natación en personas bien entrenadas no parece producir una respuesta inflamatoria


The mean of the study was to analyze the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory response to an intense and intense swimming effort during the preparatory phase for the Brazilian National Adult Championship. Twenty swimmers participated. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, sTNFR1, IP-10 and MCP-1 were determined before and 40 minutes after 2 sets of 4 repetitions of 50 meters swam at maximum intensity with 3 minutes of recovery between each repetition and an active recovery swimming 1500m at low intensity after each of the two series. In response to acute exercise only the sTNFR1 concentration was reduced, with no changes in IP-10, IL-6 or TNF-α. Thus, acute exercise in swimming in well-trained people does not seem to produce an inflammatory response


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Natação/lesões , Esforço Físico , Citocinas , Quimiocinas , Músculos/lesões , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação
19.
Clin. transl. oncol. (Print) ; 20(8): 975-988, ago. 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-173681

RESUMO

Every year, millions of cancer patients undergo radiation therapy for treating and destroying abnormal cell growths within normal cell environmental conditions. Thus, ionizing radiation can have positive therapeutic effects on cancer cells as well as post-detrimental effects on surrounding normal tissues. Previous studies in the past years have proposed that the reduction and oxidation metabolism in cells changes in response to ionizing radiation and has a key role in radiation toxicity to normal tissue. Free radicals generated from ionizing radiation result in upregulation of cyclooxygenases (COXs), nitric oxide synthase (NOSs), lipoxygenases (LOXs) as well as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase), and their effected changes in mitochondrial functions are markedly noticeable. Each of these enzymes is diversely expressed in multiple cells, tissues and organs in a specific manner. Overproduction of reactive oxygen radicals (ROS), reactive hydroxyl radical (ROH) and reactive nitrogen radicals (RNS) in multiple cellular environments in the affected nucleus, cell membranes, cytosol and mitochondria, and other organelles, can specifically affect the sensitive and modifying enzymes of the redox system and repair proteins that play a pivotal role in both early and late effects of radiation. In recent years, ionizing radiation has been known to affect the redox functions and metabolism of NADPH oxidases (NOXs) as well as having destabilizing and detrimental effects on directly and indirectly affected cells, tissues and organs. More noteworthy, chronic free radical production may continue for years, increasing the risk of carcinogenesis and other oxidative stress-driven degenerative diseases as well as pathologies, in addition to late effect complications of organ fibrosis. Hence, knowledge about the mechanisms of chronic oxidative damage and injury in affected cells, tissues and organs following exposure to ionizing radiation may help in the development of treatment and management strategies of complications associated with radiotherapy (RT) or radiation accident victims. Thus, this medically relevant phenomenon may lead to the discovery of potential antioxidants and inhibitors with promising results in targeting and modulating the ROS/NO-sensitive enzymes in irradiated tissues and organ injury systems


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Lesões por Radiação/fisiopatologia , Oxirredução/efeitos da radiação , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Inflamação/fisiopatologia
20.
Ars pharm ; 59(2): 61-67, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-177721

RESUMO

Objective: Glycyrrhizic acid is a widely used medicinal component as an anti-inflammatory agent, anti ulcer agent, anti-allergy agent and anti-psoriatic agent. The present investigation deals with the extraction of glycyrrhizic acid from licorice roots and evaluating its in-vitro anti inflammatory activity. Methods: Glycyrrhizic acid was extracted using the procedure of maceration. The extract was evaluated for its physicochemical property, biochemical tests and phytochemical properties. The Ii vitro anti- inflammatory activity was evaluated by albumin denaturation technique Results: The results showed that the ash value and the extractive values for the extract were found to be in the limit as given by Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Presence of flavonoids, saponins and triterpinoids were identified in the extract from phytochemical parameters. Thin layer chromatographic technique showed a retention value of 0.5 cm. The percentage inhibition showed that the extract is having some potential of healing inflammation. Conclusion: Glycyrrhizic acid was successfully extracted from licorice roots. The evaluation parameters showed the presence of less impurity in the extract, with the potential of having anti-inflammatory property


Objetivo: El ácido glicirrícico es un componente medicinal ampliamente utilizado como agente antiinflamatorio, agente antiulceroso, agente antialérgico y agente anti-psoriásico. La presente investigación trata de la extracción de ácido glicirrícico a partir de raíces de regaliz y la evaluación de su actividad antiinflamatoria in vitro. Métodos: el ácido glicirrícico fue extraído usando el procedimiento de la maceración. El extracto fue evaluado por su propiedad fisicoquímica, pruebas bioquímicas y propiedades fitoquímicas. La actividad antiinflamatoria in vitro fue evaluada por la técnica de desnaturalización de albúmina Resultados: los resultados demostraron que el valor de la ceniza y los valores extractivos para el extracto se encontraron en el valor límite según lo dado por la farmacopea de Ayurveda de la India. La presencia de flavonoides, de saponinas y de triterpenoides fue identificada en el extracto mediante parámetros fitoquímico. La técnica cromatográfica en capa delgada demostró un valor de retención de 0,5 centímetros. La inhibición porcentual mostró que el extracto tiene algún potencial de curación de la inflamación. Conclusión: el ácido glicirrícico fue extraído con éxito de las raíces de regaliz. Los parámetros de evaluación mostraron la presencia de menos impureza en el extracto, con el potencial de tener propiedades antiinflamatorias


Assuntos
Ácido Glicirrízico/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Absorção Fisico-Química , Cromatografia , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
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